- Charles Bigelow
- David Brailsford
- Mark Changizi
- Timothy Engström
- Mario Garcia
- Christine Heusner
- Kris Holmes
- Kevin Larson
- Gordon Legge
- Steve Matteson
- Gary Munch
- Denis Pelli
- Tom Rickner
- Richard Zanibbi
Charles Bigelow is the Melbert B. Cary, Jr. Professor of Graphic Arts at Rochester Institute of Technology where he teaches typography. His current research is on the relationship of vision science to typography, the evolution of typographic forms, and typographic "culturomics" - analysis of trends in typographic tastes and sizes in relation to literate culture. He was co-organizer of the RIT "Future of Reading Symposium" in 2010, and is the organizer of this year's RIT "Reading Digital" symposium. He is a MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellow, past president of the committee on letterform research and education of the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI), and a recipient of the Frederic W. Goudy Award in typography from RIT. The Lucida family of fonts he co-designed with Kris Holmes is the first original typeface family developed for low-resolution digital screens and printers. Lucida fonts are widely used on computer operating systems and software environments, including Macintosh OS X, Microsoft Windows, Java, and Plan 9 from Bell Labs. He has been a typographic consultant to Adobe Systems, Apple Computer, IBM, Microsoft, and other computer firms. He holds a B.A. in anthropology from Reed College and an M.F.A. in Film from U.C.L.A.
David Brailsford is the John Dunford Emeritus Professor of Computer Science and the co-founder of the School of Computer Science at the University of Nottingham (UK). Since 1981 his research has centered on Document Engineering. In 1988 he founded, the John Wiley journal "Electronic Publishing — Origination, Dissemination and Design" and became its Editor in Chief. In 1992 this journal was the first in the world to have its archived articles made available in the new Adobe PDF format. His researches on PDF, and on XML-based document formats, have continued since that time, in collaboration with Adobe and Hewlett Packard. With both companies research has been conducted on end-to-end XML-based document processing solutions including localizing document components within the XML tree and to tracking these components through to final output formats such as PDF and SVG. The theme of document transformation has been continued in a series of experiments with the Phillimore Parish Registers first published in the UK, in typeset form, in the early 20th century. The volumes are long out of print but have manifested themselves, since the advent of the Web, in a variety of scanned bitmap page formats (and even in HTML). The aim has been, via OCR of the bitmaps and a series of transformation scripts, to automate the 'rescue' of these volumes into correctly re-typeset PDF versions with accurate representation of the original typefaces. The first two volumes have now been completed and published. Most recently, attention has turned to the prospects for improving the quality and performance, of rendering and reflow within the various ePub formats found in devices such as Kindle and iPad. A particular challenge is that of devising improved 'on the fly' reflow algorithms that are not too computationally expensive.
Photo by Mark McCarty
Mark Changizi is an evolutionary neurobiologist, and Director of Human Cognition at 2AI Labs. He is the author of The Brain from 25000 Feet, The Vision Revolution, and his newest book, Harnessed: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man. Aiming to grasp the ultimate foundations underlying why we think, feel and see as we do, his research focuses on "why" questions, such as why we see in color, why we see illusions, why we have forward-facing eyes, why letters are shaped as they are, why the brain is organized as it is, why animals have as many limbs and fingers as they do, and why the dictionary is organized as it is. He holds a Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from the University of Maryland. Among his recent papers are:
Changizi MA, Zhang Q, Ye H & Shimojo S (2006)
The structures of letters and symbols throughout human history are selected to match those found in objects in natural scenes.
The American Naturalist 167: E117-E139.
Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2005)
Character complexity and redundancy in writing systems over human history.
Proc Roy Soc Lond B 272: 267-275.
Timothy Engström is Professor of Philosophy at RIT, where he teaches philosophy of vision & imaging, philosophy of art and aesthetic theory, rhetorical theory, and other courses. He is a New York stater who studied initially in New York, then in Sweden, Britain, and Germany – Tübingen and Göttingen – then went back to Edinburgh, Scotland, for his Ph.D. He is the co-author of Rethinking Theories and Practices of Imaging, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Mario Garcia, Sr. Trained as a journalist, Mario is strongly committed to the idea that content is what determines the success of a brand; his work and teaching is based on his WED philosophy, of combining writing, editing and design as basic principles for effective communication of ideas. Mario has devoted more than 40 years to redesigning publications, and has personally collaborated with over 900 news organizations. From such large projects as The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, South China Morning Post (Hong Kong), New Straits Times (Malaysia), The Philadelphia Inquirer, Handelsblatt and Die Zeit, to medium-size newspapers, such as The Charlotte Observer, Goteborts Posten( Sweden) , or smaller ones in the heartland of America, such as the Lawrence (Kansas) Journal-World, or the weekly of the oil and energy industry, Upstream (Norway). Mario started his teaching career as a journalism professor and publications adviser at his alma mater, Miami-Dade Community College. From there he became a professor of graphic arts at Syracuse University's Newhouse School of Public Communications (1976-1985), and the University of South Florida (1985-1991). In addition, he has been a Distinguished Professor at the University of Navarra, Spain, as well as a lecturer at universities in 15 countries throughout Europe, Asia and Latin America. Mario founded the Graphics & Design program at The Poynter Institute for Media Studies, of which is still a faculty affiliate, and where he continues to be involved with EyeTrack research. Mario has also been an American Press Institute presenter for over 200 seminars, as well as an organizer and moderator for dozens of seminars at IFRA (Germany) and IAPA (Latin America) and the WAN/IFRA organization. Mario has received over 300 Society for News Design (SND) Awards including the Lifetime Achievement Award. People Magazine selected Mario among the 100 Most Influential Hispanics. Mario is a 2011 recipient of the University of Missouri School of Journalism's Medal of Honor for Distinguished Service in Journalism. Mario is currently working on his first digital book, Storytelling in the Times of the iPad.
