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Print Materials & Analysis Lab Services

The Print Materials Analysis Lab housed within the Printing Applications Laboratory was established as a full-service, objective 3rd party, analytical test lab for the development, evaluation, and application of cost-effective, innovative technologies in service of the Printing and Imaging Industries. PMAL transfers the benefits of ongoing research and development to its clients through the examination and study of printed image quality, media physical properties, cartridge yield studies, and print consumable testing to relative industry standards.
  • Tappi standard condition testing environment(T402) supporting industry and PAL initiatives with practical measurable information.    
  • ASTM, ANSI, ISO, CGATS ISTA, TAPPI, DIN, and customized evaluations including ASTM F1856, ISO 19752, ISO 19798, and ISO 24711.
  • Over 50 types of relative industry testing equipment, and have performed evaluations on over 500 desktop print devices. For a complete listing of available equipment please download our equipment list (PDF).
  • Environmental chambers; Xenon ARC UV & Cool White , Temperature, Humidity, Altitude.
  • Image quality measurements using an KDY ImageXpert full motion system, as well as Verity IA ImagePro .
  • Inkjet, Toner, and Media chemical & physical properties.
  • Small Office & Home Office cartridge test capabilities, remanufacturing, yield
  • Over 55 years of combined experience in imaging quality measurement and substrate analysis.
  • Analytical in-depth reporting of evaluation results.
  • Benchmarking and Competitive performance Evaluation .

Available Testing

Physical Properties Testing for Media

Ash in wood, pulp, paper, and paperboard: Combustion at 525°C

Ash in wood, pulp, paper, and paperboard: Combustion at 525°C
References Standard: TAPPI 211
Test Description: A test specimen is ignited in a muffle furnace at 525°C. A separate test specimen is analyzed for the percentage moisture. The resulting weight of ash and moisture level in the sample is used to calculate the percentage ash present at 525°C on a moisture-free sample basis.

Grammage of paper and paperboard

Grammage of paper and paperboard
References Standard: TAPPI T410
ISO 536
Test Description: Most paper is bought and sold in accordance with its mass per unit area, and therefore the grammage has great significance both to the consumer and the producer in defining price. The values of many physical properties such as bursting strength, thickness, and bulk are interpreted and specified with regard to grammage. The grammage is also used to calculate the index properties of many strength properties and thus the proper measurement of basis weight is critical for the correct calculation of these indexes.

Bulk and bulking number of paper

Bulk and bulking number of paper
References Standard: TAPPI T500
ISO 534
Test Description: The measurement of book bulk by this method is particularly useful to book manufacturers and printers for determining the probable thickness of a book consisting of a particular paper in a specified number of sheets or pages.

Bursting strength of paper, paperboard, and linerboard

Bursting strength of paper, paperboard, and linerboard
References Standard: TAPPI T403(paper)
TAPPI T807(board)
ISO 2758
Test Description: Bursting strength is widely used as a measure of resistance to rupture in many kinds of paper. The test is relatively easy and inexpensive to make and appears to simulate some end-use requirements

Thickness (caliper) of paper, paperboard, and combined board

Thickness (caliper) of paper, paperboard, and combined board
References Standard: TAPPI T411
ISO 534
Test Description: Thickness is an important property of paper, paperboard, or combined board, and variations in thickness are also important especially for papers and paperboards used for mechanical purposes. The test is useful for research work, routine control, design of end-use products, and for acceptance testing for conformance to specifications. Thickness is one of the important characteristics that affect flexural stiffness

CIE whiteness and tint of paper and paperboard

CIE whiteness and tint of paper and paperboard
References Standard: TAPPI T560(d/0)
TAPPI T562(45/0)
ISO 11475 (D65)
Test Description: Paper is bought, sold and used primarily indoors. Therefore it is important to assess the “whiteness" of the paper under similar conditions. When “white" papers are ranked subjectively, it has been shown that people prefer bluish whites to grayish, yellowish, greenish, or pinkish whites. As a consequence, paper-makers often add fluorescent whitening agents or optical brightening agents to enhance the appearance of their papers. The CIE whiteness and tint equations have a blue bias to better quantify what people prefer. It has been shown that CIE whiteness values correlate well with visual whiteness assessment when the UV level of the source approximates that of average indoor lighting

Cobb Test

Cobb Test
References Standard: TAPPI T441
Test Description: Water absorptiveness is a function of various characteristics of paper or board such as sizing, porosity, etc. This method is generally applicable to sized paper, paperboard and corrugated fiberboard, but it is not recommended as a sizing test for writing paper

Coefficients of static and kinetic friction (horizontal plane method)

Coefficients of static and kinetic friction (horizontal plane method)
References Standard: TAPPI T549
Test Description: The coefficient of friction of printing and writing papers is an indicator of the ease with which the top or bottom sheets of a stack of paper will slide across the succeeding sheet, such as occurs on the in-feed of a printing press or the sheet transport into a copier machine. A minimum value of the coefficient of friction is required to prevent double feeding of any sheets.

