ANTH 301 - Social and Cultural Theory

This course explores influential classical and contemporary theories regarding society and culture. Students will assess the utility of different theories in addressing key enduring questions regarding human behavior, the organization of society, the nature of culture, the relationship between the individual and society, social control and social conflict, social groups and social hierarchy, the operation of power, cultural and social change, and the interplay between the global and the local. Theories will be marshaled to shed light on contemporary social and cultural phenomena and problems such as crime, violence, exploitation, modernity, and globalization. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 302 - Qualitative Research

Learning about social and cultural groups is a complex and ethically sensitive process. We explore common qualitative research methods for social and cultural research. We evaluate the utility of such methods for different purposes and contexts, including cross-cultural contexts. We consider common ethical dilemmas in research with human subjects, the ethical responsibilities of researchers, and common techniques for minimizing risks to subjects. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 303 - Statistics in the Social Sciences

The research conducted by sociologists and anthropologists generates large, complex data sets that are difficult to interpret subjectively. We will explore the basic quantitative tools that sociologists and anthropologists can use to understand these data sets and learn how to craft a research question and research design that utilize quantitative data, how to select appropriate quantitative techniques and apply them, how to present results, and how to critically evaluate quantitatively based knowledge claims. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 305 - Investigating Language Change

This course explores traditional and contemporary approaches to historical linguistics, the study of language change. All languages change through time, but how they change? where these changes come from? In this course, we compare different languages, different dialects of the same language, or different historical stages of a particular language, and investigate the history of languages and also language groups (or families). We investigate hypotheses about the grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation of languages long dead, and explore how languages can give us insights to understanding human prehistory. Lecture 3, Credits 3

ANTH 310 - African Popular Cultures

For most people in Africa, participating in popular cultures may be the best or only means of political expression. Yet, here in the United States, we rarely, if ever, have access to these forms, nor are they sufficiently linked in our imaginations to political processes in Africa or around the world. Rather, ideas and images about Africa come to us through the lenses of American or European cultures and media, Conrad's Heart of Darkness, exotic depictions in National Geographic, or CNN images of massacres in the Sudan. These images and the discourses that frame them tend to distance us from African experiences and expressions. By contrast, students, in this course, will assess the links between popular cultures and politics, with special attention to anthropological theory about African colonial and postcolonial literature, music, oral and ritual expressive forms, and visual media, and the particular political contexts through which they emerge and are performed. Through the popular cultures of diverse African communities, we will assess the politicization of identity, and the relations of African communities to ethnic, national, religious and global networks. By the end of the course, students will have an understanding of the enormous impact of popular cultures through which Africans express political sentiments that might otherwise be suppressed. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 312 - People Before Cities

More than half the global population today lives in densely populated urban areas, which are further surrounded by complex networks of smaller communities. Yet, the earliest cities appeared less than 6,000 years ago, a small fraction of time since our species first appearance. The characteristics that define us as human were forged in radically different social universe from those of today. We lived our lives among not much more than 20-30 other people at any one time, hunting and gathering our food, and occasionally moving from place to place. This lifestyle was so successful and adaptable it endured pressures from more complex societies well into the 20th century. Understanding what life was like in such these small-scale societies is important because the material and social world in which they lived is the foundation for societies where food production, social hierarchy, and occupational specialization are the norm. This course will examine both the ethnographic and archaeological record of hunter/foragers from around the globe in an attempt to understand how it proved to be such a versatile and resilient way of life and how its successes, in fact, laid the foundation for social inequality, complexity, and food production. Lecture 3, Credits 3

ANTH 315 - The Archaeology of Cities

The long course of the human existence has been marked by a series of revolutions that have profoundly changed society and that ultimately produced the world we live in today. One of the key revolutions that made our world possible was the invention of urbanism. Cities first appeared in Mesopotamia about 6,000 years ago and since then have been independently invented in many different parts of the world. This course focuses on the pre/historical trajectories of urban development in different world regions, the multiple roles of cities, and their impact on the development of complex societies. We attempt to understand and explain how the city has developed and contributed to the constitution of modern society. Throughout the course we will work on developing a working definition of the city that encompasses urbanism in all its many forms. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 320 - Practicing Anthropology

