Academics & Programs

Minors

Advertising and Public Relations

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The advertising and public relations minor prepares students to analyze audiences, write advertising copy, prepare press releases, select media, and manage broad-scaled persuasive campaigns. Students are grounded in the basic theories of persuasive communication enabling them to create persuasive messages with a strong emphasis on ethical decision-making. This minor is closed to students majoring in advertising and public relations or communication.

Course
Required Courses
COMM-211 Principles of Advertising 
COMM-212 Public Relations
Electives
Choose three of the following:*
   COMM-202    Mass Communications
   COMM-221    Public Relations Writing
   COMM-303    Small Group Communication
   COMM-305    Persuasion
   COMM-321    Copywriting and Visualization
   COMM-322    Campaign Management and Planning†
   COMM-341    Visual Communication

* At least two courses must be at the 300 level or higher

† This course has two pre-requisites: Principles of Advertising (COMM-211) and Public Relations (COMM-212).

American Art

This minor provides students with an opportunity to study the American arts in a variety of disciplines, including painting, architecture, film, photography, music, theatre, and the mass media. Course present American art within the context of the broader current of American life, including its history, philosophy, social, and cultural traditions. 

Course
Electives
Choose five courses from the following:*
Visual culture
   FNRT-206    Queer Looks
   FNRT-370    American Painting
   FNRT-371    African-American Art
   FNRT-372    American Film of the Studio Era
   FNRT-373    American Film Since the Sixties
   FNRT-374    Art in the Age of the New Deal
   FNRT-377    Imag(in)ing Rochester
   FNRT-378    Memory, Memorials, and Monuments
   FNRT-383    Traumatic Images
   FNRT-384    Art of Dying
Performing arts
   FNRT-201    Music in the U.S.
   FNRT-203    American Popular and Rock Music
   FNRT-322    Survey of Jazz
   FNRT-323    Survey of African-American Music
   FNRT-324    Sounds of Protest
   FNRT-325    American Popular Song
   FNRT-327    American Musical Theatre
Literature
   ENGL-411    Topics in American Literature
   ENGL-412    American Studies
   ENGL-413    African-American Literature

* Students must take at least one course in each of the three disciplines.

American Politics

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The purpose of the American politics minor is to study the basic principles and institutions of the American political order and their implications for current political practice. The strengths and limitations of American constitutionalism are emphasized throughout and contemporary political and policy questions facing the country are examined. This minor is closed to students majoring in political science.

Course
Required Courses
POLS-110 American Politics
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
   POLS-115    Ethical Debates in American Politics
   POLS-200    Law and Society
   POLS-250    State and Local Politics
   POLS-290    Politics and the Life Sciences
   POLS-295    Cyberpolitics
   POLS-300    Rhetoric and Poltical Development
   POLS-305    Political Parties and Voting
   POLS-310    The Congress
   POLS-320    American Foreign Policy
   POLS-325    The American Presidency
   POLS-345    Politics and Public Policy
   POLS-355    Political Leadership
   POLS-415    Evolution and Law
   POLS-420    Primate Politics
   POLS-425    Constitutional Law
   POLS-430    Constitutional Rights and Liberties
   POLS-435    American Political Thought
   POLS-460    Classical Constitutionalism, Liberty, and Equality
   POLS-465    Modern Constitutionalism, Liberty, and Equality
   POLS-480    Women in Politics
   POLS-485    Politics Through Fiction
   POLS-490    Politics Through Film
   POLS-525    Special Topics in Political Science

* At least two courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

American Sign Language and Deaf Cultural Studies

Sandra Bradley, Minor Adviser
(585) 286-5149, spbnss@ntid.rit.edu

The American Sign Language and deaf cultural studies minor prepares students in the multidisciplinary study of American Sign Language and deaf culture. The minor is open to hearing and deaf students enrolled in all bachelor's degree programs. Courses in the minor address topics in the field of ASL and DCS including the study of ASL and its structure, ASL literature, literature in English pertaining to the D/deaf experience, the history of D/deaf people in America and around the world, Deaf art and cinema, the experience of D/deaf people from racial, ethnic, and other minority groups, oppression in the lives D/deaf people, and various political, legal, and educational issues affecting members of the D/deaf community. The minor complements majors in fields such as business, imaging arts and sciences, health sciences, policy studies, professional and technical communication, psychology, and numerous scientific and technical fields.

Course
Required Courses
Option 1: For students who are not proficient in ASL:
MLAS-201 Beginning American Sign Language I
MLAS-202 Beginning American Sign Language II
Option 2: For students who are proficient in ASL, choose one of the following:
   MLAS-351    Linguistics of American Sign Language
   MLAS-352    American Sign Language Literature
Electives*
Choose three or four of the following courses†:
Language courses:
   MLAS-301    Intermediate Sign Language I
   MLAS-302    Intermediate Sign Language II
   MLAS-351    Linguistics of American Sign Language
   MLAS-352    American Sign Language Literature
   MLAS-401    Advanced American Sign Language I
   MLAS-402    Advanced American Sign Language II
Deaf cultural studies courses:
   ENGL-343    Global Deaf Literature
   ENGL-417    Deaf Literature
   FNRT-440    Deaf Art and Cinema
   HIST-230    American Deaf History
   HIST-231    Deaf People in Global Perspective
   HIST-330    Deaf People and Technology
   HIST-333    Diversity in the Deaf Community
   HIST-334    Oppression in the Lives of Deaf People
   HIST-335    Women and the Deaf Community
   HIST-430    Deaf Spaces
   HIST-431    Theory and Methods of Deaf Geographics
   SOCI-240    Deaf Culture in America

* At least one course must be at the 300 level or higher.

† Students who wish to focus their studies on ASL should choose two language courses. Students who wish to focus on Deaf Cultural Studies should choose three or four DCS courses depending on their proficiency in ASL. Students who prefer a balance of ASL and DCS courses may freely distribute their electives across ASL and DCS in a manner consistent with their ASL proficiency and course prerequisites.

Anthropology and Sociology

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The minor in anthropology and sociology offers disciplinary insights on understanding human social life, both from local and global perspectives. Through anthropology we discover and appreciate the diversity of other cultural systems on a global scale and through sociology we discover how our own lives are influenced by social relationships around us. Careful selection of courses provides insights into a wide range of topics such as human history and prehistory through archaeology, gender and sexuality, race, ethnicity, social class, inequality, health, urban life and cities, cultural images and mass media, war and violence, social movements, social and cultural change, and globalization. This minor is closed to students majoring in sociology and anthropology.

