ANTH 301 - Social and Cultural Theory

This course explores influential classical and contemporary theories regarding society and culture. Students will assess the utility of different theories in addressing key enduring questions regarding human behavior, the organization of society, the nature of culture, the relationship between the individual and society, social control and social conflict, social groups and social hierarchy, the operation of power, cultural and social change, and the interplay between the global and the local. Theories will be marshaled to shed light on contemporary social and cultural phenomena and problems such as crime, violence, exploitation, modernity, and globalization. Cross-listed with SOCI-301. (Prerequisites: ANTH-102 or ANTH-102H or ANTH-103 or SOCI-102 or SOCI-103 or INGS-101 or equivalent course.) Units 3  

ANTH 302 - Qualitative Research

Learning about social and cultural groups is a complex and ethically sensitive process. This course explores common methods for social and cultural research. We evaluate the utility of such methods for different purposes and contexts, including cross-cultural contexts. We consider common ethical dilemmas in research with human subjects, the ethical responsibilities of researchers, and common techniques for minimizing risks to subjects. Counts toward the international and global studies degree; sociology and anthropology degree; sociology and anthropology minor. Cross-listed with SOCI-302. (Prerequisites: ANTH-102 or ANTH-102H or ANTH-103 or SOCI-102 or SOCI-103 or INGS-101 or equivalent course.) Units 3

ANTH 303 - Quantitative Research

The research conducted by sociologists and anthropologists generates large, complex data sets that are difficult to interpret subjectively. We will explore the basic quantitative tools that sociologists and anthropologists can use to understand these data sets and learn how to craft a research question and research design that utilize quantitative data, how to select appropriate quantitative techniques and apply them, how to present results, and how to critically evaluate quantitatively based knowledge claims. Counts toward the sociology and anthropology degree; sociology and anthropology minor. (Prerequisites: ANTH-102 or ANTH-102H or ANTH-103 or SOCI-102 or SOCI-103 or INGS-101 or equivalent course.) Units 3

ANTH 305 - Comparative and Historical Linguistics

All languages change through time, but how do they change? Where do these changes come from? In exploring traditional and contemporary approaches to historical linguistics, the study of language change,  we compare different languages, different dialects of the same language, or different historical stages of a particular language, and investigate the history of languages and also language groups (or families). We investigate hypotheses about the grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation of languages long dead, and we explore how languages can give us insights to understanding human prehistory. Units 3

ANTH 310 - Popular Cultures in the Global South

For most people in Africa, participating in popular cultures may be the best or only means of political expression. Yet, here in the United States, we rarely, if ever, have access to these forms, nor are they sufficiently linked in our imaginations to political processes in Africa or around the world. Rather, ideas and images about Africa come to us through the lenses of American or European cultures and media, Conrad's Heart of Darkness, exotic depictions in National Geographic, or CNN images of massacres in the Sudan. These images and the discourses that frame them tend to distance us from African experiences and expressions. By contrast, students, in this course, will assess the links between popular cultures and politics, with special attention to anthropological theory about African colonial and postcolonial literature, music, oral and ritual expressive forms, and visual media, and the particular political contexts through which they emerge and are performed. Through the popular cultures of diverse African communities, we will assess the politicization of identity, and the relations of African communities to ethnic, national, religious and global networks. By the end of the course, students will have an understanding of the enormous impact of popular cultures through which Africans express political sentiments that might otherwise be suppressed. Units 3

ANTH 312 - People Before Cities

More than half the global population today lives in densely populated urban areas, which are further surrounded by complex networks of smaller communities. Yet, the earliest cities appeared less than 6,000 years ago, a small fraction of time since our species’ first appearance. The characteristics that define us as human were forged in radically different social universe from those of today. We lived our lives among not much more than 20-30 other people at any one time, hunting and gathering our food, and occasionally moving from place to place. This lifestyle was so successful and adaptable it endured pressures from more complex societies well into the 20th century. Understanding what life was like in such these small-scale societies is important because the material and social world in which they lived is the foundation for societies where food production, social hierarchy, and occupational specialization are the norm. This course will examine both the ethnographic and archaeological record of hunter/foragers from around the globe in an attempt to understand how it proved to be such a versatile and resilient way of life and how its successes, in fact, laid the foundation for social inequality, complexity, and food production. Units 3

ANTH 315 - The Archaeology of Cities

The long course of the human existence has been marked by a series of revolutions that have profoundly changed society and that ultimately produced the world we live in today. One of the key revolutions that made our world possible was the invention of urbanism. Cities first appeared in Mesopotamia about 6,000 years ago and since then have been independently invented in many different parts of the world. This course focuses on the pre/historical trajectories of urban development in different world regions, the multiple roles of cities, and their impact on the development of complex societies. We attempt to understand and explain how the city has developed and contributed to the constitution of modern society. Throughout the course we will work on developing a working definition of the city that encompasses urbanism in all its many forms. Units 3

