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‘LEAD-FREE RESEARCH COMPENDIUM’ REPORT OUTLINE

The compendium is divided into chapters and the outline topics discussed in each chapter is shown below:

 
Chapter 1: WHY LEAD-FREE?
Significance of ‘lead’
Why ban lead from electronics?
Global lead-free implementation status
Lead and lead-free comparison
Process changes required for Surface Mount Technology (SMT)
   
Chapter 2: SELECTION OF LEAD-FREE SOLDERS
Desired characteristics of lead-free solder paste
Various lead-free elements
Viable lead-free compositions
Recommended lead-free solder alloys for SMT
   
Chapter 3: LEAD-FREE SURFACE MOUNT TECHNOLOGY
Compatibility issues
  - PCB surface finish compatibility
  - Component compatibility
  - Flux for lead-free technology
  - Cleaning of lead-free residues
  - Solder Vs PCB finish Vs Component terminal finish Vs Flux
Lead-free solder paste printing and component placement
  - Factors affecting lead-free solder paste printing
  - Rheology of solder paste and its significance in printing
  - Rheology process window for lead-free solder paste
  - Effect of metal content, particle size distribution and flux
  - Process window for lead-free solder paste printing
  - Component placement
Lead-free soldering
  - Wave soldering
  - Critical process parameters (includes inert atmosphere)
  - Dross
  - Impact of lead-free solder in wave soldering equipment
  - Energy consumption
  - Reflow soldering
  - Critical process parameters (includes inert atmosphere)
  - Impact of lead-free solder in reflow equipment
  - Energy consumption
  - Rework and repair
  - Inspection
   
Chapter 4: LEAD-FREE DEFECTS
Defects due to lead-free materials
  - Lead contamination
  - Black pad
  - Tin whiskers
  - Tin pest
  - Voids
  - Conductive Anodic Filament
Process related defects
  - Fillet lifting
   
Chapter 5: RELIABILITY OF LEAD-FREE TECHNOLOGY
Detailed discussion of lead-free reliability
   
Chapter 6: ALTERNATIVES TO LEAD-FREE
Conductive Adhesives
Press fit connections
   
Chapter 7: IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAD-FREE TECHNOLOGY
Detailed discussion of steps to successfully implement lead-free technology