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Definitions, References, Resources

Psychophysiological Self-Regulation

Psychophysiological Self-Regulation refers to one's innate ability to alter physiological processes by using psychological processes. While this occurs naturally in all of us — when we take deep breaths to calm down, when we concentrate on a sensation and change it — it does not necessarily occur intentionally or consciously and is commonly not practiced. Strategies such as hypnosis, biofeedback, meditation, yoga and others offer opportunities to build skills and refine our abilities to change our physiology. Hypnosis and biofeedback in particular are good fits into conventional healthcare.


Hypnosis carries with it a large number of misconceptions that are perpetuated both by its portrayal in the media, by entertainers and in the occult. Unfortunately there is no consensual professional definition of hypnosis. For the purpose of the Center for Applied Psychophysiology and Self-regulation, hypnosis, used clinically, may be defined as a skill set, employing expectancy, motivation, careful observation and therapeutic communication that assists a person to achieve a state of intensified concentration for the purpose of altering a maladaptive set of behaviors, thought patterns and, importantly, psychophysiological reflexes including, but not limited to, anxiety responses, pain, inflammation, problems with sleep, movement and elimination. It can also be used to maximize performance and gain insight.


Biofeedback refers to the use of any device (mechanical, chemical or electronic) to measure and reflect back (or feed back) physiological (biological) information for the purpose of changing the psychophysiological process that produces that information. A mirror is a simple biofeedback device. When we look at it we change our facial expression reflexively. We can use it to practice forming a facial expression, but to do so we need to find the inner state that underlies that expression. Similarly, we can monitor sweat gland activity, heart rate and breathing which are proxies for our autonomic nervous system, setting the basis for feelings, perception, thinking and behavior and thereby learn to adjust our internal state. While one can use hypnosis without biofeedback, there is no such thing as biofeedback without a hypnotic or trance experience.

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders are more common in the pediatric population than are some better known disorders such as diabetes, spinal bifida, or Down syndrome. A recent study of a U.S. metropolitan area estimated that 3.4 of every 1,000 children 3-10 years old had autism. The earlier the disorder is diagnosed, the sooner the child can be helped through treatment interventions. Pediatricians, family physicians, daycare providers, teachers, and parents may initially dismiss signs of ASD, optimistically thinking the child is just a little slow and will "catch up."

All children with ASD demonstrate deficits in 1) social interaction, 2) verbal and nonverbal communication, and 3) repetitive behaviors or interests. In addition, they will often have unusual responses to sensory experiences, such as certain sounds or the way objects look. Each of these symptoms runs the gamut from mild to severe. They will present in each individual child differently. For instance, a child may have little trouble learning to read but exhibit extremely poor social interaction. Each child will display communication, social, and behavioral patterns that are individual but fit into the overall diagnosis of ASD.

Children with ASD do not follow the typical patterns of child development. In some children, hints of future problems may be apparent from birth. In most cases, the problems in communication and social skills become more noticeable as the child lags further behind other children the same age. Some other children start off well enough. Oftentimes between 12 and 36 months old, the differences in the way they react to people and other unusual behaviors become apparent. Some parents report the change as being sudden, and that their children start to reject people, act strangely, and lose language and social skills they had previously acquired. In other cases, there is a plateau, or leveling, of progress so that the difference between the child with autism and other children the same age becomes more noticeable.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Repetitive behaviors such as handwashing, counting, checking, or cleaning are often performed with the hope of preventing obsessive thoughts or making them go away. Performing these so-called "rituals," however, provides only temporary relief, and not performing them markedly increases anxiety. People with OCD may be plagued by persistent, unwelcome thoughts or images, or by the urgent need to engage in certain rituals. They may be obsessed with germs or dirt, and wash their hands over and over. They may be filled with doubt and feel the need to check things repeatedly.

Autonomic Nervous System

What is the Autonomic Nervous System? Check out this information from the American Heart Association.

The references document uses of hypnosis and biofeedback in the care of young people:

Core Texts

Andreassi J. Psychophysiology, 5th ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, 2009.

Cacioppo JT Tassinary LG Berntson GG. Handbook of psychophysiology Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.

Kohen, DP, Olness, KN. Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy with Children, 4th edition, 2011.

Wester, WC and Sugarman LI (eds): Therapeutic Hypnosis with Children and Adolescents Crown House Publishing, Wales. 2007

Schwartz MS Andrasik F. Biofeedback: a practitioner's guide. 2nd ed. Guilford Publishing, New York, 2003

Yapko MD. Trancework: An Introduction to the Practice of Clinical Hypnosis (3d ed). Brunner/Routledge, New York, 2003.

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Anxiety and Stress

*Alkon, A., Goldstein, LH, Snider, N, Essex, MJ, Kupfer, DJ, Boyce, WT. Developmental and contextual influences on autonomic reactivity in young children. Dev. Psychobiol. 42:64-78, 2003..

Asmundson, G. & Katz, J. Understanding the co-cccurrence of anxiety disorders and chronic pain: State-of-the-art. Depression and Anxiety, 26: 888-901, 2009.

**Barlow, B. Anxiety and Its Disorder: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic: The Origins of Anxious Apprehension, Anxiety Disorders, and Related Emotional Disorders. Guilford Press, 2002.

*Bell, MA & Deater-Deckard, K. Biological systems and the development of self-regulation: Integrating behavior, genetics, and psychophysiology. J Dev Behav Pediatr 28: 409-420, 2007.

Boyce, WT, Barr, RG, & Zelter, L. Temperament and the Psychobiology of Childhood Stress. Pediatrics, 90: 483-486, 1992.

Boyce, WT, Barr, RG, & Zeltzer, LK. Collection of Papers from the William T. Grant Foundation Research Consortium on the Developmental Psychobiology of Stress. Pediatrics Supplement 90: September, 1992.

Boyce, WT, Chesney, M, Alkon, A, Tschann, J, Adams, S, Chesterman, B, Cohen, F, Kaiser, P, Folkman, S, & Wara, D. Psychobiologic Reactivity to stress and Childhood Respiratory Illnesses: Results of Two Prospective Studies. Psychosomatic Medicine 57: 411-422, 1995.

