My 8 yr old daughter has sensorineural profound deafness. She’s using hearing aids and is at par with her hearing friends in mainstream education. She’s a bright child with immense understanding and grasping power. English has been her second language here, her first language was her mother tongue.
We are relocating to USA this year. Her language skills in English are comparatively low, say 30-40% of a hearing child in US. I would like to know the basic expectations of school from her so that I can make her understand the needs and prepare her accordingly. Likewise, what will be the process to take her admission in mainstream education school?
Depending on where you move in the United States, there are two services I would seek. First, the staff at the school will need to meet with you to decide if your daughter is eligible for special education services. During that meeting, the school will review your child’s hearing levels from her audiogram and her school performance up to this point. If they request to do any testing, ask them to complete the testing in her first language and in English. This will give the school team an idea of how to proceed with her education. If you believe that support from a teacher who specializes in working with children who have a hearing loss would benefit your daughter, let the school know that you want a teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing at the meetings. A teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing has been trained to work with children who have different types of hearing loss and who communicate in different ways. This teacher can work with the school and the classroom teacher to make sure that your daughter is getting the education she has a right to under the US law. Second, I would ask the school for access to a teacher who specializes in teaching students who are learning English as another language. This teacher will have been trained specifically to work with students who have first languages other than English. This teacher along with the teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing can work with the mainstream or general education classroom teacher to make sure that your daughter’s education is optimized. In my personal opinion, this team of teachers bringing their knowledge together would be a great start for your child.
I have a 6 year old with CIs, implanted at 11 months; he has perfect speech. We have a IEP meeting soon, and they want to discontinue speech support. He is mainstreamed and has difficulty staying focused in the classroom. Any help at all we can get for his meeting, we would greatly appreciate. Currently we have a ToD an hour a day five days a week, an educational Interpreter, and right now speech 1 day a week for a half hour in a group setting. That is what they are looking to discontinue.
Speech Language Services are not only limited to working on speech production. Our scope of practice includes vocabulary development, pre-teaching concepts, teaching advanced language structures, phonological awareness skills, comprehension of language as it relates to processing text and creating text, executive functioning including memory, judgement and pragmatics. It is rare to find a deaf child who has skills in all these areas that develop without careful intervention and monitoring. Speech-language clinicians are intrinsic to optimal development of these skills, and this is the tack I would take in this meetings. [Try to find an advocate who can support this in the IEP meeting and make sure it is written into the program.]
I really want to know if the Informed Consent for a Clinical Trial is only read by a deaf person or there is an interpreter during the procedure who is able to help the volunteer to better understand what is written. Is a Video Interpreting (relay) service (VIR) usually employed or a Computer Assisted Realtime Transcription (CART) service? Do you think that a platform with VIR service could help the deaf person’s understanding?
Essentially, the answer to your question is “it depends on the individual.” For most deaf individuals, at least in the United States, reading an appropriately-worded informed consent document is sufficient. It is the responsibility of both the researcher/medical professional and their institutional ethics review panel to ensure that the document is, indeed, “appropriately worded.”
For deaf individuals with lower levels of literacy, of course a sign language interpreter would be helpful (either live or via VIR). The kind of interpreting, in that case, also would need to depend on the individual, because there are deaf adults (as well as children) who do not have fluent sign language skills. Those who are low-language, for example, would need very different kinds of interpreting than those who are skilled in Italian Sign Language. Deaf individuals who are “oral,” also might need support with an informed consent document, either through further explanation or more simplified language.