Course
Required Course
Choose one of the following:
   ANTH-102    Cultural Anthropology
   ANTH-102H    Honors Cultural Anthropology
   ANTH-103    Archaeology and the Human Past
   ANTH-104    Language and Linguistics
   INGS-101    Global Studies
   SOCI-102    Foundations of Sociology
   SOCI-102H    Honors Foundations of Sociology
   
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
   ANTH-201    Ethnographic Imagination: Writing about Society and Culture
   ANTH-210    Culture and Globalization
   ANTH-215    Field Methods in Archaeology 
   ANTH-220    Language and Culture: Linguistic Anthropology
   ANTH-225    Globalizing Africa
   ANTH-230    Archaeology and Cultural Imagination
   ANTH-235    Immigration to the U.S.
   ANTH-240    Muslim Youth Cultures
   ANTH-245    Ritual and Performance
   ANTH-250    Themes in Archaeological Research
   ANTH-255    Regional Archaeology
   ANTH-260    Native North Americans
   ANTH-265    Native Americans in Film
   ANTH-270    Cuisine, Culture, and Power
   ANTH-275    Global Islam
   ANTH-280    Sustainable Development
   ANTH-285    American Indian Languages
   ANTH-290    Language and Sexuality
   ANTH-301    Social and Cultural Theory
   ANTH-302    Qualitative Research
   ANTH-303    Quantitative Research
   ANTH-305    Comparative and Historical Linguistics
   ANTH-310    Popular Cultures in the Global South
   ANTH-312    People Before Cities
   ANTH-315    The Archaeology of Cities
   ANTH-325    Bodies and Culture
   ANTH-328    Hertitage and Tourism
   ANTH-330    Cultural Images of War and Terror
   ANTH-335    Culture and Politics in Latin America
   ANTH-340    Divided Europe
   ANTH-345    Genocide and Post-Conflict Justice
   ANTH-350    The Global Economy and the Grassroots
   ANTH-360    Humans and Their Environment
   ANTH-365    Culture and Politics in the Middle East
   ANTH-370    Media and Globalization
   ANTH-375    Native American Cultural Resources and Rights
   ANTH-380    Nationalism and Identity
   ANTH-385    Anthropology and History
   ANTH-390    Marxist Perspectives
   ANTH-410    Global Cities
   ANTH-415    Archaeological Science
   ANTH-420    Exploring Ancient Technology
   ANTH-425    Global Sexualities
   ANTH-430    Visual Anthropology
   ANTH-435    The Archaeology of Death
   ANTH-451    Economics of Women and the Family
   ANTH-455    Economics of Native America
   SOCI-103    The Urban Experience
   SOCI-201    Ethnographic Imagination: Writing about Society and Culture
   SOCI-210    African-American Culture
   SOCI-215    The Changing Family
   SOCI-220    Minority Group Relations
   SOCI-225    Social Inequality
   SOCI-230    Sociology of Work
   SOCI-235    Women, Work, and Culture
   SOCI-240    Deaf Culture in America
   SOCI-245    Gender and Health
   SOCI-250    Globalization and Security
   SOCI-255    Disaster, Public Health Crises, and Global Responses
   SOCI-301    Social and Cultural Theory
   SOCI-302    Qualitative Research
   SOCI-303    Quantitative Research
   SOCI-310    U.S. Housing Policy
   SOCI-315    Global Exiles of War and Terror
   SOCI-320    Population and Society
   SOCI-325    Community and Economic Development: Rochester
   SOCI-330    Urban (In)Justice
   SOCI-335    Urban Cultures
   SOCI-340    Urban Planning and Policy
   SOCI-345    Urban Poverty
   SOCI-410    Diversity in the City
   SOCI-451    Economics of Women and the Family
   INGS-201    Histories of Globalization
   INGS-210    Culture and Politics in Urban Africa
   INGS-270    Cuisine, Culture and Power
   INGS-310    Global Slavery and Human Trafficking
   INGS-451    Economics of Women and the Family
   INGS-455    Economics of Native America

* At least two courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

Archaeological Science

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

Archaeology is the study of the human past, principally by means of the physical residue of past human behavior. Archaeological science is the application of techniques from the physical sciences to research problems in archaeology and related disciplines. Over the past six decades archaeological science has provided powerful tools for understanding the past, ranging from absolute dating to bone chemistry. It has become an established sub-field within the discipline of archaeology, which itself has grown during the same period from a discipline largely focused on cultural history (the use of artifacts to reconstruct regional cultural sequences) and the validation of documentary history to the explanation of the processes of cultural change in the past. This minor is closed to students majoring in sociology and anthropology who have chosen the archaeology or cultural anthropology tracks.

Course
Required Courses
ANTH-415 Archaeological Science
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
Disciplinary
   ANTH-103    Archaeology and the Human Past
   ANTH-230    Archaeology and Cultural Imagination
   ANTH-250    Themes in Archaeological Research
   ANTH-255    Regional Archaeology
   ANTH-312    People Before Cities
   ANTH-315    Archaeology of Cities
   ANTH-328    Heritage and Tourism
Applied/Laboratory
   ANTH-215    Field Methods in Archaeology
   ANTH-360    Humans and Their Environment
   ANTH-375    Native American Cultural Resources and Rights
   ANTH-420    Exploring Ancient Technology
   ANTH-435    Archaeology of Death 

* At least one course must be selected from each group and at least one course must be 300-level or higher.

Communication

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The communication minor offers students a foundation in human communication theories, research, and skills. Students select courses in mass media analysis, communication in professional and organizational contexts, communication skills, and critical reflection of and on communication in society. This minor is closed to students majoring in communication.

Course
Required Course:
COMM-101 Human Communication
Electives
Choose four of the following:
   COMM-201    Public Speaking
   COMM-202    Mass Communications
   COMM-302    Interpersonal Communication
   COMM-303    Small Group Communication
   COMM-304    Intercultural Communication
   COMM-305    Persuasion
   COMM-341    Visual Communication
   COMM-342    Communication Law and Ethics
   COMM-343    Technology-Mediated Communication
   COMM-344    Health Communication
   COMM-345    Ethics in Technical Communication
   COMM-442    Professional Writing
   COMM-503    Advanced Public Speaking

Creative Writing

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The creative writing minor's series of courses offers students a practical, theoretical, and historical understanding of the art and craft of writing nonfiction and fiction prose and poetry, as well as experimenting in digital storytelling and interactive media. The minor encourages students to use those skills and insights for interdisciplinary projects and the enrichment of their careers and personal lives. Students choose either five creative writing courses or four creative writing courses and one literature course.

Course
Electives
Creative writing courses
   ENGL-211    Introduction to Creative Writing
   ENGL-376      Experimental Writing
   ENGL-386    World Building Workshop
   ENGL-389    Digital Creative Writing Workshop
   ENGL-390    Creative Writing Workshop
   ENGL-490    Advanced Creative Writing Workshop
   ENGL-511    Advanced Topics in Creative Writing
   ENGL-543    Game-Based Fiction Workshop
Literature courses
   ENGL-216    Literature from Around the World
   ENGL-307    Mythology and Literature
   ENGL-308    Shakespeare: Drama
   ENGL-309    Topics in Literary Forms
   ENGL-315    Digital Literature
   ENGL-316    Global Literature
   ENGL-318    Popular Literature
   ENGL-320    Genre Fiction
   ENGL-373    Media Adaptation
   ENGL-374    Games and Literature
   ENGL-375    Storytelling Across Media
   ENGL-391    Dangerous Texts
   ENGL-400    Special Topics in Literary and Cultural Studies
   ENGL-414    Topics in Women’s and Gender Studies
   ENGL-418     Great Authors
   ENGL-419    Literature and Technology
   ENGL-422    Maps, Spaces, and Places
   ENGL-450    Free and Open Source Culture

Criminal Justice

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The criminal justice minor provides a foundation in the formal process of social control through the criminal justice system, how behavior is defined as criminal, how crime is measured, and how society responds to crime. This minor is closed to students majoring in criminal justice.

Course
Required Courses
CRIM-110 Introduction to Criminal Justice
Electives
Choose four of the following:
   CRIM-210    Technology in Criminal Justice
   CRIM-220    Corrections
   CRIM-230    Juvenile Justice
   CRIM-240    Law Enforcement in Society
   CRIM-260    Courts
   CRIM-275    Crime and Violence
   CRIM-285    Minority Groups in the Criminal Justice System
   CRIM-489    Major Issues in Criminal Justice

Digital Literatures and Comparative Media

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The courses in the digital literatures and comparative media minor challenge students to think about how the digital in new comparative media affects the way we read, study, and understand literature: What happens to literature and the literary in an age of digital technology and new forms of media? Courses examine a varied collection of print genres and electronic literature in order to understand the current state of this new literary field and its relation to traditional concepts of literary study. The minor provides an entry point into investigating particular aspects of the general category of the digital and its comparative relation to the the literary.