Practicing anthropologists use the methods, knowledge, and perspectives of anthropology to help address social problems and to enhance people’s sense of well-being. Practicing anthropologists often work for government or not-for-profit agencies on projects that are sensitive to and respectful of cultural differences, oriented to agendas ideally set by community members themselves. Other practicing anthropologists may work for companies, helping them to manage equitable workplaces and design culturally appropriate communications, services, and products. Practicing anthropologists work in a wide variety of areas, including agricultural development, public health, parks and museums, tourism, libraries and archives, education, refugee resettlement, multicultural programming, community outreach and engagement, inclusion of marginalized populations such as seniors and those with disabilities, cultural resource management, conflict resolution, and advocacy. As global communication and transportation networks bring people of different cultural backgrounds together at an unprecedented pace, anthropologists can bridge worlds and foster mutual understanding, peaceable interactions, and projects of mutual benefit. Older “applied anthropology” projects were criticized as colonialist impositions of values and ways of life. Consequently, this course examines the ethical pitfalls of practicing anthropology and students will assess strategies that safeguard people’s dignity, privacy, and rights, including the right to self-determination. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 325 - Bodies and Culture

This course examines the body in culture, society, and history. The course material draws on comparative approaches to the cultural construction of bodies, and the impact of ethnic, gender, racial ideologies on body practices (i.e. surgical alteration, mutilation, beautification, surrogacy, erotica). We will critically investigate the global formation of normative discourses of the body (regarding sexuality, AIDS/illness, reproduction, fat/food) in medical science, consumer culture, and the mass media. The course will be discussion, writing, and project oriented, encouraging students to acquire a range of analytic skills through a combination of text interpretation and research. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 328 - Heritage and Tourism

Tourism is a global industry and an important part of the human experience. There are many forces within tourism that act upon people’s lives, and in particular their environments, economies, cultural heritage, and identity. This course will explore tourism and its many dimensions. Beginning with an examination of kinds of tourism, this course unpacks tourism’s ancient trade and pilgrimage roots as well as its class dynamics of post-industrialization. Other aspects of tourism to be explored include strategies and effects of tourism development and production, nationalism and cultural identity, commoditization and marketing of culture and the ethics of development, labor and infrastructural changes, social inequalities, ecological impact, sustainable tourism, the experience of tourists, ritual and authenticity, and the relationship between tourists and tourism workers. This course provides opportunities for cross-cultural analysis of tourism sites, for participant-observation of the tourist experience, and for evaluation and recommendation of tourism site development in and around Rochester. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 330 - Cultural Images of War and Terror

This course critically examines the visual culture of war and terror in a global world from an anthropological perspective. Representations of violence are endlessly transmitted on television, on the internet, in print media, in cinema, and recreational games to become part of our everyday visual culture. Whether disseminated as news, documentary truth, or entertainment, the ubiquitous encounters with images of violence require a new form of visual literacy that not only highlights the intersection of the local and the global, but also recognizes the ways in which visual technologies, cultural politics of memory and history, media practices, and national ideologies intervene in the formation of a visual culture of war and terror. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 335 - Culture and Politics in Latin America

This course introduces cultures of Latin America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean in the context of political and economic forces that have shaped them. We examine Spanish and Portuguese colonialism and its modern-day legacies, including ethnic inequalities, economic vulnerability, and social unrest. We look at how art, music, and literature have engaged critically with the forces of fascism, revolution, socialism, dictatorship, and neo-colonialism. We consider indigenous activism, religious diversity, changing experiences and expectations of women and men, rebellion and revolution, impacts of and creative responses to globalization, and Latinos in the U.S. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 345 - Genocide and Post-Conflict Justice

The destruction and survival of societies often hinges upon the ideas and the social, cultural constructions of identity and belonging. When ideas fail to incorporate people, essentialist categories of identity, historical memory, and accounts of extreme violence become interrelated, potent sources of destruction. Slavery and exclusive ownership of resources leave people starving or living in perilously polluted environments. Globalizing cultural economies threaten local systems and self-representation. Group identities may be "sites" of crises within nation-states and global political, economic and cultural processes. In this course, we will take critical, anthropological approaches to studies of ethnocide, genocide and post-conflict justice. Students will use critical, anthropological approaches to assess ethnocides and genocides from the 19th century forced assimilation and slaughter of Native Americans and Amazonian Indians to more recent genocides in Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, and the Sudan, to understand the impact of globalization on techniques and technologies of genocides, the legal, moral/personal responsibility for genocides, media representations of genocides, and the affects of cultural, historical memory and social, global inequities upon future genocides. Students will use anthropological perspectives on genocide to assess post-conflict concepts of justice, reconstruction and reconciliation and local-global debates about their cultural resonance and effectiveness. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 350 - The Global Economy and the Grassroots