*Boyce, WT, Quas, J, Alkon, A, Smider, N, Essex, M, Kupfer, D. Autonomic Reactivity and Psychopathology in Middle Childhood. British J. Psychiatry 179: 144-150, 2001.

Carson, DK & Bittner, MT. Temperament and school-aged children's coping abilities and responses to rtress. J. Genetic Psychology 155: , 1994.

Chansky, T. Freeing Your Child From Negative Thinking. De Capo Press, 2008.

Chavira, DA, Garland, AF, Daley, S, & Hough, R. The Impact of medical comorbidity on mental health and functional health outcomes among children with anxiety disorders. JDBP 29: 394-402, 2008.

Chorpita, B. (2007). Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Guilford Press.

*Chorpita, B. Ch. 6: Control and the development of negative emotion, In The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety. (Eds.) M.V. Vasey & M.R. Dadds. Oxford, 2001.

Cyr, L.R., Culbert, T., & Kaiser, P. Helping children with stress and anxiety: An integrative medicine approach. Biofeedback 31, 12-17, Spring, 2003.

Dadds, M.R & Roth, J.H. Ch. 13: Family processes in the development of anxiety problems, In The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety. (Eds.) M.V. Vasey & M.R. Dadds. Oxford, 2001.

Grant, K.E., Compas, B., Thurm, A., McMahon, S., & Gipson, P. Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Measurement issues and prospective effects. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 33, 412-425, 2004.

Hirshfeld-Becker, DR, Micco, JA, Simoes, NA, Henin,A. High-risk studies and developmental antecedents of anxiety disorders. Am. J. Med. Genetics Part C (Semin Med. Genetics), 148C: 99-117, 2008.

Huynh, ME, Vandvik, IH, Diseth, TH. Hypnotherapy in child psychiatry: The state of the art. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13:377-393, 2008.

Jemerin, J & Boyce, WT. Psychobiological differences in childhood stress response. II. Cardiovascular markers of vulnerability. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 11, 140-150, June, 1990.

McNally, RT. Anxiety sensitivity and panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry 52: 938-946, 2002.

LaMontagne,LL. Issues in the measurement of children's locus of control. Western J. Nsg. Research, 13, 67-83, 1991.

Nassau, J. Relaxation training and biofeedback in the treatment of childhood anxiety. The Brown University Child and adolescent Behavior Letter, 23: December, 2007.

Pfefferbaum B (Ed). Stress in children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of N. America. 7:1 W B Saunders, Philadelphia, 1998.

Porges, SW. Vagal Tone: A Physiological marker of stress vulnerability. Pediatrics 90: 498-504, 1992.

Quas, JA, Muraowchick, E, Bensadoun, J, Boyce, WT. Predictors of children's cortisol activation during the transition to kindergarten. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics23: 304-313, 2002.

Silverman, W.K. & Ollendick, T.H. Evidence-based assessment of anxiety and Its disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 34, 380-411, 2005.

Spokas, M. & Heimberg, RG. Overprotective parenting, social anxiety and external locus of control: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 543-551, Dec. 2009.

Suveg, C & Zeman, J. Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 33, 750-759, 2004.

Tschann, J., Kaiser, P., Boyce, W.T., Chesney, M.A., & Alkon-Leonard, A. Resilience and vulnerability among preschoolers: Family functioning, temperament, and behavior problems. J. Ch.& Adol. Psychiatry, 35:184-192, 1996.

Wheatcroft, R & Creswell, C. Parents' cognitions and expectations about their pre-school children: The contribution of parental anxiety and child anxiety. British J. Devel. Psych. 25, 435-441, 2007

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Biofeedback + Hypnosis/Integrative Pediatrics

Culbert, T. Biofeedback with Children and Adolescents. In Schaefer, C (ed). Innovative Psychotherapy Techniques in Child and Adolescent Therapy. 2nd edition. New York, Jon Wiley and Sons. 1999.

Culbert T, Banez G. Wetting the Bed: Integrative Approaches to Nocturnal Enuresis. 2008. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. May 2008 in press

Culbert T, Banez G. Integrative Approaches to Childhood Constipation and Encopresis. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 54(6). Pp 927-948, 2007.

Culbert T, Banez G and Reiff M. Children Who Have Attentional Disorders: Interventions. Pediatrics in Review. 15(1). Pp 5-15. 1994.

Culbert, T and Banez, G. Pediatric Applications of Biofeedback Other than Headache. In Schwartz, M and Andrasik, F (eds). Biofeedback: A Practitioners Guide. 3rd edition. New York, Guilford Press. 2003.

Culbert, T. Friedrichsdorf, S and Kuttner, L . Mind/Body Skills for Children in Pain. In Rice,Warfield, Justins and Eccleston (eds). Clinical Pain Management: Practical Applications and Procedures. London, Arnold Publishers. 2008

Culbert, T and Kajander, R. 3 booklets: Be the Boss of Your Pain: Self-Care for Kids. Be the Boss of Your Sleep: Self-Care for Kids. Be the Boss of Your Stress: Self-Care for Kids. Minneapolis, MN. FreeSpirit Press. 2007

Culbert, T and Kajander, R. Be Fit Be Strong Be You. Minneapolis, MN. FreeSpirit Publishing. 2010.

Culbert TP Kajander RL Reaney JB: Biofeedback with children and adolescents: clinical observations and patient perspectives. J Dev Behav Pediatr 17:342-350, 1996.

Culbert T, Kajander R and Reaney J (eds). Pediatric Integrative Medicine. (Entire Issue). Biofeedback Newsmagazine of the AAPB. Spring 2003.

Culbert T, Kajander R and Reaney J (eds). Pediatric Biofeedback. (Entire Issue) Biofeedback Newsmagazine of the AAPB. Volume 26(3). Fall 1998.