Course
Required Course
ENGL-215 Text and Code
Electives
Choose four of the following
   ENGL-315    Digital Literature
   ENGL-373    Media Adaptation
   ENGL-374    Games and Literature
   ENGL-375    Storytelling Across Media
   ENGL-376    Experimental Writing
   ENGL-386    World Building Workshop
   ENGL-419    Literature and Technology
   ENGL-422    Maps, Spaces, and Places
   ENGL-450    Free and Open Source Culture

 

Economics

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

An economics minor provides a systematic analysis of economic issues through the study of the allocation of scarce resources into production and the distribution of production among the members of society. This minor is closed to students majoring in economics.

Course
Prerequisite
Choose one of the following:
   ECON-101    Principles of Microeconomics
   ECON-101H    Honors Economics
Required Course
ECON-201 Principles of Macroeconomics
Electives
Theory and policy
Choose two or three of the following:
   ECON-401    Intermediate Microeconomics Theory
   ECON-402    Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory
   ECON-405    International Trade and Finance
   ECON-406    Global Economic Issues
   ECON-407    Industrial Organization
   ECON-421    Natural Resource Economics
   ECON-422    Benefit-Cost Analysis
   ECON-430    Managerial Economics
   ECON-431    Monetary Analysis and Policy
   ECON-432    Open Economy Macroeconomics
   ECON-440    Urban Economics
   ECON-441    Labor Economics
   ECON-444    Public Finance
   ECON-445    History of Economic Thought
   ECON-448    Development Economics
   ECON-449    Comparative Economic Systems
   ECON-450    Health Care Economics
   ECON-451    Economics of Women and the Family
   ECON-452    Economics of native America
   ECON-453    Behavioral and Experimental Economics
   ECON-520    Envirornmental Economics
Quantitative
Choose one or two of the following:
   ECON-401    Intermediate Microeconomic Theory
   ECON-403    Econometrics I
   ECON-404    Mathematical Methods: Economics
   ECON-410    Game Theory: Economic Applications
   ECON-503    Econometrics II

 

English

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The English minor gives students the opportunity to explore the areas of literature, linguistics, and creative writing. The minor introduces students to texts written in English, acquaint them with a variety of historical periods and geographical regions, create an awareness of methods and theories of analysis, and provide an introduction to critical or creative writing.

Course
Required Courses
Choose one of the following courses
ENGL-210 Literature, Culture, and Media
ENGL-216 Literature from Around the World
Electives
Choose four of the following
   ENGL-307      Mythology and Literature  
   ENGL-308    Shakespeare: Drama  
   ENGL-309      Literary Forms*
   ENGL-310      Introduction to Language Science
   ENGL-315      Digital Literature  
   ENGL-316      Global Literature 
   ENGL-318      Popular Literature 
   ENGL-320      Genre Fiction†  
   ENGL-345    History of Madness
   ENGL-351    Language Technology
   ENGL-373    Media Adaptation
   ENGL-386    World Building Workshop
   ENGL-389    Digital Creative Writing Workshop
   ENGL-390    Creative Writing Workshop‡
   ENGL-391    Dangerous Texts
   ENGL-410    Film Studies
   ENGL-418    Great Authors
   ENGL-419    Literature and Technology

* Literary Forms (ENGL-309) may be taken up to two times, for six semester credit hours, as long the course topics are different.

† Genre Fiction (ENGL-320) may be taken up to two times, for six semester credit hours, as long the course topics are different.

‡ Creative Writing Workshop(ENGL-390) may be taken up to two times, for six semester credit hours, as long the course topics are different.

Environmental Studies

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

With an emphasis on sustainability and holistic thinking, the environmental studies minor provides students with opportunities for the in-depth analysis of global and regional environmental issues, their causes, and their potential solutions. In particular, a required 500-level seminar serves as a capstone experience, helping students to integrate knowledge from several disciplinary perspectives, including socio-cultural, historical, political, economic, ethical, scientific, and/or technological factors. Having completed the minor, students will possess a high level of environmental literacy, an important component of many professional fields within the sciences, engineering, law, journalism, and public affairs.

Course
Required Course
STSO-510 Seminar in Science, Technology, and Society
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
   STSO-120    Introduction to Environmental Studies
   STSO-220    Environment and Society
   STSO-321    Face of the Land 
   STSO-325    History of Environmental Science
   STSO-326    History of Ecology and Environmentalism
   STSO-330    Energy and the Environment
   STSO-421    Environmental Policy
   STSO-489    Special Topics in STS
   STSO-521    Biodiversity
   STSO-522    Great Lakes
   STSO-550    Sustainable Communities
   PUBL-530    Energy Policy
   ECON-420    Environmental Economics
   ECON-421    Natural Resource Economics
   HIST-345    Environmental Disasters
   PHIL-308    Environmental Philosophy
   SOCI-320    Population and Society

* At least one elective must be at the 300 level or higher.

Ethics

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The ethics minor provides students with the ability to recognize ethical issues and to think critically to resolve them, both generally and within their chosen discipline. They also learn how ethical problems can result from complex social structures and how changing structural features may avoid ethical problems. Three courses in philosophy are required plus two electives from the approved list, at least one of which must be outside philosophy. This minor is closed to students majoring in philosophy.

Course
Required Courses
PHIL-202 Foundations of Moral Philosophy
PHIL-415 Ethical Theory
Electives
Choose three of the following (at least one course must be in philosophy and at least one course must be outside philosophy)
   BIOL-255    Genetics and Society
   CRIM-299    Crime, Justice, and Ethics
   ISTE-110    Ethics in Computing
   MEDS-360     Placebo, Suggestion, Research, and Health 
   MGMT-340    Business Ethics and Corporate Responsibility  
   NSSA-221    System Administration I
   PHIL-304    Philosophy of Law   
   PHIL-305    Philosophy of Peace  
   PHIL-306    Professional Ethics
   PHIL-308    Environmental Philosophy
   PHIL-309    Feminist Theory
   PHIL-403    Social and Political Philosophy
   PUBL-201    Ethics, Values, and Public Policy
   SOCI-225    Social Inequality 

Film Studies

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

Film studies explores the role of cinema in the contemporary global culture. Using methodologies and perspectives from a variety of disciplines, such as English, anthropology, philosophy, fine arts/visual culture, political science, history, and modern languages, the film studies minor investigates the cinema’s mass appeal as a form of entertainment, but also the power it wields as a disseminator of ideas, history, values, aesthetics, behavior, and cultural norms. This minor is closed to students majoring in film and animation.

Course
Electives
Choose five of the following:
   ANTH-265    Native Americans in Film
   ANTH-430    Visual Anthropology
   ENGL-410    Film Studies
   ENGL-425    Global Cinemas
   FNRT-200    Anime
   FNRT-372    American Film of the Studio Era
   FNRT-373    American Film Since the Sixties
   FNRT-440    Deaf Art and Cinema
   HIST-450    Modern Japan in History, Fiction, and Film
   HIST-275    Screening the Trenches: The History of World War I through Film
   MLFR-351    French Films and Hollywood
   MLSP-352    Caribbean Cinema
   PHIL-313    Philosophy of Film
   POLS-490    Politics through Film

Global Literatures and Cultures

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The global literatures and cultures minor offers a rich variety of courses for students curious about global literatures and the different forms they take across cultures, from epic poetry to contemporary film. Students examine aspects of globalization and the human condition through mutiple cultural lenses, better preparing them for the complex global workplace of the 21st century. Given the diverse, international backgrounds of our faculty, students learn how literary imaginations of all types are transmitted across historical epochs and national boundaries using a range of old and new material technologies.