Economic globalization has given birth to global, grassroots social movements. This course examines how global economic integration is brought about through multilateral institutions, multinational corporations, outsourcing, trade agreements, international lending, and neoliberal reforms. We consider impacts (cultural, economic, and health) of these trends on employees, farmers, small businesses, consumers, and the environment in the developed and developing worlds (with special emphasis on Latin America). We examine beliefs, alternative visions, and strategies of grassroots movements responding to these challenges. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 360 - Humans and Their Environment

Humans and their societies have always been shaped by their environment, but as human societies became more complex, their relationship with their environment changed from one of simple adaptation to one in which they had the power to change their environment. Often, the changes they have wrought have had unintended consequences, forcing societies to adapt to the changes that they themselves have brought about. Although we tend to think that this is a relatively recent phenomenon, humans have been altering their environment since the first human societies made the transition to agriculture over ten thousand years ago, if not longer. In this class, we will use the tools of environmental archaeology to explore the history of human interactions with their environments and to draw lessons on how we could manage that interaction today. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 361 - Digitizing People

A number of groups have been assigned the label of “other” within the American social hierarchy.  Why have some of these sub-populations been able to shed this stigma? How do our definitions for racial, ethnic and gender identities relate to the political and data collection process used to categorize the U.S. population? The U.S. has conducted a regular census since 1790 and provided one way to examine these issues.  Students learn about the changes made to Census definitions for identity categories and data collection process along with the political environment prior that led to that change. Theories of identity formation combine with social science survey research methods and an understanding of U.S. history to provide a foundation for understanding demographic changes that have taken place within the U.S. population and of the data used to develop public policy and conduct research. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 365 - Islamic Culture and the Middle East

This interdisciplinary course focuses on introducing the fundamentals of the Middle East (a region which includes North Africa), with an emphasis on Islam, to students with little or no prior background in the region or the culture. The framework of Islam is used to explore the significance of how religion -- with its prescriptions for and proscriptions against certain behaviors and societal and cultural norms -- constructs and shapes ways of knowing and understanding material and performance culture. The four themes to be addressed include: (1) Foundations of Islam, (2) Islamic Law and Islamic Sects, (3) Material and Performance Culture in Islam, and (4) Islamic Culture and the West. The rationale for this course is to help students recognize and interpret fundamental concepts of Islamic cultures, to demonstrate how Islamic culture has shaped technologies used in the Middle East, to encourage students' independent thinking about topical events concerning Islam and the Middle East within their historical perspective, and to inspire students to examine how their own cultures change and adapt to the various current global situations involving the Middle East. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 370 - Media and Globalization

This course examines the cultural importance of mass media in the context of globalization. By analyzing the global flows of media images across national borders, emphasis is given to the cultural, social, and political impact of global media culture on communities in different parts of the world. How, for example, do mass media represent or shape cultural values and beliefs in developing societies? What is the role of mass media in forging national and ethnic identities, body images, cultural constructs of sexuality and gender, and the perceptions of war and violence in different societies? Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 375 - Native American Repatriation

Indian nations have substantial interests in access to and control of their cultural resources. In addition to land, those resources may include objects, traditions, and symbols. Many of those interests may be treated under tribal, federal, and/or international law as forms of property (including access to sacred sites, possession of funerary objects, masks); intangible resources (such as intellectual property of tribal names, symbols, stories), and/or liberty interests (including religious freedom, preservation of tribal languages, customs, Indian arts and crafts). Classroom lectures will be supplemented with round-table discussions and instructions by museum professionals, guest speakers, and Native American representatives. At the conclusion of the course, students will comprehend the breadth of federal legislation regulating tribal cultural resources as well as the complex legal and social issues facing museums, academic institutions, and the community. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 380 - Nationalism and Identity

Nationalism is often described in terms of strong sentiments and acts of self-determination on the part of members of a nation as distinct from the state that is necessarily a territorially and politically defined entity. This course will explore leading theories related to the origins of contemporary nationalism and nationalism's importance within the context of state societies, especially in Europe. The past as an invented historical or imagined reality will be highlighted, as invented pasts contribute to claims for exclusive national culture and both exclusive and contested identities. The relationships between culture, literacy, and capitalism will be applied to understanding select historical and ethnographic cases of nationalism. Lecture, Credits 3

ANTH 385 - Anthropology and History

The relationship between anthropology and history is not always self-evident due to cultural anthropology being focused largely on living peoples and cultures and historys focus on the past, yet the two share similarities of method and theory. We utilize the careful analysis of select texts serves to raise critical questions concerning the theoretical and methodological similarities and differences between the two disciplines as well as the potential contributions of anthropology and history to critical scholarship and writing. Lecture 3, Credits 3