Culbert T, Kajander R and Reaney J. Biofeedback with Children and Adolescents: Clinical Observations and Patient Perspectives. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.17(5),Pp 342-350. 1996

Culbert T, Kajander R, Kohen D, and Reaney J. Hypnobehavioral Approaches for School-Age Children with Dysphagia and Food Aversion. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.17(5),Pp 1996

**Culbert, T, Olness, K. (eds). Integrative Pediatrics. Integrative Medicine Library:(Senior Editor Andrew Weil, MD). New York. Oxford University Publishing. In press March 2009.

Culbert T, Reaney J and Kohen D. Cyberphysiologic Strategies for Children: The Clinical Hypnosis/Biofeedback Interface. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. Pp- 97-117. 1994.

Culbert T and Richtsmeier Cyr, L (eds). Pediatric Mind/Body Medicine: The Hypnosis/Biofeedback Interface. (Entire Issue). Biofeedback Newsmagazine of the AAPB. Summer 2005

Dikel W & Olness K: Self hypnosis, biofeedback, and voluntary peripheral temperature control in children. Pediatrics 66:335-340, 1980.

Lee LH Olness KN: Effects of self-induced mental imagery on autonomic reactivity in children. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 17(5):323-327, 1996.

Olness KN (guest ed). Biofeedback Therapy. Pediatr Ann 20:113-156, 1991.

Plotnikoff G, Kemper K, Culbert T. Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies. In Pediatric Primary Care, 5th Edition. Elk Grove Village, IL American Academy of Pediatrics. 2008

Reiff M, Banez G and Culbert T. Children Who Have Attentional Disorders: Diagnosis and Evaluation. Pediatrics in Review. 14(2),Pp 455-465. 1993.

Shaffer, F. & Moss, D. Biofeedback.. In C.-S. Yuan, EJ Bieber, & BA Bauer (Eds), Textbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2nd ed.). Taylor and Francis. 2005.

Sussman, D and Culbert, T. Pediatric Self-Regulation. In Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. 4th edition. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, in press 2009

Spies, G. Desensitization of test anxiety: Hypnosis compared with biofeedback. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22, 108-111, October, 1979.

Sugarman LI: Hypnosis and biofeedback, in Hoekelman RA, Friedman SR, Nelson NM, Seidel HM, Weitzman ML, eds., Primary Pediatric Care, ed 4, Mosby Year Book, St Louis, 2000.

Sussman, D and Culbert, T. Pediatric Self-regulation. In Levine, Crocker, Carey (eds). Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. 3rd edition. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1999.

Vohra S, Kemper K, Walls R & The AAP Task for on Complementary an Alternative Medicine (Culbert T). Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pediatric Practice. Pediatrics. January 2009

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Cancer / Terminal Illness / Palliative Care (see H/A's)

Dufresne A, Dugas MA, Samson Y, Barré P, Turcot L, Marc I. Do children undergoing cancer procedures under pharmacological sedation still report pain and anxiety? A preliminary study. Pain Med. 11(2):215-23, 2010.

Friedrichsdorf, S.J., Kuttner, L., Westendorp, K., & McCarty, R. Integrative Pediatric Palliative Care. In T. Culbert, K. Olness (Eds.), Integrative Pediatrics p. 569-593. London: Oxford University Press, 2010.

* Kuttner, L. Pain - an integrative approach. In: A Goldman, R. Hain, & S. Liben (Eds.), Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children. New York: Oxford University Press, p.332-341 2006.

* Kuttner, L. Talking with families when their child is dying. Medical Principles and Practice, 16, 16-20, 2007

Kuttner, L. Hypnosis and Palliative Care In: W. Wester & L. Sugarman (Eds) Therapeutic Hypnosis with Children and Adolescents. Crown House Publishing CT USA, p.453-466, 2007.

Kuttner, L and Culbert, T. Hypnosis, Biofeedback and Self-regulation Skills for Children in Pain. In Rice, Warfield, Justins and Eccleston (eds). Clinical Pain Management: Practical Applications and Procedures. London, Arnold Publishers. 2002.

Zeltzer L, LeBaron S. Hypnosis and nonhypnotic techniques for reduction of pain and anxiety during painful procedures in children and adolescents with cancer. J Pediatr 101(6):1032-5, 1982.

Zeltzer LK Kellerman J (eds): Psychological Aspects of Childhood Cancer. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois pp. 70-99, 1980.

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Chronic Illness

Anbar RD. Self-hypnosis for patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulm 30:461-465, 2000.

Anbar RD. Self-hypnosis for management of chronic dyspnea in pediatric patients. Pediatrics 107:395-396:e21, 2001.

Anbar RD. Self-hypnosis for anxiety associated with severe asthma: a case report. BMC Pediatrics. 2003;3:7.

Bauman LJ Drotar D Leventhal JM Perring EC Pless IB. A review of psychosocial interventions for children with chronic health conditions. Pediatrics 100:244-251, 1997.

Gardner GG. Childhood, death and human dignity: hypnotherapy for David. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 24:122-139, 1976.

Hackman RM Stern JS Gershwin ME. Hypnosis and asthma: a critical review. J Asthma 37:1-15, 2000.

Jacknow DS Tschann JM Link MP Boyce WT. Hypnosis in the prevention of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in children: A Prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr 15:258-264, 1994.

Jacobs E Pelier E Larkin D: Ericksonian hypnosis and approaches with pediatric hematology oncology patients. Am J Clin Hypn 41:139-154, 1998.

Kohen DP. Relaxation/Mental imagery (self-hypnosis) for childhood asthma: behavioral outcomes in a prospective, controlled study. Hypnos 22:132-143, 1995.

Kohen DP. Teaching children with asthma to help themselves with relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis). In Matthews WJ Edgette JH (eds.) Current Thinking and Research in Brief Therapy: Solutions, Strategies, Narratives. pp: 169-191, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1997.

Kohen DP Wynne E. Applying hypnosis in a preschool family asthma education program: Uses of storytelling, imagery and relaxation. Am J Clin Hypn 39:2-14, 1997.

LaBaw WL et al: The Use of self-hypnosis by children with cancer. Am J Clin Hypn 17:233-238, 1975.