Course
Required Course
ENGL-416 Global Literatures
Electives
Choose four of the following:
   ENGL-391    Special Topics: Dangerous Texts
   ENGL-406    Shakespeare: Tragedies
   ENGL-407    Shakespeare: Comedies
   ENGL-409    Mythology and Literature
   ENGL-411    American Literature
   ENGL-413    African-American Literature
   ENGL-415    British Literature
   ENGL-418    Great Authors
   ENGL-421    The Graphic Novel
   ENGL-461    Latin American Literature
   ENGL-470    The Evolving English Language

Health Communication

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The health communication minor provides students with theoretical and applied knowledge about communication’s role in health care delivery, doctor-patient communication, health campaigns and public health, and other areas related to the dissemination of health information. This collaborative minor is designed for students interested in health care fields or health and risk communication.

Course
Required Course
COMM-344 Health Communication
Choose one of the following:
   COMM-322    (Health) Campaign Manangement and Planning
   COMM-361    Reporting in Special Fields: Health
Electives
Choose three of the following:
   ANTH-325    Bodies and Culture
   COMM-223    Digital Design in Communication
   ECON-450    Health Care Economics
   ENGL-345    History of Madness
   MEDG-105    Health Awareness
   MEDI-130    Computers in Medicine
   MEDS-201    Language of Medicine
   NUTR-125    Contemporary Nutrition
   PSYC-231    Death and Dying
   SOCI-245    Gender and Health
   SOCI-320    Population and Society

 

History

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The history minor provides students with a foundation in the academic study of history. It serves as a complement to any professional degree, as historical study at the college level hones the skills that are important to any well-trained professional: namely, effective writing, critical analysis, engaged reading, and logical thinking. Students are free to shape the history minor to their liking, by choosing the geographic areas of historical study of most interest to them, such as American, European, or Asian, or by choosing the historical topic of most interest to them, such as transnational history, comparative history, war, business, race, or gender. 

Course
Electives
Choose five of the following:*
   HIST-101    Making History
   HIST-102    Themes in U.S. History
   HIST-103    The City in History
   HIST-125    Public History, Public Debate
   HIST-160    History of Modern East Asia
   HIST-170    Twentieth Century Europe
   HIST-180    Information Revolution
   HIST-190    American Women’s History
   HIST-191    History of the Family in the U.S.
   HIST-199    Survey of American Military History
   HIST-201    Histories of Globalization
   HIST-210    Introduction to African Studies
   HIST-220    Introduction to Public History
   HIST-230    American Deaf History
   HIST-231    Deaf People in Global Perspective
   HIST-238    History of Disability
   HIST-240    Civil War America
   HIST-245    American Slavery and Freedom
   HIST-250    Origins of U.S. Foreign Relations
   HIST-251    Modern U.S. Foreign Relations
   HIST-252    The United States and Japan
   HIST-260    History of Pre-modern China
   HIST-261    History of Modern China
   HIST-265    History of Modern Japan
   HIST-266    History of Pre-modern Japan
   HIST-270    History of Modern France
   HIST-275    Screening the Trenches: The History of WWI Through Film
   HIST-280    History of Modern Germany
   HIST-290    U.S. History Since 1945
   HIST-301    Great Debates in U.S. History
   HIST-302    Special Topics in History
   HIST-310    Global Slavery and Human Trafficking
   HIST-321    Special Topics in Public History
   HIST-322    Monuments and Memory
   HIST-323    America’s National Parks
   HIST-324    Oral History
   HIST-325    Museums and History
   HIST-326    Doing History in a Digital World
   HIST-330    Deaf People and Technology
   HIST-335    Women and the Deaf Community
   HIST-345    Environmental Disasters
   HIST-350    Terrorism, Intelligence, and War
   HIST-351    The Vietnam War
   HIST-365    Conflict in Modern East Asia
   HIST-369    Histories of Christianity
   HIST-380    International Business History
   HIST-381    Technology in the Modern World
   HIST-390    Medicine and Public Health in American History
   HIST-402    Special Seminar in History
   HIST-421    Hands-on History
   HIST-430    Deaf Spaces
   HIST-431    Theory and Method of Deaf Geographies
   HIST-439    Biography as History
   HIST-450    Modern Japan in History, Fiction, and Film
   HIST-462    East-West Encounters 
   HIST-465    Samurai in Word and Image
   HIST-470    Science, Technology, and European Imperialism, 1800-1965
   HIST-480    Global Information Age
   HIST-499    Independent Study

* At least two courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

International Relations

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The international relations minor helps students to make sense of the world through exploring ideas that have shaped it. Students explore the thoughts of various thinkers and approaches to international relations and use these perspectives to understand key themes in world politics. Important topics include democratization, globalization, terrorism, war and peace, human rights, and international law. Students will reflect upon the interplay between domestic and international politics and how changes in the world order affect the internal politics of various countries. This minor is closed to students majoring in political science.

Course
Required Course
POLS-120 Introduction to International Relations
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
   POLS-205    Ethics in International Politics
   POLS-210    Comparative Politics
   POLS-215    Technology, Ethics, and Global Politics
   POLS-220    Global Political Economy
   POLS-285    Environmental Ethics and Political Ecology
   POLS-315    International Law and Organizations
   POLS-320    American Foreign Policy
   POLS-330    Human Rights in Global Perspective
   POLS-335    Politics of Developing Countries
   POLS-350    Government and Politics of East Asia
   POLS-360    International Political Thought
   POLS-370    Cyberwar, Robots and the Future of Conflict
   POLS-410    Evolutionary International Relations
   POLS-440    War and the State
   POLS-445    Terrorism and Political Violence
   POLS-455    Comparative Public Policy
   POLS-525    Special Topics in Political Science

* At least two courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

Journalism

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The journalism minor provides students with a foundation in the professional study and practice of journalism. Courses offer a broad perspective that includes historical, legal, and ethical issues of specific concern to journalism, as well as learning and practice writing in a journalistic style for delivery across multiple media platforms. This minor is closed to students majoring in journalism.

Course
Required Courses
COMM-271 Introduction to Journalism
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
   COMM-261    History of Journalism
   COMM-263    Computer-Assisted Reporting
   COMM-272    Reporting and Writing I
   COMM-273    Reporting and Writing II
   COMM-274    News Editing
   COMM-361    Reporting in Specialized Fields
   COMM-362    Law and Ethics of the Press
   COMM-442    Professional Writing
   COMM-461    Multiplatform Journalism

* At least two courses must be at the 300 level or higher

Language Science

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The language science minor prepares students for the study and analysis of human language. The minor is directly applicable to students interested in computing and media, human-computer interaction, brain and cognition, language acquisition, human health, interpreting, relevant branches of engineering, and policy studies. Students can complete the minor requirements irrespective of their skills in languages other than English. Electives allow students to customize the minor to their interests and needs, with the support of a faculty adviser. The minor is an excellent complement to majors such as computer science, game design, information technology, psychology, sign language interpreting, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, bioengineering, science, or a foreign language.