Color of paper and paperboard (d/0,C/2),(45/0, C/2)

Color of paper and paperboard (d/0,C/2),(45/0, C/2)
References Standard: TAPPI T527(d/0,C/2)
TAPPI T524(45/0,C/2)
ISO 11475 (D65 10°)
Test Description: The color appearance of paper and paperboard is important for its aesthetic value in marketing packaged products, as an aid to the distribution of multi-ply forms; to differentiate pages or sections of published literature, in artwork, and in many other applications. A numerical definition of color is essential to good quality control and to customer-producer relationships.

Curl in a pack of sheets

Curl in a pack of sheets
References Standard: ISO 14968 (pack of sheets)
ISO 11556(single sheet)
Test Description: The purpose of this method is usually to test the inherent curl of the paper at the moisture content that it has immediately following its removal from a ream, or after processing in a copier or other printing device.

Dust Content

Dust Content
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: Paper dust, whether it be from mineral or slitting, can have an adverse effect on a printers feed system. With the feed rollers taking on dust, misfeeds and jams are more apt to occur.

Fluorescence component (d/0)

Fluorescence component (d/0)
References Standard: TAPPI T525
Test Description: Fluorescent whitening agents (FWA), optical brightening agents (OBA) and fluorescent brightening agents (FBA) are usually added to the furnish or coating of paper to increase it’s “blueish tint". In this manner the reemission of near-UV light as blue light increases the apparent whiteness of the paper.

Formation

Formation
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: The term “formation", as applied to paper, means the relative uniformity of distribution of fibers in the paper sheet. Non-uniformity, or poor formation, commonly arises because flocculation occurs in the fiber suspension from which the paper is made. This flocculation may occur prior to the delivery of the suspension to the drainage section of the paper machine or in the drainage section itself, and in either case results in poor formation. Formation depends on complex interactions of equipment, fiber and paper making parameters. 

Brightness of pulp, paper, and paperboard (457 nm)

Brightness of pulp, paper, and paperboard (457 nm)
References Standard: TAPPI T452(GE brightness directional)
T571(d/0)
T525 (ISO Diffuse)
ISO 2470 (d/0)
Test Description: Blue-light reflectance measurements were originally designed to provide an indication of the amount of bleaching that has taken place in the manufacture of pulp. The higher the blue-light reflectance, generally the whiter the products will appear. The method provides a simple single-number index useful for comparing similar white materials; however, colored materials are better identified by using a standardized three-dimensional color space.

Surface Strength of Paper (IGT Tester)

Surface Strength of Paper (IGT Tester)
References Standard: TAPPI T499
Test Description: Many printing and converting operations require the surfaces of the paper to have sufficient z-direction strength to give satisfactory results. Since no absolute values are obtained with this method, test results should be correlated with actual performance of the material during the subsequent coating, converting, printing or packaging operation

K & N Ink Absorbency Test

K & N Ink Absorbency Test
References Standard: TAPPI RC-19
Test Description: A test used to quickly determine the degrees of ink absorbency for various papers, in which a nondrying ink containing a soluble dye is thickly applied to several overlapped paper samples and allowed to sit for two minutes. The ink is then wiped off the samples, and the different degrees of color depth of the ink stains on the various samples are compared, the greater density of color indicating the highest ink absorbency. The K and N test provides best results on coated papers, and can also be used to test the uniformity of ink absorption across the surface of a single sheet.

Bristow Test

Bristow Test
References Standard: ASTM D 5455
Test Description: The Bristow test provides a measure of the short-term absorption of water or other liquids by paper. The U.S. Postal Service has used this test method to predict the drying times of bar codes sprayed onto envelopes by inkjet. The Bristow test is also used to measure ink absorption by paper for a variety of printing purposes. The particular significance of this test method is its ability to characterize the absorptive properties of a paper or paper product surface independent of the thickness or bulk of the material under test.