Labaw WL. Auto-hypnosis in hemophilia. Haematologia 9:103-110, 1975.

Linden,J. (1996). Trauma Prevention: Hypnoidal Techniques with the Chronically Ill Child. In Munich Lectures on Hypnosis and Psychotherapy, Eds. Peter, B. et al. Hypnosis International Monographs Number 2, MEG: Germany, pp. 15-26 and in Hypnos, Ed. Wikstrom, P.O.,xxiii,2,1996, pp.65-75.

NIH Technology Assessment Panel on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into the treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia, JAMA, 276 (4):313-318. 1996.

Olness KN: Imagery (self-hypnosis) as adjunctive therapy in childhood cancer: Clinical experience with 25 patients. Am J Pediatr Hem/Onc 3:313-321, 1981.

Vlieger A, Menko-Frankenhuis C, Walfkamp SCS, Tromp E & Benninga M. Hypnotherapy for Children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 133,5,1430-1436, November 2007

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Kohen, D.P. and Murray, K. "Depression in Children and Youth: Applications of Hypnosis to Help Young People Help Themselves" in Yapko, MD (ed) Applying Hypnosis in Treating Depression: Innovations in Clinical Practice Routledge Press, New York. (pp 189-216), 2006.

Kohen, D.P. Depression. Ch. 9, 179-198. In W.C. Wester and L.I. Sugarman (Eds) Therapeutic Hypnosis with Children and Adolescents. Bancyfelin, Carmarthen, Wales, UK: Crown House Publishing, 2007.

Yapko, MD. Treating Depression With Hypnosis: Integrating Cognitive-Behavioral and Strategic Approaches. Brunner-Routledge, New York, 2001.

Yapko, MD (ed) Applying Hypnosis in Treating Depression: Innovations in Clinical Practice Routledge Press, New York, 2006.

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Developmental Considerations

Kuttner L. Managing Children's Pain: "Hello, I'm Dr. Seuss." Contemp Pediatr, 3:14-21, 1992.

Kuttner L. Special considerations for using hypnosis with young children. In Wester W O'Grady D (eds). Clinical Hypnosis for Children. Brunner/Mazel, 1991.

Kuttner L. Helpful strategies in working with preschool children in pediatric practice. Pediatr Annals. 20:3, 120-127, 1991.

Oaklander V. Windows to Our Children. Real People Press, 1978.

Vandenberg B. Hynosis and human development: Interpersonal influence of intrapersonal processes. Child Development. 69:1, 262-267, 1998.

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Eating & G-I Conditions

Anbar RD and Savedoff AD. Treatment of binge eating with automatic word processing and self-hypnosis: a case report Am J Clin Hypnosis. 2005; 48:184-191.

Ball, TM et al. A pilot study of the use of guided imagery for the treatment of recurrent adcominal pain in children. Clin Pediatrr 42: 527-532, 2003.

Gonsalkorale. WM eta l: Long term benefits of hypnostherapy for irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 52: 1623-1629, 2003.

Vlieger, A. M., Menko–Frankenhuis, C., & Wolfkamp, S. C. S. Hypnotherapy for children with functional abdominal pain or Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology, 133, 1430-1436, 2007.

Whorwell PJ etal. Controlled trial of hypnotherapy in the treatment of severe refractory irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 2: 1232-34, 1984.

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Elimination Disorders

Banerjee S Srivastav A Palan BM. Hypnosis and self-hypnosis in the management of nocturnal enuresis: A comparative study with imipramine therapy. Am J Clin Hypn 28:163-169, 1993.

Butler LD, Symons BK, Henderson SL, Shortliffe LD, Spiegel D. Hypnosis reduces distress and duration of an invasive medical procedure for children. Pediatrics 2005;115(1):e77-85.

Edwards SD Van Der Spuy HI: Hypnotherapy as a treatment for enuresis. J Child Psychology Psychiatry 26:161-170, 1985.

Gottsegen, D. N. Curing bedwetting on the spot: a review of one-session cures. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 42:273-275, 2003.

Lawless MR, McElderry DH. Nocturnal enuresis: current concepts. Pediatr Rev;22(12):339-407, 2001.

Levine MD. Encopresis: its potentiation, evaluation and alleviation. Pediatr Clin NA 29:315-330, 1982.

Olness K. The use of self-hypnosis in the treatment of childhood nocturnal enuresis. A report on forty patients. Clin Pediatr (Phila);14(3):273-5, 8-9, 1975.

Olness KN. Autohypnosis in functional megacolon in children. Am J Clin Hypn 19:28-32, 1976.

Olness KN et al: Biofeedback: A New modality in the management of children with fecal soiling. J Pediatr 96:505-509, 1980.

Stanton HE. Short-term treatment of enuresis. Am J Clin Hypn 22:103-107, 1979.

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Ericksonian Hypnotherapy

Erickson MH. Naturalistic Techniques of hypnosis. Am J Clin Hypn 2:3-21, 1958.

Erickson MH. Further techniques of hypnosis: utilization techniques. Am J Clin Hypn 2:3-21, 1959.

Gilligan, SG. Therapeutic Trances: the Co-operation Principle in Ericksonian Hypnotherapy. Brunner/Mazel Publishers, New York, 1987

Haley J. Uncommon therapy: the psychiatric techniques of Milton H. Erickson, MD. WW Norton, New York, 1986.

O'Hanlon W.H. Martin M. The Elements of solution-oriented hypnosis. In Solution-Oriented Hypnosis. (pp: 1-43). W.W. Norton, NY. 1992

Rosen, S. My Voice Will Go With You: the Teaching Tales of Milton H. Erickson. W.W.Norton, New York, 1982.

Rossi, EL. Innovative Hypnotherapy (Volume IV of the Collected Papers of Milton H. Erickson). Irvington Publishers, New York 1980.

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Anbar RD. User friendly hypnosis as an adjunct for treatment of habit cough: a case report. Am J Clin Hypn. 2007 Oct: 50(2):171-5.