Course
Required Courses
ENGL-310 Introduction to Language Science
Plus one of the following:
   ENGL-371    Language, Dialects, and Identity
   ENGL-351    Language Technology
   MLCU-301    Special Topics: Psycholinguistics
Electives*
Choose three of the following:
       A beginning ASL or foreign language course
   ENGL-351    Language Technology
   ENGL-371    Language, Dialects, and Identity
   ENGL-470    Evolving English Language
   ENGL-482    Language and Brain
   MLAS-596    Linguistics of American Sign Language
   MLCU-301    Psycholinguistics
   MLJP-351    Languages in Japanese Society
   MLJP-451    Structure of the Japanese Language
   PHIL-414    Philosophy of Language
   PSYC-331    Language and Thought

* Students may also use special topic courses or independent study, if approved by the minor adviser.

Latino/Latina/Latin American Studies

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The Latino/Latina/Latin American studies minor provides at least two full years of instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses fostering cultural, or linguistic and cultural, proficiency. Part of the minor requirements can be taken abroad. This minor is closed to students majoring in international and global studies who have chosen to focus on the Spanish or Portuguese languages or on Latin America as a regional focus.

Course
Electives
Culture Courses
Choose four or five of the following:
   MLSP-351    Gender and Sexuality
   MLSP-352    Caribbean Cinema
   MLSP-353    Trauma and Survival
   ANTH-255    Regional Archaeology
   ANTH-335    Culture and Politics in Latin America
   ANTH-350    The Global Economy and the Grassroots
Language Courses
Choose one of the following (if only four culture courses are chosen):*
   MLSP-201A    Beginning Spanish IA
   MLSP-201B    Beginning Spanish IB
   MLSP-202    Beginning Spanish II
   MLSP-301    Intermediate Spanish I
   MLSP-302    Intermediate Spanish II
   MLSP-401    Advanced Spanish I
   MLSP-402    Advanced Spanish II
   MLPO-201    Beginning Portuguese I
   MLPO-202    Beginning Portuguese II
   MLPO-301    Intermediate Portuguese I
   MLPO-302    Intermediate Portuguese II
   MLPO-401    Advanced Portuguese I
   MLPO-402    Advanced Portuguese II

* Students who have prior study in either language must take a placement exam through the Department of Modern Languages to determine the appropriate level language course to begin with.
† Course may be used when topic focuses on Mesoamerica

Legal Studies

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

Recognizing the critical role that law plays in societies, the minor in legal studies is designed to provide students with courses that will deepen and expand their understanding of law as practiced, especially its influence on social, political, and economic institutions.

Course
Required Course
Choose one of the following:
   CRIM-215    Law and Society
   POLS-200    Law and Society
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
   COMM-342    Communication Law and Ethics
   COMM-362    Law and Ethics of the Press
   CRIM-225    Criminal Law
   CRIM-260    Courts
   CRIM-315    Evidence
   CRIM-489    Major Issues in Criminal Justice
   PHIL-205    Symbolic Logic
   PHIL-304    Philosophy of Law
   PHIL-403    Social and Political Philosophy
   POLS-325    International Law and Organizations
   POLS-330    Human Rights in Global Perspective
   POLS-425    Constitutional Law
   POLS-430    Constitutional Rights and Liberties
   POLS-460    Classical Constitutionalism, Virtue, and Law
   POLS-464    Modern Constitutionalism, Liberty, and Equality
   SOCI-310    U.S. Housing Policy

* Students majoring in communication, criminal justice, philosophy, or political science may only count one course from their home department toward the requirements of the minor.

Modern Language - Arabic

Hiroko Yamashita, Minor Adviser
(585) 475-6074, hxygsl@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent speakers of Arabic.

Course
Electives
Choose five consecutive language courses:
   MLAR-201    Beginning Arabic I
   MLAR-202    Beginning Arabic II
   MLAR-301    Intermediate Arabic I
   MLAR-302    Intermediate Arabic II
   MLAR-401    Advanced Arabic I
   MLAR-402    Advanced Arabic II

Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the Arabic minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments or schools dealing with aspects of Arabic culture may be approved by the faculty adviser.

   ANTH-240    Muslim Youth Cultures
   ANTH-365    Islamic Culture and the Middle East

Modern Language - Chinese

Zhong Chen, Assistant Professor
(585) 475-6917, zxcgsl@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent speakers of Chinese.

Course
Electives
Choose five consecutive language courses:
   MLCH-201    Beginning Chinese I
   MLCH-202    Beginning Chinese II
   MLCH-301    Intermediate Chinese I
   MLCH-302    Intermediate Chinese II
   MLCH-401    Advanced Chinese I
   MLCH-402    Advanced Chinese II
Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the Chinese minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments dealing with aspects of Chinese culture may be approved by the faculty adviser. 
   ANTH-255    Regional Archaeology*
   HIST-261    History of Modern China
   HIST-260    History of Pre-modern China
   HIST 365    Conflict in Modern East Asia
   POLS-350    Politics in East Asia
   PHIL-311    East Asian Philosophy

* This course may be taken when the topic focuses on East Asia.

Modern Language - French

Philippe Chavasse, Minor Adviser
(585) 475-3158, pxcgsl@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five  courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent native speakers of French.

Course
Electives
Choose five consecutive language courses:
   MLFR-201    Beginning French I
   MLFR-202    Beginning French II
   MLFR-301    Intermediate French I
   MLFR-302    Intermediate French II
   MLFR-401    Advanced French I
   MLFR-402    Advanced French II
Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the French minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments dealing with aspects of French and Francophone cultures may also be approved by the faculty adviser.
   MLFR-351    French Films and Hollywood
   MLFR-352    The French Heritage in Film
   HIST-270    History of Modern France
   HIST-275    Screening the Trenches: A History of WWI through Film
   ARTH-364    Art in Paris

Modern Language - German

Ulrike Stroszeck, Minor Adviser
(585) 475-2921, uisgsl@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent native speakers of German.

Course
Electives
Choose five consecutive language courses:
   MLGR-201    Beginning German I
   MLGR-202    Beginning German II
   MLGR-301    Intermediate German I
   MLGR-302    Intermediate German II
   MLGR-401    Advanced German I
   MLGR-402    Advanced German II
Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the German minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments dealing with aspects of German and German-speaking cultures may also be approved by the faculty adviser.
   FNRT-210    Bach, Händel and the Baroque
   FNRT-211    Era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
   HIST-280    History of Modern Germany
   MLGR-449    Special Topics in German

Modern Language - Italian

Elisabetta D’Amanda, Minor Adviser
(585) 475-6522, exdgla@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent native speakers of Italian.

Course
Electives
Choose five consecutive language courses:
   MLIT-201    Beginning Italian I
   MLIT-202    Beginning Italian II
   MLIT-301    Intermediate Italian I
   MLIT-302    Intermediate Italian II
   MLIT-401    Advanced Italian I
   MLIT-402    Advanced Italian II
Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the Italian minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments dealing with aspects of Italian culture may be approved by the faculty adviser.
   ARTH-311    Art and Architecture of Italy: 1250-1400
   ARTH-312    Art and Architecture of Italy: 1600-1750
   ARTH-317    Art and Architecture of Florence and Rome: 15th Century
   ARTH-318    Art and Architecture of Florence and Rome: 16th Century

Modern Language - Japanese

Yukiko Maru Leary, Minor Adviser
(585) 475-4558, yxmgsl@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent native speakers of Japanese.