Folding endurance of paper (MIT tester)

Folding endurance of paper (MIT tester)
References Standard: TAPPI T511
ISO 5626
Test Description: Folding endurance tests have been used to estimate the ability of paper to withstand repeated bending, folding, and creasing.

Opacity of paper (d/0 paper backing)

Opacity of paper (d/0 paper backing)
References Standard: TAPPI T519
ISO 2471
Test Description: Diffuse opacity, expressed as a percentage, is given by the ratio of the diffuse luminous reflectance factor of a single sheet with black backing (Y0) to that with a backing consisting of a pad of the same paper (Y?), multiplied by 100, i.e., (100 × Y0/ Y?).

Cutting (edge) Quality

Cutting (edge) Quality
References Standard: Din EN 12281
Test Description: The cutting quality of the edges of a sheet is determined by comparison with a series of cutting quality values at a magnification of 42x

Moisture in pulp, paper and paperboard

Moisture in pulp, paper and paperboard
References Standard: TAPPI T412
ISO 287
Test Description: Moisture is significant for economic reasons and for its effect on such properties as printability, shrinkage, dimensional stability, physical strength, and paper runnability.

Bending resistance (stiffness) of paper

Bending resistance (stiffness) of paper
References Standard: TAPPI T566
ISO 2493
TAPPI T543
ISO 5628
Test Description: Bending resistance of paper having low grammage, high flexibility, or both relates to a number of end use applications including wrapping, printing, copy machine performance, high speed mechanical handling of documents and other applications.

Air Permeance

Air Permeance
References Standard: TAPPI T547(Sheffield)
TAPPI T 460 (Gurly)
Test Description: The air permeance of paper may be used as an indirect indicator of variables such as: degree of beating, absorbency (penetration of oil, water, etc.), apparent specific gravity, and filtering efficiency for liquids or gases. Air permeance is influenced by the internal structure and also surface finish. Internal structure is controlled largely by the type and length of fibers, degree of hydration, orientation, and compaction of the fibers; as well as by the type and amount of fillers and sizing. The measurement of air permeance is a useful control test for machine production, but due to the number and complexity of factors outlined above, careful judgment should be used in the specification limits for air permeance."

Resistivity

Resistivity
References Standard: ASTM D4949
Test Description: Resistivity or conductivity may be used to predict, indirectly, the low-frequency dielectric breakdown and dissipation factor properties of some materials. Resistivity or conductivity is often used as an indirect measure of moisture content, degree of cure, mechanical continuity, and deterioration of various types.

Internal bond strength (Scott type)

Internal bond strength (Scott type)
References Standard: TAPPI T569
Test Description: Internal bond strength as defined in this method is indicative of the serviceability and processability of many types of paper and paperboard. These include printing papers, cover, label, release, linerboard, carton, carrier, newsprint and others. Test results often correlate with high speed surface and internal structural failures encountered in both printing and converting operations.

Set Time of Media

Set Time of Media
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: A measure of the rate of ink absorption into a substrate to the point at which no image transfer, smear, or surface damage occurs when in contact with another surface.

Gloss of paper and paperboard

Gloss of paper and paperboard

References Standard: TAPPI T480
ISO 8254-1 (75 deg)
ASTM D523 (60 deg)
Test Description: This method is for measuring the specular gloss of paper at 75° (15° from the plane of the paper). Although its chief application is to coated papers, it is also used for a variety of uncoated papers.Gloss is associated with the capacity of a surface to reflect more light in directions close to the specular than in others. Measurements by this test method correlate with visual observations of surface shininess

Roughness of paper and paperboard (Sheffield method)

Roughness of paper and paperboard (Sheffield method)
References Standard: TAPPI T538
ISO 8791-3 ( Sheffield)
Tappi T555
ISO 8791-4 (Parker Print Surf)
Test Description: This method is a measurement of the air flow between the specimen (backed by flat glass on the bottom side) and two pressurized, concentric annular lands that are impressed into the sample from the top side. The rate of air flow is related to the surface roughness of paper or paperboard.

Tearing resistance of paper (Elmendorf-type method)

Tearing resistance of paper (Elmendorf-type method)
References Standard: TAPPI T414
ISO 1974
Test Description: This method measures the force perpendicular to the plane of the paper required to tear multiple plies through a specified distance after the tear has been started using an Elmendorf-type tearing tester. The measured results can be used to calculate the approximate tearing resistance of a single sheet. It is not suitable for single-ply tear testing; a separate method for single-ply tear will be available.