Anbar RD and Hall HR. Childhood Habit Cough treated with self-hypnosis. J Pediatrics 144:213-7, 2004

Gardner GG: Hypnotherapy in the management of childhood habit disorders. J Pediatr 92:834, 1978.

Kohen DP. Management of trichotillomania with relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis): Experience with five children. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 17:5, 328-334, October, 1996.

Kohen DP. Applications of relaxation and mental imagery (self-hypnosis) for habit problems. Pediatr Ann 20(3):136-144, 1991.

Kohen DP Botts P. Relaxation-Imagery (self-hypnosis) in Tourette syndrome: Experience with four children. Am J Clin Hypn 29:227-237, 1987.

Shenefelt PD. Using hypnosis to facilitate resolution of psychogenic excoriations in acne excoriee. Am J Clin Hypn. 2004 Jan:46(3):239-45.

Thomson L. Hypnosis for habit disorders. Helping children help themselves. Adv Nurse Pract. 2002 Jul;10(7):59-62.

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Headaches (H/A)

Olness K, Hall H, Rozniecki JJ, Schmidt W, Theoharides TC. Mast Cell Activation in Children With Migraine Before and After Training in Self-regulation. Headache:39(2):101-7, 1999.

Guarnieri P, Blanchard EB. Evaluation of home-based thermal biofeedback treatment of pediatric migraine headache. Biofeedback Self Regul:;15(2):179-84, 1990.

Fentress DW, Masek BJ, Mehegan JE, Benson H. Biofeedback and relaxation-response training in the treatment of pediatric migraine. Dev Med Child Neurol;28(2):139-46, 1986.

Fichtel A, Larsson B. Does relaxation treatment have differential effects on migraine and tension type headache in adolescents? Headache;41(3):290-6, 2001.

Hermann C, Kim M, Blanchard EB. Behavioral and prophylactic pharmacological intervention studies of pediatric migraine: an exploratory meta-analysis. Pain:60(3):239-55, 1995.

Holden EW, Deichmann MM, Levy JD. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: recurrent pediatric headache. J Pediatr Psychol. 24(2):91-109, 1999.

*Kohen DP. Long-term follow-up of self-hypnosis training for recurrent headaches: What the children say. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 58(4):417-32, 2010.

Kohen, DP and Zajac, R. "Self-Hypnosis Training for Headaches in Children and Adolescents" Journal of Pediatrics 150:635-9, June, 2007.

Labbe EL, Williamson DA. Treatment of childhood migraine using autogenic feedback training. J Consult Clin Psychol:52(6):968-76, 1984.

McGrath PJ, Humphreys P, Goodman JT, Keene D, Firestone P, Jacob P, et al. Relaxation prophylaxis for childhood migraine: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Dev Med Child Neurol:30(5):626-31, 1988.

McGrath PJ, Humphreys P, Keene D, Goodman JT, Lascelles MA, Cunningham SJ, et al. The efficacy and efficiency of a self-administered treatment for adolescent migraine. Pain: 49(3):321-4, 1992.

Olness KN et al: Prospective study comparing propranolol, placebo, and hypnosis in management of juvenile migraine. Pediatrics 79:593-597, 1987

Olness K, MacDonald JT, Uden DL. Comparison of self-hypnosis and propranolol in the treatment of juvenile classic migraine. Pediatrics:79(4):593-7, 1987.

Olness KN MacDonald J: Self-hypnosis and biofeedback in the management of juvenile migraine. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2:168-173, 1981.

Kohen DP, Zajac R. Self-hypnosis training for headaches in children and adolescents. J Pediatr: 150(6):635-9, 2007.

Kohen D. Long-Term Follow-Up of Self-Hypnosis Training for Recurrent Headaches: What the Children Say. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis In Press - 2010(In press).

Sartory G, Muller B, Metsch J, Pothmann R. A comparison of psychological and pharmacological treatment of pediatric migraine. Behav Res Ther;36(12):1155-7, 1998.

Banerjee S, Srivastav A, Palan BM. Hypnosis and self-hypnosis in the management of nocturnal enuresis: a comparative study with imipramine therapy. Am J Clin Hypn;36(2):113-9, 1993.

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Learning and Attention

Baum J. The effect of hypnosis on the motor performance and auditory memory of learning disabled children. Dissertation Abstracts International 48:1825-1826, 1987.

Braud L. The effects of frontal EMG biofeedback and progressive relaxation upon hyperactivity and its behavioral concomitants. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 3:68-89, 1978.

Braud L Lupin M Braud W. The use of electromyographic biofeedback in the control of hyperactivity. Journal of Learning Disabilities 8:21-26, 1975.

Calhoun G Bolton J. Hypnotherapy: a possible alternative for treating pupils afflicted with attention deficit disorder. Perceptual and Motor Skills 63:1191-1195, 1986.

Denkowski K Denkowski G Omizo M. The effect of EMG assisted relaxation training on academic performance, locus of control, and self-esteem of hyperactive boys. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 8:363-375, 1983.

Dunn FM Howell R. Relaxation training and relationship to hyperactivity in boys. J Clinical Psych. 38:92-100, 1982.

Huff P. The use of hypnosis in remediating children diagnosed learning disabled. Dissertation Abstracts International 40:4491, 1980.

Ilovsky J Fredman N. Group suggestions in learning disabilities of primary grade children: a feasibility study. Int J Clin Exper Hypn 24:87-97, 1966.

Jampoisky G Haight M. Hypnosis and sensory motor stimulation to aid children with learning problems. J Learning Disabilities. 3:570-575, 1970.

Jampoisky G Haight M. A special technique for children with reading problems. Academic Therapy 10:333-337, 1975.

Johnson L et al. The use of hypnosis with learning disabled children. J Clin Psych 37:291-299, 1981.

Kendall P Braswell L. Medical applications of cognitive-behavioral interventions with children. Dev Behav Pediatr 7:257-264, 1986.

Krippner S. The use of hypnosis with elementary and secondary school children in a summer reading clinic. Am J Clin Hypn. 8:261-266, 1966.

Lee SW. Biofeedback as a treatment for childhood hyperactivity: a critical review of the literature. Psychological Reports 68:163-192, 1991.

