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Microelectronic Engineering is the area of technology associated with the design and fabrication of electronic devices/systems or subsystems using extremely small components - integrated circuits (IC's). These are extremely small electronic circuits performing intended functions built on semiconducting substrate. Advances in integrated circuits have allowed the development of the technology we are all now familiar with, such as the desktop PC and the iphone. Microelectromechanical Systems - MEMS - which are fabricated using integrated circuit technology, allow for the automatic screen rotation of these devices.
The integrated circuit (IC) has changed virtually every aspect of our lives. The hallmark of the integrated circuit industry over the past four decades has been the exponential increase in the number of transistors incorporated onto a single piece of silicon. The rapid advances in the number of transistors per chip have led to integrated circuits with continuously increasing capability and performance. As time has progressed, large, expensive, complex systems have been replaced by small, high performance, inexpensive integrated circuits. ICs are dominated by silicon electronics, and about eighty percent of these is complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Silicon is the most common semiconductor substrate because it is abundant, has excellent physical properties and forms a high quality oxide for insulating and fabrication purposes.