Tensile properties of paper and paperboard

Tensile properties of paper and paperboard
References Standard: TAPPI T494
ISO 1924--2
Test Description: Tensile strength is indicative of the strength derived from factors such as fiber strength, fiber length, and bonding. For quality control purposes, tensile strength has been used as an indication of the serviceability of many papers which are subjected to a simple and direct tensile stress. Tensile strength can also be used as an indication of the potential resistance to web breaking of papers such as printing papers during printing on a web-fed press or other web fed converting operations.

Sheet Size Precision

Sheet Size Precision
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: Sheet Size Precision assesses the amount of dimensional variation of cut sheet paper within a ream. A ream of paper is aligned on a long and short edge using a paper jogger. Short and long samples are extracted from the aligned ream and measured optically with the ImageXpert scanning system. Per the RIT test method.

Ream Sheet Count

Ream Sheet Count
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: The number of sheets within a ream

Perforation / Fold

Perforation / Fold
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: the ability of the pages to be separated (cross page perforation tearing), as well as the ease and cleanliness of the removal of the tractor feed strips on either side of the page

Surface strength of paper (wax pick test)

Surface strength of paper (wax pick test)
References Standard: TAPPI T 459
Test Description: Many printing and converting operations require the surfaces of the paper to have sufficient z-direction strength to give satisfactory results. Since no absolute values are obtained with this method, test results should be correlated with the actual performance of the material during the subsequent coating, converting, printing or packaging operation

Print Quality Evaluation

CRI ( Contrast Resolution Index) Density, Tone Value Change (TVC)

CRI ( Contrast Resolution Index) Density, Tone Value Change (TVC)
References Standard: ISO 13656
ASTM F1206-94
Test Description: The density and background image quality is particularly significant relative to aesthetic appearance, the visual impression of blackness, and the ability to distinguish information from the background.

Registration / Fan Out

Registration / Fan Out
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: Proper registration is achieved when each color image is placed in relationship to each other in alignment circumferential and laterally to the printing direction. The human eye can typically resolve 0.1 mm (.004 in.) at a normal reading distance of about 12 inches. All colors should maintain registration within ±.05 mm (± .002 in.).

Hard Crease

Hard Crease
References Standard: ASTM F1351
Test Description: As a comparative test, this practice can be used to determine the damage caused by creasing paper, that is, damage to paper, coatings or images affixed to the paper and the loss of image quality and legibility that can result from creasing.

Ink Strike Through ( IST )

Ink Strike Through ( IST )
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: When the ink printed on one side of the sheet penetrates the paper and is visible on the other side due to ink problems. It differs from show-through where the problem results from lack of opacity in the paper. Also referred to as bleed through.

Ink Trapping

Ink Trapping
References Standard: ISO 13656
Test Description: The overlapping of adjoining colors or ink to help prevent the possibility of a fine white area showing between colors due to misregistration of color negatives or due to normal variations on the press.

Line Raggedness

Line Raggedness
References Standard: ISO 13660
Test Description: The appearance of geometric distortion of an edge from its ideal position. A ragged edge appears rough or wavy rather than smooth or straight. The measure of raggedness is the standard deviation of the residuals from a line fitted to the edge threshold of the line (calculated perpendicular to the fitted line).

Line Bleed

Line Bleed
References Standard: ISO 13660
Test Description: Bleed occurs when one color wicks, or migrates, into an adjacent color. Bleed reported “Line Growth" is the difference in line width between a four-pixel line printed with no adjacent color, and a four-pixel line printed into an adjacent color. A positive “Line Growth" number is a larger line width in an adjacent color

Mid Tone Print Mottle

Mid Tone Print Mottle
References Standard: ISO 13660
Test Description: Aperiodic fluctuations of density at a spatial frequency less than 0,4 cycles per millimeter in all directions. The measure of mottle across the ROI is the standard deviation of the mi, where mi, is the average of density measurements within tile i.

Pick Count

Pick Count
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: Ink pick on paper is the damage of the paper surface caused during printing: the damage may be coating or fiber lift. When the printing form is lifted off the paper, the ink exerts a force on the paper.

Specular gloss of paper and paperboard at 75 degrees

Specular gloss of paper and paperboard at 75 degrees
References Standard: TAPPI T480
Test Description: This method is for measuring the specular gloss of paper at 75° (15° from the plane of the paper). Although its chief application is to coated papers (1), it is also used for a variety of uncoated papers. This method is widely used as a partial measure of the surface quality and shiny appearance of coated paper.