Lubar J Bahler W. Behavioral management of epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the sensorimotot rhythm. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 1:77-104, 1976.

Lubar JF. Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 16:201-226, 1991.

Russel R. The efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of learning problems in children. Internat J Psychosomatics 31:23-32, 1984.

Shuck AU Ludlow BL. The effects of suggestibility on learning by retarded and non-retarded students. Psych Reports 54:663-666, 1984.

Sternlicht M Wanderer ZW. Hypnotic susceptibility and mental deficiency. Int J Clin Exper Hypn 1:104-111, 1963.

Woody RH Billy H. Influencing the intelligence scores of retarded and non-retarded boys with clinical suggestion. Am J Clin Hypn 12:268-271, 1970.

Zipkin D. Relaxation techniques for handicapped children: a review of the literature. J Spec Ed 19:283-289, 1985.

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Metaphors and Stories

Davis, N. Once Upon a Time...Therapeutic Stories to Heal Abused Children (rev.) Oxon Hill, Md: Psychological Associates of Oxon Hill, 1990.

Davis, N. Once Upon a Time...Therapeutic Stories That Teach and Heal. Oxon Hill, Md: Psychological Associates of Oxon Hill, 1996.

Elkins G. My Doctor Does Hypnosis. American Society of Clinical Hypnosis Press. 1997.

Hudson, L. Scripts & Strategies in Hypnotherapy with Children. Crown House Publ. 2009.

Klein, N. Healing Images for children: Teaching Relaxation and Guided Imagery to Children Facing Cancer and Other Serious Illnesses. Watertown, Wisc: Inner Coaching, 1999.

Kohen DP: Hypnosis with Children, in Hammond, DC (Ed) Handbook of Hypnotic Suggestions and Metaphors. W.W. Norton & Co., New York, pp 481-490, 1990.

Lankton, CH & Lankton, SR. Tales of Enchantment: Goal-Riented Metpahros for Adults and Children in Therapy. Brunner/Mazel. 1989.

Mills JC Crowley RJ. Therapeutic Metaphors for Children and the Child Within. Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1986.

Thomson, Linda. Harry Hypno-potamus: Metaphorical Tales for Pediatric Problems. Bancyfelin, Carmarthen, UK: Crown House Publishing, 2005.

Thomson, Linda. Harry Hypno-potamus: More Metaphorical Tales for Pediatric Problems. Vol. 2. Bancyfelin, Carmarthen, UK: Crown House Publishing, 2009.

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Pain (also see Headaches)

Anbar RD. Slef-hypnosis for treatment of functional abdominal pain in childhood. Clin Pediatr 40:447-451, 2001.

Antich JLS. The use of hypnosis in pediatric anesthesia. J Amer Soc Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine. 14:70-73, 1967.

Bernstein NR. Observations on the use of hypnosis with burned children on a pediatric ward. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 13:1-10, 1965.

Bursch B, Zeltzer L, Walco G. Clinical Assessment and Management of Chronic Pain and Pain-Associated Disability Syndrome. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 19:45-53, 1997.

Butler, LD, Symons, BK, Henderson, SL, Shortliffe, LD, & Spiegel, D. Hypnosis Reduces Distress and Duration of an Invasive Medical Procedure for Children. Pediatrics 115: 77-85, 2005.

Chambers CT, Taddio A, Uman LS, McMurtry CM; HELPinKIDS Team Psychological interventions for reducing pain and distress during routine childhood immunizations: a systematic review. Clin Ther. 31 Suppl 2:S77-S103 2009.

Dinges DF, Whitehouse WG, Orne EC, Bloom PB, Carlin MM, Bauer NK, Gillen KA, Shapiro BS, Ohene-Frempong K, Dampier C, Orne MT. Self-hypnosis training as an adjunctive treatment in the management of pain associated with sickle cell disease. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 45(4):417-32, 1997.

Eccleston, C., Palermo TM, Willians AC,Lewandowski, A, Morley S. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD003968., 2009.

Erickson, C. Applications of Cyberphysiologic Techniques in Pain Management, Pediatric Annals 20(3):145-156, 1991.

Erickson C. Hypnoanalgesia in sickle cell anemia (abs), Pediatr Res 29:9, 1991.

Evans S, Tsao JC, Zeltzer LK. Complementary and alternative medicine for acute procedural pain in children. Altern Ther Health Med, 14(5):52-56, 2008.

French GM et al: Blowing away shot pain: A Technique for pain management during immunization. Pediatrics 93:384-390, 1994.

Galili O, Shaoul R, Mogilner J. Treatment of chronic recurrent abdominal pain: laparoscopy or hypnosis? J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A.;19(1):93-6, 2009.

*Hall H, Hypnosis. In S. D. Waldman (Ed.), Pain management. Volume 2. (1021-1024). Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier. 2007.

Kellerman J et al: Adolescents with cancer: Hypnosis for the reduction of the acute pain and anxiety associated with medical procedures. J Adolesc Health Care.

Kuttner L. Favourite stories. A hypnotic pain reduction technique for children in acute pain. Am J Clin Hypn. 30:289-295, 1988.

Kuttner L. Management of young children's acute pain and anxiety during invasive medical procedures. Pediatrician 16:39-45, 1989.

**Kuttner, L. A Child in Pain: What Health Professionals can do to Help. Bath UK. & Connect. USA. Crown House Publishing, 2010

Kuttner L: A Child in Pain: How to Help, What to Do. Hartley & Marks, 1996.

* Kuttner, L. Treating pain, anxiety and sleep disorders with children and adolescents. In D.C. Brown (Ed.), Advances in the use of hypnosis in medicine, dentistry, pain prevention and management. Crown House Publishers, CT USA. 2009.

Lambert SA: The Effects of hypnosis/guided imagery on the postoperative course of children. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 17(5):307-310, 1996.

LeBaron S Hilgard JR: Hypnotherapy of Pain in Children with Cancer. William Kaufmann, Inc. Los Altos, CA, 1984.

Labaw WL. Adjunctively trance therapy with severely burned children. Int J Child Psychotherapy 2:89-92, 1973.