ANTH 325 - Bodies and Culture

Our bodies are more than mere physical entities; they are conditioned by culture, society, and history. We will take a comparative approach to the cultural construction of bodies and the impact of ethnic, gender, and racial ideologies on body practices (i.e. surgical alteration, mutilation, beautification, surrogacy, erotica). We will critically investigate the global formation of normative discourses of the body (regarding sexuality, AIDS/illness, reproduction, fat/food) in medical science, consumer culture, and the mass media. The course features discussion, writing, and project oriented research, encouraging students to acquire a range of analytic skills through a combination of text interpretation and research. Counts toward the soc/anth degree (cultural anthro track), international and global studies degree, the minor in soc/anth, the minor in visual studies, the minor and immersion in women’s and gender studies, the immersion in cultural anthropology and the immersion in health and culture. Units 3

ANTH 328 - Heritage and Tourism

Tourism is a global industry and an important part of the human experience. There are many forces within tourism that act upon people’s lives, and in particular their environments, economies, cultural heritage, and identity. This course will explore tourism and its many dimensions. Beginning with an examination of kinds of tourism, this course unpacks tourism’s ancient trade and pilgrimage roots as well as its class dynamics of post-industrialization. Other aspects of tourism to be explored include strategies and effects of tourism development and production, nationalism and cultural identity, commoditization and marketing of culture and the ethics of development, labor and infrastructural changes, social inequalities, ecological impact, sustainable tourism, the experience of tourists, ritual and authenticity, and the relationship between tourists and tourism workers. This course provides opportunities for cross-cultural analysis of tourism sites, for participant-observation of the tourist experience, and for evaluation and recommendation of tourism site development in and around Rochester.

ANTH 330 - Cultural Images of War and Terror

This course critically examines the visual culture of war and terror in a global world from an anthropological perspective. Representations of violence are endlessly transmitted on television, on the internet, in print media, in cinema, and recreational games to become part of our everyday visual culture. Whether disseminated as news, documentary truth, or entertainment, the ubiquitous encounters with images of violence require a new form of visual literacy that not only highlights the intersection of the local and the global, but also recognizes the ways in which visual technologies, cultural politics of memory and history, media practices, and national ideologies intervene in the formation of a visual culture of war and terror. Units 3

ANTH 335 - Culture and Politics in Latin America

This course introduces cultures of Latin America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean in the context of political and economic forces that have shaped them. We examine Spanish and Portuguese colonialism and its modern-day legacies, including ethnic inequalities, economic vulnerability, and social unrest. We look at how art, music, and literature have engaged critically with the forces of fascism, revolution, socialism, dictatorship, and neo-colonialism. We consider indigenous activism, religious diversity, changing experiences and expectations of women and men, rebellion and revolution, impacts of and creative responses to globalization, and Latinos in the U.S. Units 3 

ANTH 340 - Divided Europe

As Europe strives for political and economic unity, we see a concurrent push toward inequality, exclusion, and marginalization: minorities, immigrants, refugees, Blacks, Muslims, Jews, Roma or Sinti, and women struggle against discrimination. Not only the legacy of colonialism but the revitalization of nationalism shape contemporary European cultural politics. Based on an anthropological perspective, this course examines ways in which we can understand a divided Europe through the intersections of race, ethnicity, class, gender, and religion. Counts toward the major in international and global studies, the major in anthropology and sociology. Units 3

ANTH 345 - Genocide and Post-Conflict Justice

The destruction and survival of societies often hinges upon the ideas and the social, cultural constructions of identity and belonging. When ideas fail to incorporate people, essentialist categories of identity, historical memory, and accounts of extreme violence become interrelated, potent sources of destruction. Slavery and exclusive ownership of resources leave people starving or living in perilously polluted environments. Globalizing cultural economies threaten local systems and self-representation. Group identities may be "sites" of crises within nation-states and global political, economic and cultural processes. In this course, we will take critical, anthropological approaches to studies of ethnocide, genocide and post-conflict justice. Students will use critical, anthropological approaches to assess ethnocides and genocides from the 19th century forced assimilation and slaughter of Native Americans and Amazonian Indians to more recent genocides in Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, and the Sudan, to understand the impact of globalization on techniques and technologies of genocides, the legal, moral/personal responsibility for genocides, media representations of genocides, and the affects of cultural, historical memory and social, global inequities upon future genocides. Students will use anthropological perspectives on genocide to assess post-conflict concepts of justice, reconstruction and reconciliation and local-global debates about their cultural resonance and effectiveness. Units 3