Solid Print Mottle

Solid Print Mottle
References Standard: ISO 13660
Test Description: Mottle is the fluctuation of density within a solid area of a single color and is characterized by a blotchy, uneven appearance in solid areas. This fluctuation is typically due to ink/media interactions.

Abrasion Resistance of Printed Materials by the Sutherland Rub Tester

Abrasion Resistance of Printed Materials by the Sutherland Rub Tester
References Standard: ASTM D5264
Test Description: Abrasion resistance is a desirable and sometimes critical property of printed materials. Abrasion damage can occur during shipment, storage, handling, and end use. The result is a significant decrease in product appearance and legibility of product information. The amount of abrasion damage to a printed substrate is dependent on shipping conditions, possibly temperature and humidity, time, and many other variables. This practice provides a way of comparing abrasion resistance of printed materials under laboratory conditions.

Abrasion Resistance of Images Produced from Copiers and Printers (Taber Method)

Abrasion Resistance of Images Produced from Copiers and Printers (Taber Method)
References Standard: ASTM F1478
Test Description: This test method may be used to determine image resistance to damage or deterioration as a result of exposure to abrasive forces, such as automated document handling devices

Dry Time

Dry Time
References Standard: ASTM F2498 - 05 (inkjet)
ASTM D5909 - 96a (Litho Inks)
Test Description: Procedure for assessing the drying time of black and white or color images produced by inkjet printers by smudging. Procedure for determining the drying time of oxidative-drying printing inks (also referred to as “sheet-fed inks")

Color Spectrum (Gamut or Chroma)

Color Spectrum (Gamut or Chroma)
References Standard: ASTM F1206
Test Description: This test method is used to evaluate the color output capability of color printer/plotters or copiers. The color copy, print, or plot is measured such that the results can be correlated to human color vision

Measurement of Curl in Cut-Sized Office Paper

Measurement of Curl in Cut-Sized Office Paper
References Standard: ASTM D4825
Test Description: Curl in cut sized paper plays an important part in how paper performs in its intended use. Frequently cut-sized papers are used in duplicators and copy machines operating at high speeds. Inherent curl, that is, curl in the ream before entering the process and curl developed during the imaging process, can affect its performance, especially if duplexing (two-sided printing) or collating is involved. Common problems experienced include jamming and misregistration.

Runnability

Runnability
References Standard: RIT / Test Method
DIN EN 12281
Test Description: Printers are set up to the manufacturer’s specifications prior to printing the sample media. Each media type is evaluated for paper jam rate. Jamming problems from friction, stiffness, curl, smoothness and resistively may be observed when running specific media for extended periods of time

Adhesion by Tape Test

Adhesion by Tape Test
References Standard: ASTM D 3359 (laminate)
ASTM F2252 -03 (printed)
Test Description: If a coating is to fulfill its function of protecting or decorating a substrate, it must adhere to it for the expected service life. Because the substrate and its surface preparation (or lack of it) have a drastic effect on the adhesion of coatings, a method to evaluate adhesion of a coating to different substrates or surface treatments, or of different coatings to the same substrate and treatment, is of considerable usefulness in the industry"

Background

Background
References Standard: ISO 13660
Test Description: The copy image quality is affected by many factors; including the copier, supplies, and environmental conditions. The density and background image quality is particularly significant relative to aesthetic appearance, the visual impression of blackness, and the ability to distinguish information from background.

Highlighter smear

Highlighter smear
References Standard: ASTM F1857
Test Description: The evaluation objective is to measure the ink smear resistance to the ordinary office highlighter pen. The optical density of the highlighter mark is measured before and after running through a known size ink square. The difference is recorded as the delta in optical density.

Ink & Toner Testing

Toner Particle Size Index

Toner Particle Size Index
References Standard: ASTM F577
Test Description: This test is useful in determining particle size characteristics of dry toners used in electrostatic imaging devices such as copiers and laser printers. It is a practiced method for use in quality control of toner particle size

Color and Transparency of ink sets

Color and Transparency of ink sets
References Standard: ISO 2846
Test Description: Colorimetric conformance is verified by printing each ink on the reference substrate at a range of colorations obtained by varying the extension of the press-ready ink. The colors of the resultant test prints are measured and the color difference determined between the sample and the pertinent value given. If at least one of these samples has a smaller color difference than that specified the ink conforms colorimetrically