I am a hearing, fluent ASL signer who is considering adopting a deaf child from a developing country. I have very limited information about his health history or hearing beyond the fact that the child “does not hear or speak at all.” The child’s estimated birth date is March 2012 and he has been living in an orphanage since being abandoned by his birth family for a couple(?) years. He is reported to imitate other children well and generally be content and happy. There does not seem to be any exposure to signed language and I assume zero early intervention or auditory assessments made. I am very aware of the importance of early language exposure. I can provide a signing environment probably from age 4.5 onward. I am wondering if you would see any benefit to his overall cognitive, social-emotional and academic development in also pursing a CI? Is it possible for a child to “catch up” from such a late start? I know that amongst older Deaf people this situation of coming to language late is not as unusual as it is today. My hope for my child would be that they would be able to become a critical thinker, I don’t place as much value on speech skills as I do on the possible boost to English literacy that might come from auditory input a CI could provide. I am an interpreter and I am trained as an elementary school teacher (though I don’t teach deaf kids) .
The benefits that you seek from a CI are not usually achieved by children whose families have not invested significant resources into auditory-based instruction (speech perception and production) from the time of implant, throughout the school years. That investment entails placing a high value on acquiring spoken language and being willing and able to commit time and energy toward the process. On the flip side, however, there is no guarantee that investing a high level of desire and effort will have the payoff that you wish for your child.
Your child’s auditory brain areas will not be fully mature until his early teens. It remains open to learning, even learning language, although those areas may be allocated to visual processing without acoustic stimulation prior to about age 7. So, you are working with a long list of unknowns, inevitable in the situation of adoption, especially when a child is born in a developing country. For example, you believe your child to be deaf. It may very well be true that your child is deaf; or maybe not. Even a moderate conductive hearing loss could account for apparent lack of hearing (thereby, ruling out a CI); or there may be an anatomical abnormality of the outer or middle ear, possibly reversible; or auditory neuropathy affecting neural transmission of sound to the brain. Or something else.
Among the unknowns is the child’s experience in utero and during birth; his early nutrition, diseases, and accidents; his genetic makeup; and whether he met nonverbal developmental milestones. There is no information about his speech motor skills. It would be informative to learn whether he attempts to communicate his needs (grunt, point, gesture, pull an adult to a relevant place). While he is said to be content and happy and imitates other children, does he engage in play with others? Does he recognize and comprehend symbols (for example, match pictures to objects)?
A CI is not a magic bullet. At the outset, with an uncertain history like your child’s, even CI candidacy may be difficult to ascertain. Following audiologic and development assessments, there is a requisite trial with a well-fit hearing aid. If a CI is obtained, benefit will be measured in small steps, focusing on gradual growth: whether the child accepts the new input, shows increased environmental sound awareness, turns to familiar voices, demonstrates changes in vocalizations. Many small steps precede the desired big gains. Catch-up, were it achievable, is very unlikely to be demonstrable early on. Your plan is to provide a signing environment, and speech appears to be of indeterminate value. Without a plan to provide consistent auditory (spoken) stimulation at home and at school, the CI will be significantly hampered in the facilitation of spoken language learning and positive effects on literacy and academic performance. Parents who consider a CI for their children often do so with the intention to get the most out of the tool. They speak to their child. They provide instruction that will help the child to speak. They stay the course through the school years.
Importantly, handle the transition from orphanage to home, first and foremost. Take time to tend to the emotional attachments with your child as much as you focus deliberately on his cognitive and academic development. Your child should feel safe and loved, without pressure to perform, as you establish communication through your relationship. Gently, consistently, reward all efforts to communicate. Initial stimulation should not be overwhelming. Your commitment to parenting will support your child’s learning. Be prepared to begin at the beginning, as if welcoming a new baby, with silly songs and first picture books.
Then, find the best pediatric audiologist in your region and make an appointment for a complete audiologic assessment. Follow up on all recommendations without delay. Filling in the unknowns will confirm your thinking one way or the other regarding speech and move you from a hypothetical answer to a personalized response on CI candidacy and estimates of CI benefit. If you choose a CI or a hearing aid, ensure consistent use and daily wear time. Minimize background noise in the house and at school. Focus the child on listening. Model spoken language and emphasize sound before vision. Use “listen cues” and wait time to establish listening attention. Then be expectant. And be patient. Keep in mind that hearing age will be more relevant than chronologic age.