Christine Heusner is a Lecturer in the RIT School of Print Media, where she teaches typography and page design, digital imaging, and publication development for iPad computers. She holds an M.F.A. in Imaging Arts from RIT and has worked professionally in photography, design, and fine-art digital printing.
Kris Holmes has designed and co-designed over 100 typefaces, including pioneering system interface screen fonts for Apple Macintosh Systems 7, 8, 9. and OS X. Her Lucida Grande designs are the standard user-interface fonts for OS X. Others of her Lucida designs have been bundled for two decades with Microsoft Windows, and have also been core fonts for the Java Developers Kit from Sun Microsystems, and for Plan 9 from Bell Labs. In addition to "workhorse" typefaces, Kris is known for her lively, graceful, and popular script designs, including Isadora, Kolibri, Lucida Handwriting, and Apple Chancery. Kris learned calligraphy from Lloyd Reynolds and Robert Palladino at Reed College in Oregon, and roman capital brush-writing from Palladino and his teacher, Edward Catich. After college, she studied modern dance at the Martha Graham school and lettering with Edward Benguiat at the School of Visual Arts in New York. She later studied calligraphy and type design with Hermann Zapf at RIT. She holds an M.F.A. from the UCLA Animation Workshop. Her lettering art is in the collection of the Klingspoor Museum in Offenbach, Germany and other permanent collections, and her letterform illustrations have appeared in Scientific American, Fine Print, Journal of Vision, and other publications. Kris has designed typefaces for Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Thai, Arabic, and Devanagari scripts, for world-wide font usage. She has served as a judge for the New York Type Directors Club type design contest, and for the Linotype Arabic type design competition. She has taught type tutorials for the Unicode consortium and the Raster Imaging and Digital Typography conferences, as well as workshops and courses at the Rhode Island School of Design, the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, and Rochester Institute of Technology.
Kevin Larson is a researcher on Microsoft's Advanced Reading Technologies team. He works with type designers, psychologists, and computer scientists on improving the on-screen reading experience. The article titled The Technology of Text in the May 2007 issue of IEEE Spectrum discusses the ART team's work on font and rendering technologies for computers as well as the psychological impact of good typography. Recently Kevin has been working on the legibility of individual letters, both studying how to design letters within a font, and working with models of human vision to optimize letter rendering. His Ph.D. work at the University of Texas was on reading acquisition, and he can sometimes be found at The Pacific Science Center giving talks on topics such as electrons, learning theory, and El Nino.
Gordon Legge received a Bachelor's degree in Physics from MIT in 1971, and a Master's degree in Astronomy from Harvard in 1972. In 1976, he obtained his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from Harvard. He then spent a postdoctoral year with Fergus Campbell at the Physiological Laboratory, Cambridge University. In 1977, Legge joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota. He is now Chair of the Psychology Department at Minnesota, director of the Minnesota Laboratory for Low-Vision Research, and Distinguished McKnight University Professor of psychology and neuroscience. Legge's research concerns visual perception with primary emphasis on low vision. Ongoing projects in his lab focus on the roles of vision in reading and mobility, and the impact of impaired vision on cortical organization. He addresses these issues with psychophysical, computational and brain-imaging (fMRI) methods. His research is currently funded by two NIH R01 grants and an NIH SBIR grant. The SBIR grant is funding a collaboration with a biomedical engineering firm to develop computer-based adaptive technology to facilitate indoor wayfinding by people with impaired vision. Legge is a member of the editorial board of Journal of Vision, and recently served on the National Advisory Eye Council. He was a member of a National Research Council committee involved with the redesign of U.S. currency bills. One result of the committee's work is the large-print numerals on the new bills which are helpful to people with low vision. Legge's research has been recognized by an NIH MERIT award, the Lighthouse Pisart Vision Award and honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Montreal and the State University of New York.
Selected Recent Publications
- Legge, G.E. & Bigelow, C.A. (2011). Does size matter for reading? A review of findings from vision science and typography. Journal of Vision 11(5):8, 1-22. doi: 10.1167/11.5.8
- Legge, G.E., Yu, D., Kallie, C.S., Bochsler, T.M. & Gage, R. (2010). Visual accessibility of ramps and steps. Journal of vision, (10(11), 1-1-19.