Color Strength and Shade

Color Strength and Shade
References Standard: ASTM D 2066-078
Test Description: Tinting strength is an essential property of printing ink dispersions. Although test results on wet draw-downs and tints do not guarantee equivalency of dry printed ink films, they provide useful parameters for quality assurance of established formulations, gaging relative degree of dispersion, and estimating the color value of colorants from different batches, sources, or grades

Water Pickup of Lithographic Printing Inks and Vehicles in a Laboratory Mixer

Water Pickup of Lithographic Printing Inks and Vehicles in a Laboratory Mixer
References Standard: ASTM D 4942
Test Description: The lithographic printing process requires that some dampening solution is emulsified into the ink. These test methods provide a rapid means for determining water pickup under laboratory conditions. Test results may be useful for specification acceptance between the supplier and the customer.

Ink Grind

Ink Grind
References Standard: ASTM D 1316
Test Description: Oversize particles in a printing ink may damage a printing plate, plug a cell, clog a nozzle and adversely affect the appearance of printed ink films. Fineness of grind measurements are useful for deciding when to stop the dispersion process and for determining if the test material meets specifications as agreed upon between the supplier and the customer.

Ink Tack

Ink Tack
References Standard: ASTM D 4361
Test Description: Tack of printing inks controls their high-speed transfer properties, as manifested by throughput in roll milling, picking of paper during printing, and wet trapping in multicolor printing. Although an apparent tack measurement does not completely predict the transfer performance of an ink or a vehicle, it provides a meaningful parameter for quality control, development, and research.

Viscosity

Viscosity
References Standard: ISO 12634
Test Description: The degree to which ink resists flow when it is under force, such as in the roller train of a printing press. If ink does not flow easily, it has a high viscosity, and if it flows easily, its viscosity is low.

Set Time of Ink to Media

Set Time of Ink to Media
References Standard: RIT Test Method
Test Description: A measure of the rate of ink absorption into a substrate to the point at which no image transfer, smear, or surface damage occurs when in contact with another surface.

Imaging Product Testing

Determine page yield of a control cartridge(s) and a test cartridge(s)

Determine page yield of a control cartridge(s) and a test cartridge(s).
References Standard: ASTM F1856
Test Description: This practice can be used for the evaluation of new and remanufactured toner cartridges and their respective components used in an electrophotographic process.

Determine page yield of toner cartridges

Determine page yield of toner cartridges
References Standard: ISO/IEC 19752 (mono)
ISO 19798 (color)
Test Description: Evaluation of toner cartridge yield for toner containing cartridges (i.e. all-in-one toner cartridges and toner cartridges without a photo-conductor) for monochrome and color electrophotographic printers.

Environmental Testing

Water fastness of Images Produced by Ink Jet Printers

Water fastness of Images Produced by Ink Jet Printers
References Standard: ASTM F2292
Test Description: This procedure may be used to determine how water will affect solid-fill color images produced by ink jet printers.

Light Fastness

Light Fastness
References Standard: ISO 12040
ASTM F2366
Test Description: Resistance of the substrate and/or print to the effects of a fixed light source (filtered xenon arc light) without direct influence from the weather.

High Temperature

High Temperature
References Standard: MIL-STD 810E
Method No. 502.3 Procedure 1 (storage),
at +48.8ºC for 72 hours.
Test Description: High-Temperature chamber tests are performed to determine if a material can be stored, manipulated, and operated under pertinent low-temperature conditions without experiencing physical damage or deterioration in performance.

Low Temperature

Low Temperature
References Standard: per MIL-STD 810E
Method No. 502.3 Procedure 1 (storage),
at –34.4ºC for a period of 72 hours
Test Description:

Low-Temperature chamber tests are performed to determine if a material can be stored, manipulated, and operated under pertinent low-temperature conditions without experiencing physical damage or deterioration in performance.

Temperature/Humidity

Temperature/Humidity
References Standard: MIL-STD 810E
Method No. 507.3 Procedure 1,
for a steady state condition of +30ºC and 90% RH for 72 hours
Test Description: Temp/Hum chamber tests are performed to determine if a material can be stored, manipulated, and operated under pertinent low-temperature conditions without experiencing physical damage or deterioration in performance.

Altitude

Altitude
References Standard: MIL-STD-810E
Method No. 500.3 Procedure I,
for a simulated altitude of 15,000 feet for a period of 3 hours
Test Description: Altitude chamber tests are performed to determine if a material can be stored, manipulated, and operated under pertinent low-temperature conditions without experiencing physical damage or deterioration in performance.
not a trap