I work with a profoundly deaf junior (16 years old). It is evident that he has severe processing problems because he cannot do the following:
1) Answer comprehension questions at the premier/pre-primer levels/1st grade (he can decode passages at the first grade level according to a reading specialist)
2) Express himself well or gather his thoughts
3) Has no inkling about the meaning of a thesis statement
4) Does not understand figurative language
5) Often misunderstands a teacher’s questions and has great difficulty following group discussions
6) Has limited peripheral vision
7) Has great difficulty retaining vocabulary words
Are there special tests to figure out what is going on with him? All of his previous IEPs indicate that he has been reading at the first grade level. There is no evidence of significant improvement in his reading skills.
I have exhausted the reading and writing strategies I used with this student. What seems to be effective with him is the Reading Milestones program that has very simple, direct questions. It does not include figurative language at all. He can write very simple sentences—not compound or complex sentences.
It sounds like you have made some important observations about your student and are warranted in your concern about the lack of improvement in his skills. From the areas of weakness that you have shared, however, it seems likely that there is something going on that is above and beyond a reading problem. You describe concerns with both expressive and receptive language skills, retaining information, and visual weaknesses in addition to specific reading skills of decoding and comprehending written English.
Unless one has been done recently, given the lack of progress in academic skills and some more general areas of concern, a comprehensive psychoeducational or neuropsychological evaluation that includes assessment of language seems warranted in order to identify the specific cause(s) of the lack of academic progress. This will help to rule-in or –out an underlying language disorder or other cognitive issues that may impact reading. With this information, the student’s educational team will likely be able to better plan more specific academic accommodations that target the underlying areas of difficulty. Given the complexity of this profile, an evaluator with experience assessing deaf children is highly recommended.
With all of the said, it sounds like you are struggling to find appropriate resources to support this student’s reading in your classroom. Again, while the best first step is to get a better sense of the underlying difficulties in order to best support his overall academic learning, the following book may off same helpful strategies to use in the classroom to target various reading skills, including deciding, vocabulary building, fluency, and comprehension: http://www.proedinc.com/customer/productView.aspx?ID=3971. Additionally, the Clerc center offers some specific reading resources that may also be of help: https://www.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/info-to-go/literacy/literacy-it-all-connects/reading-to-students.html.
My 10 year old daughter is fitted was fitted with a cochlear implant at the age of 3+. Overall, the CI has been beneficial to her. She has always attended a mainstream school with 3 sessions of speech therapy weekly. Academically, she has demonstrated strong potential – averaging decent scores in test and exams – with a lot of remedial teaching by her therapist and several hours of study with lesson teachers and self study (a lot of hard work…I wonder how she copes, but she is a strong child) The teachers in school have no special education training and haven’t been able to teach her in a way that enables her to be adequately imparted in class. As she approaches high school I am looking for high schools either in the UK or US that can accommodate her learning difference. So studying wouldn’t have to be so difficult. She is quite brilliant and it will be a shame for her not to be given the enabling environment to reach her full potential. Her only mode of communication is written and spoken language.
The answer to your question would be different in the United States and the United Kingdom.
If you are interested in your daughter attending a residential (“boarding”) school for the deaf in the U.S., and you are not a resident, state-supported schools for the deaf are not an option. There are several private residential schools for the deaf that your daughter could attend if she qualifies and you are willing to pay full fees. However, virtually all of those schools utilize sign language (to a greater or lesser extent) as well as spoken or written English. Aside from schools for the deaf, regular (“public”) schools in the U.S. are required to provide deaf children with appropriate accommodations. It’s a bit more complicated than that, but the generalization will suffice for the present purposes because the U.S. does not have public boarding schools.
If you are interested in your daughter attending a boarding school for the deaf in the United Kingdom, your daughter qualifies, and you are willing to pay the fees, there is at least one “oral” school for deaf students where your daughter would receive the necessary support services. Generally, however, private (fee-paying) boarding schools in the UK are not required to provide accommodations for deaf children. State-supported regular schools are required to do so, but it is unclear whether the relatively new, state boarding schools are similarly required to provide accommodations or are willing to accept deaf students. (The National Deaf Children’s Society has been working on this front.)You would need to seek them out through the State Boarding Schools’ Association.
