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Engineering, Science, & Technology

Creating, innovating, addressing challenges, solving problems, and improving the quality of lives in society.

State of the art triple junction solar cells have achieved in excess of 43% efficiency. In order to extend this beyond a multijunction-only design, novel approaches to photon conversion must be sought and realized. Two novel mechanisms, bandgap engineering and absorption from an intermediate... READ MORE
Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) are characterized by a continuous variation in the composition of parent materials through the work piece volume. This gradual change in material composition is aimed at improving mechanical, thermal and/or electrical properties of the material. FGMs are being increasingly used... READ MORE
The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFO) to predict red blood cell trauma (hemolysis) in blood pumps based on their exposure to turbulent stresses has increased in recent years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has initiated a project to determine the fidelity... READ MORE
Syndromic surveillance of emerging diseases is crucial for timely planning and execution of epidemic response from both local and global authorities. Traditional sources of information employed by surveillance systems are not only slow but also impractical for developing countries. Internet and social media provide a... READ MORE
Historically, North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) were widely dispersed throughout the North American continent. Trapping pressures and urbanization have led to regional exclusion of North American river otter populations from historic habitats, leading the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to spearhead conservation and... READ MORE
Approximately 2.2 million people in the United States depend on a wheelchair to assist with their mobility. Often times, the wheelchair user can maneuver around using a conventional joystick. Visually impaired or wheelchair patients with restricted hand mobility, such as stroke, arthritis, limb injury,... READ MORE
Statistical machine learning uses data to model a relationship between many parameters, or explanatory variables, and a response variable. The adaptive boosting algorithm is a machine learning method that can be used to model relationships of classification data. This method uses a weak base... READ MORE
Determining the mass of a vehicle from ground based passive sensor data is important for many security and traffic safety reasons. A vehicle consists of multiple dependent and independent systems that each respond differently to changes in vehicle mass. In some cases, the responses... READ MORE
Image classification and object recognition are some of the most prominent problems in computer vision. The difficult nature of finding objects regardless of pose and occlusions requires a large number of compute resources. Recent advancements in technology have made great strides towards solving this... READ MORE
The variability in demand across the planning horizon and the presence of heterogeneous workforces where workers learn and forget at different rates make the process of building and managing a workforce challenging. When integrating learning and forgetting functions of workers into workforce scheduling, the... READ MORE
Applications of optical remote sensing processes include environmental monitoring, military monitoring, meteorology, mapping, surveillance, etc. Many of these tasks include the detection of specific objects or materials, usually few or small, which are surrounded by other materials that clutter the scene and hide the... READ MORE
The relationship between genetics and phenotype is a complex one that remains poorly understood. Many factors contribute to the relationship between genetic variations and differences in phenotype. An improved understanding of the genetic underpinnings of various phenotypes can help us make important advances in... READ MORE
Nanosphere lithography, a technique of generating hexagonally packed monolayers with nanospheres, has been studied and been shown to increase the efficiency of the devices such as light emitting diodes and solar cells. In this research, the fabrication of nanosphere lithography was explored with the aim... READ MORE
The adoption of Distributed Web Systems (DWS) into modern engineering design process has dramatically increased in recent years. The Engineering Design Guide and Environment (EDGE) is one such DWS, intended to provide an integrated set of tools for use in the development of new... READ MORE
Background: Electronic cigarettes are battery powered nicotine vaporizers built with a heating element that atomizes an e-liquid solution. Studies have been conducted to understand user nicotine exposure however, replicating realistic use patterns, puff topography, is necessary to conduct accurate emissions studies. Previous studies have... READ MORE
The carbon footprint of cellular base stations is continuously increasing, due to their large power consumption that accounts for more than 50 % of all of the cellular network infrastructure, and because of the large growth rate experienced by the cellular infrastructure. To address this... READ MORE