Uman LS, Chambers CT, McGrath PJ, Kisely S. Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD005179 2006

* Uman, L. S., Chambers, C. T., McGrath, P. J., & Kisely, S. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents: An abbreviated cochrane review. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33, 842-854, 2008.

Weld MR Espie CA: The efficacy of hypnosis in the reduction of procedural pain and distress in pediatric oncology: A systematic review. J Dev Behav Pediatr 25:207-213, 2004.

* Wood C., & Bioy, A. Hypnosis and pain in children. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 35, 437-446, 2008. [Good Review of neurobiological hypnosis research]

Zeltzer LK Bursch B Walco G: Pain Responsiveness and Chronic Pain: A Psychobiological Perspective. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 18:413-422, 1997.

Zeltzer LK LeBaron S: Hypnosis and non-hypnotic techniques for reduction of pain and anxiety during painful procedures in children and adolescents with cancer. J Pediatr 101:1032-1035, 1982.

Zeltzer LK Schlank C: Conquering your Child's Chronic Pain. Harper and Collins, 2005.

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Parental Involvement in Hypnosis

Gardner GG: Parents: Obstacles or allies in child hypnotherapy? Am J Clin Hypn 17:44-49, 1974.

Primary Care

Barnes, A.J. and Kohen, D.P. "Clinical Hypnosis as an Effective Adjunct in the Care of Pediatric Inpatients" Journal of Pediatrics pp 563-565, 2006.

Gall JC: The Art of examining a child: Use of naturalistic methods in the pediatric physical examination. Ericksonian Monographs 7:69-75, 1990.

Hall, H. Hypnosis and Pediatrics in Temes, R. (Ed) Medical Hypnosis: An Introduction and Clinical Guide, pp79-93, 1999.

Kuttner, L. CBT and Hypnosis: The Worry-Bug versus The Cake. Contemporary Hypnosis 26(1):60-64, 2009.

Kohen DP Olness KN: Hypnotherapy with Children. In Rhue JW , Lynn SJ, Kirsch I (eds). Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 357-382, 1993.

Kohen DP Olness KN. Self-regulation therapy: helping children to help Gold JI, Kant AJ, Belmont KA, Butler LD. Practitioner review: clinical applications of pediatric hypnosis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry;48(8):744-54, 2007.

**Kohen DP Olness KN Colwell S Heimel A. The Use of relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis) in the management of 505 pediatric behavioral encounters. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1: 21-25, 1984.

**Olness KN Libbey P: Unrecognized biologic bases of behavioral symptoms in patients referred for hypnotherapy. Am J Clin Hyp 30:1, 1987.

Raz, A. & Michels, R. Contextualizing specificity: Specific and non-specific effects of treatment. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis,50:2, October 2007.

Sugarman LI. Hypnosis: teaching children self-regulation. Pediatrics Rev 17:5-10, 1996.

Sugarman LI. Hypnosis in a primary care pediatric practice: developing skills for the new morbidities. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 17:300-306, 1996.

Sugarman LI: Hypnosis: helping children help themselves. Contemp Pediatr, 13:107-123, 1996.

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Professional Training in Hypnosis

Coury DL Berger SP Stancin T Tanner JL. Curricular Guidelines for Residency Training in Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. J Dev Behav Pediatr –Supplement, 20:S1-S38, 1999.

Mize WL. Clinical training in self-regulation and practical pediatric hypnosis: What pediatricians want pediatricians to know. J Dev Behav Pediatr 17:317-327, 1996.

Wark D Kohen DP. (1998). Facilitating facilitator's facilitation: Experience with a model for teaching leaders of hypnosis practice groups. Am J Clin Hypn 41:75-83, 1998.

Yancy WS Coury DL Drotar D et al. Curriculum Guide for Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics by the Curriculum Guideline Committee, Society for Behavioral Pediatrics. J Dev Behav Pediatr –Supplement, December, 1988.

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Hewson-Bower B Drummond PD: Secretory immunoglobulin A increases during relaxation in children with and without recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 17(5):311-316, 1996.

Hall HR et al: Voluntary modulation of neutrophil adhesiveness using a cyberphysiologic strategy. Int J Neurosci 63:287, 1992.

Hall H Minnes L Olness KN. The Psychophysiology of voluntary immunomodulation. Int J Neurosci 69:221-234, 1993.

Olness KN Culbert TC Uden D. Self-regulation of salivary immunoglobulin A by children. Pediatrics 83:66-71, 1989.

Olness K. Pediatric psychoneurimmunology: Hypnosis as a possible mediator: Potentials and problems in Hypnosis: Current Therapy, Research and Practice. VU University Press: Amsterdam, 1990.

Rossi EL. The Psychobiology of Gene Expression: neuroscience and neurogenesis in hypnosis and the healing arts. W.W. Norton, NY . 2002.

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Self Hypnosis

Benson H. Relaxation Response. New York, William Morrow and Co., 1975.

Hammond CD. Manual for Self-Hypnosis. Chicago IL, American Society for Clinical Hypnosis, 1992.

Garfield CA. Peak Performance: Mental training techniques of the worlds greatest athletes. Los Angeles, JP Archer and Co., 1984.

Kabat-Zinn J. Full catastrophe living. New York, Delacorte Press, 1990.

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Seminal Literature & History

Ambrose G. Hypnotherapy with Children (ed 2). Staples, London, 1961.

Andolsek K Novick B. Procedures in family practice: Use of hypnosis with children. J Fam Pract 10:503-507, 1980

Bowers KS. Hypnosis for the seriously curious. WW Norton, New York, 1976.

Brown DP Fromm E. Hypnosis and behavioral medicine. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ:, 1987.

Crasilneck H Hall J. Clinical Hypnosis: principles and applications. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1985.

Erickson MH. Pediatric Hypnotherapy. In J. Haley (ed.) Advanced Techniques of Hypnosis and Therapy: Selected Papers of Milton H. Erickson, MD, Grune and Stratton, New York, NY, pp418-423, 1967.