Yet another possibility is homeschooling.
My son has AIED [Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease, a syndrome involving progressive hearing loss]. He began losing his hearing a little over two years ago at the age of 10. He currently has a profound to moderate sensorineural, bilateral loss. The loss is progressive. He obviously has acquired speech and language as a hearing child. What impact am I looking for as we go forward? Prior to the loss he tested at or above for reading levels, now his reading scores are below grade level. He still makes A’s and B’s in all subjects except math. He does struggle. He attends a small public school with no deaf education resources.
With any child with hearing loss, it is important to monitor different areas of development. The first is language. Based on your description, I am assuming he is using auditory/oral skills. You have indicated that his expressive (spoken) language is on target, but it is also important to monitor his receptive language skills. With the progressive nature of his hearing loss, does he still have good access to spoken language? This may impact his overall functioning, especially in school.
I am not sure what kind (if any) of hearing technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implant, FM system, etc.) he is using, but unless he is using a signed-based language, making sure that he has good audibility is key. If audibility is a concern, providing information in a visual form may be beneficial. His educational needs should also be monitored. It sounds like he continues to do well in school and that is great! If you notice that he is starting to struggle, it is important to question why. Is he understanding what goes on in class? Could support services be provided to help him stay on target? It is important to work with his school to make sure his needs are met. I would work with them to see if he is eligible for an IEP or 504 plan (if he doesn’t already have one). Talk with his teachers, administrators, speech-language pathologists, deaf educators, etc. See if they can work to support his need for deaf education resources.
Finally, it sounds like your son may have had an stressful few years. Often overlooked, it is important to monitor the psychosocial impact of his hearing loss. Does he have a good understanding and acceptance of his hearing loss? Does he have a support system of friends, especially any with hearing loss? Feelings of isolation or questions/concerns about his hearing loss may impact his life. Working with a school psychologist may be beneficial. I hope these suggestions are helpful as you work to provide the best for your son!
We are constantly searching for appropriate assessment tools that address all the developmental areas of young children without penalizing the child because of the language acquisition differences. What do you suggest? We serve children ages 6 weeks through kindergarten with deaf, other communication disorders and hearing siblings all in the same classrooms.
This is a tough one, because communication delays and disorders potentially can affect all areas of development and/or give the appearance of doing so. I expected that most states would offer guidance in this respect…but have been disappointed. The New York State Department of Health does offer information ranging from dealing with the communication challenges per se to cultural issues and parent involvement in assessment. Both West Virginia’s and Minnesota’s Departments of Education offer listings of assessment tools for deaf and hard-of-hearing children that appear likely to be useful for a broad range of children.
A couple of book suggestions: In 2008, the Journal of Pediatric Psychology published a special issue on evidence-based assessment of children with various disorders. You could write to individual contributors to that issue who might seem pertinent. In the general area is Cohen and Spenciner’s Assessment of Children and Youth with Special Needs, 4th Edition. Specifically with regard to deaf and hard-of-hearing children is Edwards and Crocker’s Psychological Processes in Deaf Children with Complex Needs – An Evidence-Based Practical Guide.
With the number of children getting cochlear implants and their parents not using sign language with them, what are their outcomes in mainstream schools…are they still affected like deaf signing children (missing out on full access)? What percentage of the deaf student population in mainstream today, use sign language verses oral?
Several studies have found deaf children with cochlear implants to be reading at or near grade level during the elementary school years, a great improvement over what typically has been seen among deaf children without implants. By high school and college, however, implants are no longer associated with better reading achievement (although use of spoken language is). Interestingly, the same is true of deaf children who are native users of sign language by virtue of having deaf parents. That is, studies have found those children also to be reading at or near grade level during elementary school, but neither parental hearing status nor sign language ability is longer associated with better reading achievement by high school. These findings might suggest that full access is an issue for both groups, but they also may be related to the greater difficulty and complexity of to-be-learned material in the higher grades.