ANTH 350 - The Global Economy and the Grassroots

Economic globalization has given birth to global, grassroots social movements. This course examines how global economic integration is brought about through multilateral institutions, multinational corporations, outsourcing, trade agreements, international lending, and neoliberal reforms. We consider impacts (cultural, economic, and health) of these trends on employees, farmers, small businesses, consumers, and the environment in the developed and developing worlds (with special emphasis on Latin America). We examine beliefs, alternative visions, and strategies of grassroots movements responding to these challenges. (This class is restricted to undergraduate students with at least 2nd year standing). Units 3 

ANTH 360 - Humans and Their Environment

Humans and their societies have always been shaped by their environment, but as human societies became more complex, their relationship with their environment changed from one of simple adaptation to one in which they had the power to change their environment. Often, the changes they have wrought have had unintended consequences, forcing societies to adapt to the changes that they themselves have brought about. Although we tend to think that this is a relatively recent phenomenon, humans have been altering their environment since the first human societies made the transition to agriculture over ten thousand years ago, if not longer. In this class, we will use the tools of environmental archaeology to explore the history of human interactions with their environments and to draw lessons on how we could manage that interaction today. (Prerequisite: ANTH-103 or equivalent course.) Units 3

ANTH 365 - Culture and Politics in the Middle East

With a focus on everyday life in families, communities, and nations, we examine the diverse cultures and peoples of the Middle East in the context of political and economic forces that have shaped their lives in the past and present. We examine European colonialism and its modern-day legacies, including ethnic inequalities, economic vulnerability, labor migration, urbanism, and social unrest. We look at how art, music, oral traditions, and literatures have engaged critically with the forces of political change and neo-colonialism. We consider political activism, religious diversity, changing experiences and expectations of women and men, rebellion, revolution, and war, and the impacts of and creative responses to globalization. The cultural, political, social, and religious dynamics of Middle Eastern peoples will be discussed from a humanistic perspective. Units 3

ANTH 370 - Media and Globalization

The cultural importance of mass media has undergone tremendous growth in the context of globalization. Analysis of the global flows of media images across national borders, emphasises the cultural, social, and political impact of global media culture on communities in different parts of the world. How, for example, do mass media represent or shape cultural values and beliefs in developing societies?  What is the role of mass media in forging national and ethnic identities, body images, cultural constructs of sexuality and gender, and the perceptions of war and violence in different societies? (Prerequisite: INGS-101 or ANTH-102 or equivalent course.) Units 3 

ANTH 375 - Native American Cultural Resources and Rights

Indian nations have substantial interests in access to and control of their cultural resources. In addition to land, those resources may include objects, traditions, and symbols. Many of those interests may be treated under tribal, federal, and/or international law as forms of property (including access to sacred sites, possession of funerary objects, masks); intangible resources (such as intellectual property of tribal names, symbols, stories), and/or liberty interests (including religious freedom, preservation of tribal languages, customs, Indian arts and crafts). Classroom lectures will be supplemented with round-table discussions and instructions by museum professionals, guest speakers, and Native American representatives. At the conclusion of the course, students will comprehend the breadth of federal legislation regulating tribal cultural resources as well as the complex legal and social issues facing museums, academic institutions, and the community. Units 3 

ANTH 380 - Nationalism and Identity

Nationalism is often described in terms of strong sentiments and acts of self-determination on the part of members of a nation as distinct from the state that is necessarily a territorially and politically defined entity. This course will explore leading theories related to the origins of contemporary nationalism and nationalism's importance within the context of state societies, especially in Europe. The past as an invented historical or imagined reality will be highlighted, as invented pasts contribute to claims for exclusive national culture and both exclusive and contested identities. The relationships between culture, literacy, and capitalism will be applied to understanding select historical and ethnographic cases of nationalism. Units 3 

ANTH 385 - Anthropology and History

The relationship between anthropology and history is not always self-evident due to cultural anthropology being focused largely on living peoples and cultures and history’s focus on the past, yet the two share similarites of method and theory. We utilize the careful analysis of select texts serves to raise critical questions concerning the theoretical and methodological similarities and differences between the two disciplines as well as the potential contributions of anthropology and history to critical scholarship and writing. (Prerequisite: one course in Anthropology (ANTH), Sociology (SOCI) or History (HIST)) Units 3

ANTH 390 - Marxist Perspectives

This course will provide a critical analysis and historical overview of the Marxist tradition in anthropology and sociology. Special attention will be given to comparing the various Marxist schools as well as outlining the neo-Marxist project and its importance for a cultural refiguration of Marxist perspectives in the social sciences. (Prerequisites: ANTH-102 or ANTH-102H or SOCI-102 or equivalent course). Units 3