Course
Electives
Choose five consecutive language courses:
   MLJP-201    Beginning Japanese I
   MLJP-202    Beginning Japanese II
   MLJP-301    Intermediate Japanese I
   MLJP-302    Intermediate Japanese II
   MLJP-401    Advanced Japanese I
   MLJP-402    Advanced Japanese II
   MLJP-403    Professional Japanese
   MLJP-405    Advanced Speaking in Japanese
Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the Japanese minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments dealing with aspects of Japanese culture, society, history, and art may also be approved by the faculty adviser.
   MLJP-404    Japanese Culture in Print
   MLJP-351    Language in Japanese Society
   MLJP-451    Structure of the Japanese Language
   HIST-450    Modern Japan in History, Fiction, and Film
   HIST-252    The United States and Japan
   HIST-265    History of Modern Japan
   HIST-266    History of Pre-modern Japan
   HIST-465    The Samurai in Word and Image
   POLS-350    Politics in East Asia
   ANTH-255    Regional Archaeology*
   PHIL-311    East Asian Philosophy
   FNRT-200    Anime

* Course may be used when topic focuses on East Asia.

Modern Language - Portuguese

Hiroko Yamashita, Minor Adviser
(585) 475-6074, hxygsl@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent speakers of Portuguese.

Course
Electives
Choose five consecutive language courses:
   MLPO-201    Beginning Portuguese I
   MLPO-202    Beginning Portuguese II
   MLPO-301    Intermediate Portuguese I
   MLPO-302    Intermediate Portuguese II
   MLPO-401    Advanced Portuguese I
   MLPO-402    Advanced Portuguese II
Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the Portuguese minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments or schools dealing with aspects of Brazilian, Portuguese, or other Lusophone cultures may also be approved by the faculty adviser.
   ANTH-335    Culture and Politics in Latin America

Modern Language - Russian

Hiroko Yamashita, Minor Adviser
(585) 475-6074, hxygsl@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent speakers of Russian.

Course
Electives*
Choose five of the following:
   MLRU-201    Beginning Russian I
   MLRU-202    Beginning Russian II
   MLRU-301    Intermediate Russian I
   MLRU-302    Intermediate Russian II
   MLRU-401    Advanced Russian I
   MLRU-402    Advanced Russian II
Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the Russian minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments dealing with aspects of Russian culture may be approved by the faculty adviser.
   ENGL-418    Great Authors†
   ENGL-416    Topics in Global Literatures†

* Under special circumstances, and with permission of the minor adviser, up to two culture courses may be substituted for two sequential language courses. Students should contact the minor adviser for a list of approved culture courses.

† When course specifically pertains to Russian authors.

Modern Language - Spanish

Diane Forbes, Minor Adviser
(585) 475-6765, djfgsl@rit.edu

This minor provides two full years of modern language and culture instruction to prepare students for living and working within an intercultural society both at home and abroad. The minor consists of five courses, either five language courses or a combination of language courses with up to two culture courses. Students with previous language skills must consult the minor adviser for placement evaluation before they register. Part of the requirements for this minor can be fulfilled by courses taken abroad. This minor is closed to fluent native speakers of Spanish

Course
Electives
Choose five consecutive language courses:
   MLSP-201A    Beginning Spanish IA*
   MLSP-201B    Beginning Spanish IB*
   MLSP-202    Beginning Spanish II
   MLSP-301    Intermediate Spanish I
   MLSP-302    Intermediate Spanish II
   MLSP-401    Advanced Spanish I
   MLSP-402    Advanced Spanish II
Students can take up to two culture courses as part of the Spanish minor. In addition to culture courses listed for the minor, other courses from other departments dealing with aspects of Hispanic cultures may also be approved by the faculty adviser.
   MLSP-351    Gender and Sexuality
   MLSP-352    Caribbean Cinema
   MLSP-353    Trauma and Survival in First-person Narrative
   ANTH-255    Regional Archaeology†
   ANTH-335    Culture and Politics in Latin America
   ANTH-350    The Global Economy and the Grassroots
   ANTH-235    Immigration to the U.S.
   ENGL-416    Topics in Global Literatures‡
   ENGL-418    Great Authors‡
  ARTH-561    Latin American Art

* Students who begin the language sequence at the Beginning I Level will take either Beginning Spanish IA (MLSP-201A) or Beginning Spanish 1B (MLSP-201B). Placement will be determined in consultation with the department.

† When course focuses on Mesoamerica

‡ When course deals with Spanish and/or Latin American literature

Museum Studies

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The museum studies minor provides students with a foundation in the history and practice of the museum as an institution and in the history, theory, and practice of collecting, exhibiting, and preserving the cultural heritage that defines the purpose and function of the museum. Courses cover a wide range of topics that are relevant to contemporary museology: the history of museums and collecting, the technical study of art and materials, the history and theory of exhibitions, interactive design, public history, the rise of the museum profession, legal and ethical concerns, and conservation. This minor is closed to students majoring in museum studies.

Course
Required Courses
MUSE-220 Introduction to Museums and Collecting
MUSE-221/HIST-221 Introduction to Public History
Electives
Choose three of the following:*
   HIST-322    Monuments and Memory
   HIST-323    America’s National Parks
   HIST-324    Oral History
   HIST-325    Museums and History
   MUSE-224    History and Theory of Exhibitions
   MUSE-225    Museums and the Digital Age
   MUSE-340    Introduction to Archival Studies
   MUSE-341    Museum Education and Interpretation
   MUSE-358    Legal and Ethical Issues
   MUSE-360    Visitor Engagement and Technologies
   MUSE-489    Special Topics

* At least one course must be a MUSE course and one must be a HIST course.

Music and Technology

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The music and technology minor includes courses in music theory, music history, contemporary and historical musical instrument technology, acoustics, audio engineering, music for media, and music performance. This minor provides students with an avenue to integrate their technological interests and skills with music.

Course
Required Courses
EEET-261 Fundamentals of Audio Engineering
FNRT-205 Music Theory I
Electives
Choose three of the following:*
   EEET-361    Modern Audio Production
   FNRT-201    Music in the U.S.
   FNRT-202    Studies in World Music
   FNRT-203    American Pop and Rock
   FNRT-204    Music and the Stage
   FNRT-210    Bach, Handel and Baroque
   FNRT-211    Era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
   FNRT-250    Singers
   FNRT-251    Orchestra
   FNRT-252    Concert Band
   FNRT-253    World Music Ensemble
   FNRT-254    Jazz Ensemble
   FNRT-255    Chamber Orchestra
   FNRT-320    Music of the Romantic Era
   FNRT-321    Music Since 1900
   FNRT-322    Survey of Jazz
   FNRT-323    Survey of African American Music
   FNRT-324    Sounds of Protest
   FNRT-325    American Popular Song
   FNRT-326    History of Musical Instruments
   FNRT-327    American Musical Theatre
   FNRT-485    Music Theory II
   IGME-570    Digital Audio Production
   IGME-571    Interactive Games Audio

* It is strongly recommended that students select two music electives and one technology elective. At least two courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

Music Performance

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The music performance minor combines courses in music theory, music history, and world music with practical application through ensemble participation and applied music study.  This combination of the academic and the practical offers students a more profound understanding of the art of music, and in a broader sense, an introduction to cultural development and the communication of ideas. A total of 15 credit hours from the suggested list of courses must be earned for the minor, with three credits in music theory and three credits from ensemble participation, required.