With regard to language use in the mainstream, you would think this would be a straightforward question with a straightforward answer. Unfortunately, it’s not. According to data drawn from the Gallaudet University Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Youth, 19.5% of DHH students under age 13 are taught through spoken language only and 22% through sign language only. For students aged 13 and older, 6.7% are taught through spoken language only and 37.2% through sign language only. Data from the Annual Survey, however, are known to be weighted toward special schools and programs for DHH students, and it does not appear that the data are broken down by school type. According to data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTSES 2), a study of a nationally representative sample of DHH high school students, 51.6% of students in regular schools use sign language (compared to 98.1% in special schools) and 94.5% of them use spoken language (compared to 59% in special schools). What all of this tells you is that most DHH students use both forms of communication, although knowing their fluencies in each and the contexts in which they use them (including school) would require further investigation.
Allen, T. E., & Anderson, M. L. (2010). Deaf students and their classroom communication: An evaluation of higher order categorical interactions among school and background characteristics. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15, 334–347.
Marschark, M., Shaver, D.M., Nagel, K., & Newman, L. (in press). Predicting the academic achievement of deaf and hard-of-hearing students from individual, household, communication, and educational factors. Exceptional Children.
Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H., Editors (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual deaf education. New York: Oxford University Press.
I am an educational interpreter for a deaf student in high school. She has been taught by a teacher if the deaf all her schooling life in a pull-out English/reading class. This year she was mainstreamed into an English/literature class. She reads at just below grade level. During class, when the (hearing) teacher has the whole class independently read from a book, should I use my finger to guide the student’s reading, or should I sign the whole thing? If the teacher has other children read out loud or uses a audio recording to help read out loud for the hearing students, should I encourage the student to look at the text and guide with my finger, or should I sign the whole thing? The goal I presume is to help enhance reading skills, and my gut tells me to have the deaf student read the visual. But my teacher of the deaf tells me to sign everything. I find that counter intuitive. If the student was learning to read, I would sign and attach the visual word to it at an elementary or preschool level. But this student knows how to read; this is now a high school level reading class. We are talking novels, short stories, etc.
While we have little information about the effectiveness of interpreted education for school age students (e.g., Schick, Williams, & Kupermintz, 2006), researchers have found that college-age deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) students may gain equally as much or more knowledge from reading as they do from seeing someone sign a lecture (Borgna et al.,2011; Marschark et al., 2009). This information might be something to consider when you begin having important conversations with the English teacher, the teacher of the deaf, and the student.
First, you should talk with the classroom teacher and teacher of the deaf to gather what their goals are for this activity. If the classroom teacher is listening to the hearing students read to gauge their decoding skills, then helping the DHH student follow along by tracing your finger above the words would be appropriate. This way the DHH student would be ready to read when her turn came. Asking the teachers about their goals will clear up any assumptions on your part and you can work with them to be ensure these goals are met.
Second, you should talk with the student and find out her preferences during English class. The student might prefer to read while you aid in tracking or the student may feel uncomfortable having someone that physically close during class. These preferences should be taken into consideration when deciding how to interpret in the classroom but may not be paramount to the teacher’s goal during the lesson. Your combined knowledge and ability to communicate as an educational team will resolve this issue as well as many in the future.
Borgna, G., Convertino, C., Marschark, M., Morrison, C., & Rizzolo, K. (2011). Enhancing deaf students’ learning from sign language and text: metacognition, modality, and the effectiveness of content scaffolding. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16(1), 79–100.
Marschark, M., Sapere, P., Convertino, C. M., Mayer, C., Wauters, L., & Sarchet, T. (2009). Are deaf students’ reading challenges really about reading? American Annals of the Deaf, 154(4), 357–70.
Schick, B., Williams, K., & Kupermintz, H. (2006). Look who’s being left behind: Educational interpreters and access to education for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11(1), 3–20.