Gardner GG. Hypnotherapy in the management of childhood habit disorders. J Pediatr 92:834, 1978.

Olness KN Gardner GG: Some guidelines for uses of hypnotherapy in pediatrics. Pediatrics 62:228, 1978.

Olness KN: Hypnosis in pediatric practice. Cur Prob Pediatr 12:1-47, 1981.

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Kohen DP et al. Sleep-terror disorder in children: The Role of self-hypnosis in management. Am J Clin Hypn 34:233-244, 1992.

Tics & Tourette

Azrin NH, Nunn RG. Habit-reversal: a method of eliminating nervous habits and tics. Behav Res Ther;11(4):619-28, 1973.

Bergin A, Waranch HR, Brown J, Carson K, Singer HS. Relaxation therapy in Tourette syndrome: a pilot study. Pediatr Neurol;18(2):136-42, 1998.

Cook CR, Blacher J. Evidence-based Psychosocial Treatments for Tic Disorders. Clinical Psychology;14(3):252-67, 2007.

Culbertson FM. A four-step hypnotherapy model for Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Am J Clin Hypn;31(4):252-6, 1989.

Deckersbach T, Rauch S, Buhlmann U, Wilhelm S. Habit reversal versus supportive psychotherapy in Tourette's disorder: a randomized controlled trial and predictors of treatment response. Behav Res Ther;44(8):1079-90, 2006.

Himle MB, Woods DW, Piacentini JC, Walkup JT. Brief review of habit reversal training for Tourette syndrome. J Child Neurol;21(8):719-25, 2006.

Kohen DP. Coping with the Stress of Tourette Syndrome in children and adolescents: Use of self-hypnosis techniques. Austral J Clin Exper Hypn 23:145-157, 1995.

Kohen DP. Management of trichotillomania with relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis): Experience with five children. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 17:5, 328-334, October, 1996.

Kohen DP. Ericksonian communication and hypnotic strategies in the management of tics and Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. In Lankton SR Zeig JK (eds.) Difficult Contexts for Therapy – Ericksonian Monographs 10:117-142, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1995.

Kohen DP, Botts P. Relaxation-imagery (self-hypnosis) in Tourette syndrome: experience with four children. Am J Clin Hypn;29(4):227-37, 1987.

***Lazarus, J and Klein, S. Non-Pharmacological Treatment of Tics in Tourette Syndrome with Videotape Training in Self-Hypnosis. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. – Volume 31 – Issue 6 – pp 498-504, July/August, 2010

Raz A, Keller S, Norman K, Senechal D. Elucidating Tourette's syndrome: perspectives from hypnosis, attention and self-regulation. Am J Clin Hypn;49(4):289-309, 2007.

Woods DW, Himle MB, Conelea CA. Behavior therapy: other interventions for tic disorders. Adv Neurol;99:234-40, 2006.

Woods D, Piacentini, JC, and Walkup, JT. Treating Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders: A Guide for Practitioners.: The Guilford Press; 2007.

Young MH, Montano RJ. A new hypnobehavioral method for the treatment of children with Tourette's disorder. Am J Clin Hypn;31(2):97-106, 1988.

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Other Clinical Applications

Anbar, RD. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center. BMC Pediatrics 2002:2:11

Bauman F. Hypnosis and the adolescent drug abuser. Am J Clin Hypn 13:17-21, 1970.

Clawson TA Swade RH: The Hypnotic control of blood flow and pain: The Cure of warts and the potential for the use of hypnosis in the treatment of cancer. Am J Clin Hypn 17:160-169, 1975.

Feher SD et al: Increasing breast milk production for premature infants with a relaxation/imagery audiotape. Pediatrics 83:57-60, 1989.

Felt BT Berman B Broffman G et al: Wart regression in children: Comparison of relaxation-imagery to topical treatment and equal time interventions. Am J Clin Hypn 41:130-138, 1998.

*Felt BT Hall H. Olness K. et al: Wart regression in children: Comparison of relaxation-imagery to topical treatment and equal time interventions. Am J Clin Hypn 41:130-138, 1998.

Hogan M Olness K MacDonald J. The Effects of hypnosis on brainstem auditory responses in children. Am J Clin Hypn 27:91-94, 1985

Kohen DP: Relaxation/Mental imagery (self-hypnosis) and pelvic examinations in adolescents. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1:180-186, 1980.

Kohen DP. Applications of relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis) in pediatric emergencies. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 34:283-294, 1986.

Kohen DP Mann-Rhinehart P Schmitz D Wills L. Using hypnosis to help deaf children help themselves: Report of two cases. Am J Clin Hypn. 40(4):288-296, April, 1998.

Jacobs L Jacobs J. Hypnotizability of children as related to hemispheric reference and neurologic organization. Am J Clin Hypn 8:269-274, 1966.

Olness KN Conroy M: Voluntary control of transcutaneous PO2 by children. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 33:1-5, 1985.

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Dixon SD Stein M MT. Encounters with Children: Pediatric Behavior and Development (ed 2). Mosby Year Book, New York, 1992.

Green M (ed). Bright futures: Guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents. National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA, 1994.

Levine MD Carey WB Crocker AC. Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics (ed 3). W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1999.

Lynn SJ Rhue. Theories of Hypnosis: current models and perspectives. Guilford, New York, 1991.

Schaeffer C (ed). Innovative Psychotherapy Techniques in Child and Adolescent Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

Yapko MD. Essentials of hypnosis. Bruner/Mazel, New York, 1995.

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DVDs & Film

Kuttner L. Making Every Moment Count Documentary 38 min. Co-production with The National Film Board of Canada. 1-800-267-7710. 2003.

Kuttner L. "No fears, no tears" (29mins). DVD available from email: US or Canada: 1-800-331-1533 x 3

Kuttner L. "No fears, no tears 13 years later: children coping with pain" (46 mins). DVD available : email: US or Canada: 1-800-331-1533 x 3

Sugarman LI. Hypnosis in Pediatric Practice: imaginative medicine in action. DVD and booklet. Crown House Publishing. Carmarthen, Wales, 2006.

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