Course
Required Course
FNRT-205 Music Theory I
Students choose at least three semester credits of the following one credit courses:
   FNRT-250    Singers
   FNRT-251    Orchestra
   FNRT-252    Concert Band
   FNRT-253    World Music Ensemble
   FNRT-254    Jazz Ensemble
   FNRT-255    Chamber Orchestra
Electives
Choose three of the following:*
   FNRT-201    Music in the U.S.
   FNRT-202    Studies in World Music
   FNRT-203    American Pop and Rock
   FNRT-204    Music and the Stage
   FNRT-210    Bach, Handel and the Baraque
   FNRT-211    Era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
   FNRT-320    Music of the Romantic Era
   FNRT-321    Music Since 1900
   FNRT-322    Survey of Jazz
   FNRT-323    African American Music
   FNRT-324    Sounds of Protest
   FNRT-325    American Popular Song
   FNRT-326    History of Musical Instruments
   FNRT-327    American Musical Theater
   FNRT-485    Music Theory II

* A minimum of two courses must be 300 level or above.

Philosophy

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The philosophy minor provides students with the critical skills of philosophical analysis while they take courses on a wide variety of issues central to everyone’s existence. Students get a solid grasp of the major philosophers, movements, and topics of philosophical debate that continue to shape our lives and how we act. This minor is closed to students majoring in philosophy.

Course
Electives
Choose five of the following:*
   PHIL-201    Ancient Philosophy
   PHIL-202    Foundations of Moral Philosophy
   PHIL-203    Modern Philosophy
   PHIL-205    Symbolic Logic
   PHIL-301    Philosophy of Religion
   PHIL-302    Symbolic Logic
   PHIL-303    Philosophy of Art/Aesthetics
   PHIL-304    Philosophy of Law
   PHIL-305    Philosophy of Peace
   PHIL-306    Professional Ethics
   PHIL-307    Philosophy of Technology
   PHIL-308    Environmental Philosophy
   PHIL-309    Feminist Theory
   PHIL-310    Theories of Knowledge
   PHIL-311    East Asian Philosophy
   PHIL-312    American Philosophy
   PHIL-313    Philosophy of Film
   PHIL-314    Philosophy of Vision and Imaging
   PHIL-315    Responsible Knowing
   PHIL-401    Great Thinkers
   PHIL-402    Philosophy of Science
   PHIL-403    Social and Political Philosophy
   PHIL-404    Philosophy of Mind
   PHIL-405    Philosophy of the Social Sciences
   PHIL-406    Contemporary Philosophy
   PHIL-407    Philosophy of Action
   PHIL-408    Critical Social Theory
   PHIL-409    Existentialism
   PHIL-410    Medieval Philosophy
   PHIL-411    Metaphysics
   PHIL-412    Nineteenth Century Philosophy
   PHIL-413    Philosophy and Literary Theory
   PHIL-414    Philosophy of Language
   PHIL-415    Ethical Theory
   PHIL-416    Seminar in Philosophy
   PHIL-417    Continental European Philosophy
   PHIL-449    Special Topics
   PHIL-571    Honors Philosophy

* At least one course must be at the 400 level.

Political Science

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The political science minor emphasizes the interdependence of domestic politics and international relations in the age of globalization. The minor brings together components of American politics, international relations, and comparative politics to provide students with both national and global perspectives on politics. Perhaps most important, the political science minor seeks to help students make sense of the increasingly complicated political environment that confronts them in their role as citizens. This minor is closed to students majoring in political science.

Course
Required Course
Choose one of the following:
   POLS-110    American Politics
   POLS-120    Introduction to International Relations
Electives*
American politics
Choose two of the following:
   POLS-115    Ethical Debates in American Politics
   POLS-200    Law and Society
   POLS-250    State and Local Politics
   POLS-290    Politics and the Life Sciences
   POLS-295    Cyberpolitics
   POLS-300    Rhetoric and Political Deliberation
   POLS-305    Political Parties and Voting
   POLS-310    The Congress
   POLS-315    The American Presidency
   POLS-320    American Foreign Policy
   POLS-345    Politics and Public Policy
   POLS-355    Political Leadership
   POLS-415    Evolution and Law
   POLS-420    Primate Politics
   POLS-425    Constitutional Law
   POLS-430    Constitutional Rights and Liberties
   POLS-435    American Political Thought
   POLS-460    Classical Constitutionalism, Liberty and Equality
   POLS-465    Modern Constitutionalism, Liberty and Equality
   POLS-480    Women in Politics
   POLS-485    Politics Through Fiction
   POLS-490    Politics Through Film
   POLS-525    Special Topics in Political Science
International relations
Choose two of the following:
   POLS-205    Ethics in International Politics
   POLS-210    Comparative Politics
   POLS-215    Technology, Ethics, and Global Politics
   POLS-220    Global Political Economy
   POLS-285    Environmental Ethics and Political Ecology
   POLS-325    International Law and Organizations
   POLS-320    American Foreign Policy
   POLS-330    Human Rights in Global Perspective
   POLS-335    Politics of Developing countries
   POLS-350    Government and Politics of East Asia
   POLS-360    International Political Thought
   POLS-370    Cyberwar, Robots, and the Future of Conflict
   POLS-410    Evolutionary International Relations
   POLS-440    War and the State
   POLS-445    Terrorism and Political Violence
   POLS-455    Comparative Public Policy
   POLS-525    Special Topics in Political Science

* At least two courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

Psychology

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The minor in psychology provides the opportunity for students to take courses comprising the study of behavior. Students may select from among a variety of courses, which enables students to customize their minor while getting wide exposure to important concepts, issues, methods, and theories in psychology. This minor is closed to students majoring in psychology.

Course
Electives
Choose five of the following:
   PSYC-221    Abnormal Psychology
   PSYC-222    Biopsychology
   PSYC-223    Cognitive Psychology
   PSYC-224    Perception
   PSYC-225    Social Psychology
   PSYC-231    Death and Dying
   PSYC-232    Developmental Psychology
   PSYC-233    History and Systems
   PSYC-234    Industrial and Organizational Psychology
   PSYC-235    Learning and Behavior
   PSYC-236    Personality
   PSYC-237    Psychology of Women
   PSYC-238    Psychology of Religion
   PSYC-239    Positive Psychology
   PSYC-240    Psychology of Human Sexuality

Public Policy

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The public policy minor provides students with a foundation in the field of public policy and allows them to make connections between public policy and other fields of study. The minor underscores the role of public policy on science and technology-based problems. Students obtain a deeper understanding of public policy and the policy making process, how policy analysis impacts policymaking, and how public policies operate within a number of specific science or technological domains. This minor is closed to students majoring in public policy.

Course
Required Courses
Choose five of the following:
   PUBL-101    Foundations of Public Policy*
   PUBL-201    Ethics, Values and Public Policy*
   PUBL-210    Introduction to Qualitative Methods
   PUBL-301    Public Policy Analysis
   PUBL-302    Decision Analysis 
   PUBL-363    Cybersecurity Policy and Law
   PUBL-455    Comparative Public Policy
   PUBL-489    Special Topics in Public Policy
   PUBL-510    Technology Innovation and Public Policy
   PUBL-520    Information and Communication Policy
   PUBL-530    Energy Policy
   STSO-201    Science and Technology Policy*
   STSO-421    Environmental Policy

* Students must select one of the three electives courses as their required course. The remaining courses may be taken as electives.

† Students must choose four elective courses to bring the total number of courses to five. Students may accomplish this by choosing electives from among the required courses and the elective courses. At least one of the elective courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

Science, Technology, and Society

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

This minor integrates the studies of human society, science, and technology in their social content and context. The minor bridges the humanities and social sciences to provide better understanding of the ways in which science, technology, and society are mutually interacting forces in our world. Students learn how to analyze the social institutions, the built environment, and their role in creating them. This minor enhances a student’s ability to contribute to the development of science and technology in ways that are historically, culturally, and ethically informed.