ANTH 390 - Marxist Perspectives

This course will provide a critical analysis and historical overview of the Marxist tradition in anthropology and sociology. Special attention will be given to comparing the various Marxist schools as well as outlining the neo-Marxist project and its importance for a cultural refiguration of Marxist perspectives in the social sciences. Lecture 3, Credits 3

SOCI 301 - Social and Cultural Theory

This course explores influential classical and contemporary theories regarding society and culture. Students will assess the utility of different theories in addressing key enduring questions regarding human behavior, the organization of society, the nature of culture, the relationship between the individual and society, social control and social conflict, social groups and social hierarchy, the operation of power, cultural and social change, and the interplay between the global and the local. Theories will be marshaled to shed light on contemporary social and cultural phenomena and problems such as crime, violence, exploitation, modernity, and globalization. Lecture, Credits 3

SOCI 302 - Qualitative Research

Learning about social and cultural groups is a complex and ethically sensitive process. We explore common qualitative research methods for social and cultural research. We evaluate the utility of such methods for different purposes and contexts, including cross-cultural contexts. We consider common ethical dilemmas in research with human subjects, the ethical responsibilities of researchers, and common techniques for minimizing risks to subjects. Lecture, Credits 3

SOCI 310 - U.S. Housing Policy

Housing is a critical component in assuring basic survival. Through the design, sale, and development of housing in the United States, many Americans' lives are shaped by their residence. In response, this course examines the role of American housing policy in its relationship to other social issues, including racial segregation, endemic poverty, educational and economic inequality, sprawl and traffic, and environmental degradation. Special emphasis will be paid to explain how current housing policy both creates and eliminates housing options and their related social issues. Lecture, Credits 3

SOCI 315 - Global Exiles of War and Terror

Daily we watch, seemingly helplessly, as people are displaced from their communities, homelands, and countries and subsequently seek asylum around the world, sometimes within our own local communities. Causes of displacement include war, violence, persecution, and modes of terror that increasingly affect the lives of women and children. In addition to the loss of human life and potential, the ensuing consequences of violent displacement include poverty, disease, physical and psychological trauma, hopelessness, and vulnerability to human rights abuses. In this course, we explore how the rights and dignity of refugees can be protected. We also examine resettlement processes and, for those who are eventually repatriated, we address how they can successfully reintegrate into reconstructing societies that remain barely functional. Most importantly, we consider how the trauma of displacement can be minimized. Lecture, Credits 3

SOCI 330 - Urban Deviance

With a focus on crime in urban communities in the United States, we investigate the impact of race, class, and gender inequalities on patterns of crime, and the responses of the criminal justice system. Specific topics include both historical and contemporary perspectives on urban crime and the impact of crime, violence, inequality, and policing on people in urban neighborhoods. Lecture, Credits 3

SOCI 340 - Urban Planning and Policy

This course will examine the sociological and political implications of policies and planning decisions that have impacted the growth patterns of American cities and suburbs in the post-World War II era. Particular emphasis will be given to land use decisions that have favored suburbs over cities, the loss of tax base which impacted these cities' ability to perform basic functions for their citizens, and the adverse impact of federal and state government policies and programs on the functionality of urban areas and the efficiency of local governments. Students will examine case studies on urban development, and conduct field research on governmental structures and policies that will enable them to develop alternative strategies and policies. Lecture, Credits 3

SOCI 345 - Urban Poverty

Urban poverty has been recognized as a persistent problem in the United States since the middle of the last century. In many cities, poverty is associated with high levels of teenage pregnancy, low levels of employment, limited educational attainment, chronic community-based health problems, and high levels of crime. This course examines causes, consequences, and proposed policy solutions to urban poverty. Special emphasis will be paid to U.S. urban poverty. Lecture, Credits 3

SOCI 350 - Social Change

This course describes and applies competing explanations for major transitions in a variety of institutions, including the economy, work, politics, family and education. These transitions are seen within historical and global contexts, but the interplay of these changing social structures with individual experience is explored as well. Topics include economic, racial and gender stratification, culture, labor-management relations, and the source and consequences of technological change. Students will learn to understand, assess, and manage social change rather than to simply react to it. Lecture 3, Credits 3

SOCI 390 - Marxist Perspectives

This course will provide a critical analysis and historical overview of the Marxist tradition in anthropology and sociology. Special attention will be given to comparing the various Marxist schools as well as outlining the neo-Marxist project and its importance for a cultural refiguration of Marxist perspectives in the social sciences. Lecture 3, Credits 3