- Liu, T., Cheung, S.-H., Schuchard, R.A., Glielmi, C.B., Hu, X., He, S. & Legge, G.E. (2010). Incomplete cortical reorganization in macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. doi:10.1167/iovs.09-4926
- Yu, D., Cheung, S.-H., Legge, G.E. & Chung, S.T.L. (2010). Reading speed in the peripheral vision of older adults: Does it benefit from perceptual learning? Vision Research 50, 860-869. DOI 10.1016/j.visres.2010.02.006
- Legge, G.E. (2007). Psychophysics of Reading in Normal and Low Vision. Mahwah, NJ & London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-4328-0
Steve Matteson is the Creative Type Director for Monotype Imaging and has created fonts for both digital environments and print publishing since 1987. A graduate of Rochester Institute of Technology, Steve has an extensive background in typography, design and printing which he has applied to his production of high quality typefaces. His work can be found in user interface designs such as the Xbox 360, Microsoft Windows and Google's Android mobile products. He has produced several revivals based on the work of Frederic Goudy including Bertham Pro, Truesdell, Newstyle, Goudy Ornate and Friar. His experience also includes extensive work with non-Latin scripts including Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew and Thai.
Gary Munch is a type designer and professor at the University of Bridgeport in Connecticut. He has designed typefaces for Linotype (Ergo, Really) and was part of Microsoft's ClearType project of system fonts (Candara) which all included Greek, Latin, and Cyrillic. He has a long-standing interest in non-Latin scripts and has designed award-winning typefaces in Cyrillic and Greek. From 2001 to 2008 he was on the board of the TDC Type Directors Club (New York), and served as president and chairman, and chaired the TDC 2 2002 type design competition and the TDC50 typography competition in 2004. In 2010, he was a juror in the TDC 2 2010. He speaks occasionally at the annual TypeCon, sponsored by SoTA. At the University of Bridgeport he teaches graphic design, typography, and type design in the design programs.
Denis Pelli is a Professor of Psychology and Neural Science at New York University who studies object recognition and reading. Pelli is also known for his contributions to the fields of visual sensitivity and letter identification. He is co-inventor of the Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Chart, which has been adopted as a universal clinical measurement of contrast sensitivity—an impairment that may affect the ability to read. He serves as an editor and associate advisor for the Journal of Vision, and has written over 50 publications.
Selected Recent Publications
- Pelli, D. G., and Bigelow, C. (2009) A writing revolution. Seed: Science is Culture.
- Pelli, D. G., Burns, C. W., Farell, B., & Moore-Page, D. C. (2006) Feature detection and letter identification. Vision Research, 46(28), 4646-4674.
- Pelli, D. G., Farell, B., & Moore, D. C. (2003) The remarkable inefficiency of word recognition. Nature, 423, 752-756. [supplement]
- Majaj, N. J., Pelli, D. G., Kurshan, P., & Palomares, M. (2002) The role of spatial frequency channels in letter identification. Vision Research, 42, 1165-1184.
- Pelli, D. G. (2001). 47.1: Invited paper: How we see letters: Implications for making better displays. SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 32(1), 1194-1195. doi:10.1889/1.1831773
- Solomon, J. A., & Pelli, D. G. (1994) The visual filter mediating letter identification. Nature 369, 395-397.
Tom Rickner leads a team of software developers at Monotype Imaging, who create many of the font tools used in the production of Monotype's typefaces. His interest in letterforms and typefaces began when he was a student in the School of Printing at the Rochester Institute of Technology, studying in the hand composition lab and the Cary Collection. Upon graduation from RIT in 1988, Tom worked on font development for QMS/Imagen Corporation, Apple Computer, The Font Bureau, Inc. and Monotype. In 2004, Tom and other "Monotypers" formed a spin-off, Ascender Corporation, an independent type foundry devoted to the highest quality on-screen typeface development. Their clients included: Google, Microsoft and Barnes & Noble. In 2010, the Ascender team rejoined their friends and colleagues at Monotype Imaging. During his career, Tom has played a significant role in the production of some of the most widely read typefaces in use today, including Microsoft's Verdana, Georgia, Tahoma and Segoe, as well as Google's Droid Sans, Droid Serif, Arimo, Tinos and Cousine. Tom and his family make their home in Madison, Wisconsin, where he enjoys riding his bike and playing piano when he isn't hinting typefaces.
Richard Zanibbi is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the Rochester Institute of Technology (Rochester, NY), where he directs the Document and Pattern Recognition Lab. His research group works on algorithms and tools for pattern recognition systems, with an emphasis on applications for typeset, handwritten, and electronic documents. He holds a PhD in Computer Science from Queen's University in Kingston, Canada, and was an NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence (CENPARMI) in Montreal before joining RIT. Dr. Zanibbi was one of the main contributors to the Freehand Formula Entry System (FFES), an influential pen-based equation editing prototype, and is the conference Co-Chair for the SPIE Document Recognition and Retrieval XIX (2012) and XX (2013) conferences.