Course
Required Course
STSO-510 Seminar in STS
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
   ENGL-419    Literature and Technology
   PHIL-402    Philosophy of Science
   PUBL-530    Energy Policy
   STSO-140    Science Technology and Values
   STSO-201    Science and Technology Policy
   STSO-240    Social Consequences of Technology
   STSO-245    History of Women in Science and Engineering
   STSO-321    Face of the Land 
   STSO-341    Biomedical Issues
   STSO-342    Gender, Science and Technology
   STSO-345    Makers of Modern Science
   STSO-346    History of American Technology
   STSO-441    Cyborg Theory
   STSO-442    Science, Technology and Society Classics
   STSO-445    History of Science
   STSO-446    History of Chemistry
   STSO-489    Special Topics in STS

* At least one course must be at the 300 level or higher.

Theater Arts

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services

(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The theater arts minor provides an iterative balance of theory and practice that engages students intellectually and creatively. This combination of critical thinking and experiential learning offers students an in-depth understanding of the art of theater, as well as an introduction to the role of theater as both a form of commentary on, and as a reflection of, society and culture. The minor includes student participation in a minimum of three department sponsored theater productions via Theater Ensemble (FNRT-230) and Dramatic Theory and Text Analysis (FNRT-207).

Course
Required Courses
FNRT-207 Dramatic Theory and Text Analysis
FNRT-230 Theater Ensemble*
Electives
Choose three of the following
   FNRT-204    Music and the Stage
   FNRT-231    Theory and History of Acting
   FNRT-260    Design/Stagecraft Apprenticeship†
   FNRT-301    Theater in Europe
   FNRT-302    Theater in the United States
   FNRT-303    Shakespeare the Dramatist
   FNRT-304    African American Playwrights
   FNRT-489    Special Topics in Performing Arts 
   FNRT-490    Special Topics in Performing Arts

* Students must take Theater Ensemble (FNRT-230) three times.

† Students may substitute one credit of Design/Stagecraft Apprenticeship (FNRT-260) for one credit of Theater Ensemble (FNRT-230).

Urban Studies

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

This minor focuses on the interplay between urban issues and urban policy. Every metropolitan area must address such enduring issues as poverty, housing, homelessness, transportation, education, crime, safety, recreation, and economic development. Each urban community must do so with an understanding of its unique social mix and neighborhood relations, and with recognition of its place in wider regional, national, and global networks. Students identify and analyze central issues and social problems of urbanization and explore and assess various ways decision-makers respond to these issues. This minor is closed to students majoring in sociology and anthropology who have chosen the urban studies track.

Course
Required Course
SOCI-103 The Urban Experience
Electives
Choose four of the following:*
   ANTH-235    Immigration to the U.S.
   ANTH-315    Archaeology of Cities
   ANTH-410    Global Cities
   ECON-440    Urban Economics
   FNRT-377    Imag(in)ing Rochester
   HIST-103    The City in History
   INGS-210    Culture and Politics in Urban Africa
   SOCI-220    Minority Group Relations
   SOCI-325    Community and Economic Development: Rochester
   SOCI-330    Urban (In)Justice
   SOCI-335    Urban Cultures
   SOCI-345    Urban Poverty
   SOCI-340    Urban Planning and Policy
   SOCI-410    Diversity in the City
   STSO-550    Sustainable Communities

* At least two of the elective courses must be at the 300 level or higher.

Visual Culture

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

Visual culture explores the role of visual media in everyday life and its critical function in the dissemination of ideas in the public sphere. Emphasizing comparative critical approaches to the convergence of art, popular media, science, and technology, the minor engages globalized visual media ranging from photography, television and film, to new media (the Web, digital imaging and social networks), architecture, design, and art (painting, sculpture and multimedia forms) in the context of such social arenas, as art, news, science, advertising, and popular culture.

Course
Required Course
FNRT-376 Visual Culture Theory
Electives
Group A
Choose three of the following:
   FNRT-206    Queer Looks
   FNRT-220    Introduction to Museums and Collecting
   FNRT-225    Museums and the Digital Age
   FNRT-353    History and Theory of Exhibitions
   FNRT-360    Visitor Engagement and Museum Technologies
   FNRT-370    American Painting
   FNRT-371    African American Art
   FNRT-372    American Film of the Studio Era
   FNRT-373    American Film Since the Sixties
   FNRT-375    Women/Gender/Art
   FNRT-377    Imag(in)ing Rochester
   FNRT-378    Memory, Memorials, and Monuments
   FNRT-383    Traumatic Images
   FNRT-384    Art of Dying
   FNRT-440    Deaf Art and Cinema
Group B
Choose one of the following:
   ANTH-210    Culture and Globalization
   ANTH-240    Muslim Youth Cultures
   ANTH-265    Native North Americans in Film
   ANTH-310    African Popular Cultures
   ANTH-325    Bodies and Culture
   ANTH-330    Cultural Images of War
   ANTH-375    Native American Repatriation
   ANTH-425    Global Sexualities
   ANTH-430    Visual Anthropology
   ANTH-435    Garbage Archaeology
   COMM-341    Visual Communication
   COMM-440    Visual Communication of Technical Information
   ENGL-410    Film Studies
   ENGL-421    The Graphic Novel
   ENGL-422    Maps, Spaces and Places
   HIST-421    Hands On History
   MLFR-351    French Films and Hollywood
   MLSP-351    Gender and Sexuality in Hispanic Studies
   MLSP-352    Caribbean Cinema
   PHIL-303    Philosophy of Art and Aesthetics
   PHIL-309    Feminist Theory
   PHIL-313    Philosophy of Film
   PHIL-314    Philosophy of Vision/Imaging
   POLS-490    Politics Through Film
   STSO-321    Faces of the Land

Women's and Gender Studies

College of Liberal Arts, Office of Student Services
(585) 475-2444, libarts@rit.edu

The women's and gender studies minor provides a critical framework to explore the significance of gender (along with race, sexuality, and class) in the construction of knowledge within academic disciplines and in the shaping of women’s and men’s lives. Courses engage a critical pedagogy focused on the recovery of women’s contributions in a variety of fields, on women’s and men’s roles in society across cultures, and especially on critical questions about gender neutrality in the shaping of culture.

Course
Required Course
WGST-200 Foundations in Women's and Gender Studies
Electives
Choose four of the following:
   ANTH-325    Bodies and Culture
   ANTH-425    Global Sexualities
   SOCI-245    Gender and Health
   WGST-206    Queer Looks
   WGST-210    Introduction to LGBT Studies
   WGST-235    Women, Work, and Culture
   WGST-237    Psychology of Women
   WGST-240    Psychology of Human Sexuality
   WGST-245    Prostitution and Vice
   WGST-246    History of Women in Science and Engineering
   WGST-250    Domestic Violence
   WGST-255    Seminar on Sexual Violence
   WGST-265    Women and Crime
   WGST-290    American Women's and Gender History
   WGST-291    History of Family and Children in the U.S.
   WGST-309    Feminist Theory
   WGST-335    Women and the Deaf Community
   WGST-342    Gender, Science, and Technology
   WGST-351    Gender and Sexuality in Hispanic Studies
   WGST-361    Queering Gender
   WGST-375    Women, Gender, Art
   WGST-383    Traumatic Images
   WGST-384    Art of Dying
   WGST-414    Topics in Women's and Gender Studies
   WGST-451    Economics of Women and the Family
   WGST-481    Women in Politics