I am wondering if you have any information about testing Deaf and hard-of-hearing students who come from non-English backgrounds to determine English proficiency? State laws require all students who have any other language spoken at home be tested when the enter preschool, before they leave preschool, and every year in school thereafter. The tests used by the district in preschool (Pre-IPT and WIDA-MODEL) do not allow sign language to be used, though they are spoken language and listening tests. Besides the obvious concern that students may score low because of a language delay due to their hearing loss and not just the second language at home, there is also the concern of testing students without sign when Total Communication is their mode of communication documented on their IEP. The problem is two laws colliding. The result from a low test score is a letter to parents saying their child qualifies for a bilingual or ESL classroom, though the team is recommending the DHH classroom. Do you have any information or ideas of other ways DHH students are tested to comply with state mandated ELL testing?
Let me share my experience in Colorado: As stated in this request for information, the primary area that language proficiency becomes an issue is with regards to eligibility for special education as there is a question on the eligibility form that asks if the learning problems are a result of lack of proficiency in English. In Colorado, the legal interpretation at the Department of Education is that the hearing loss trumps primary language, so that children would be eligible for special education even if they come from a family that es ASL or a language other than English in the home.
Regarding assessment, I think it would be discriminatory to provide the language assessment without the accommodation of sign when a child uses sign. The child’s primary language should also be assessed and when sign is used by the child, the assessment should be conducted by an individual fluent in the sign language of the child (ASL, Spanish, Chinese, etc.) to compare competency in the child’s primary language and in English.
Everything I have researched on the internet has said that IEP goals and objectives are determined by the team – annual goals that are measurable – and only after that is the placement discussed. I just received the draft IEP for my son’s meeting and here is what was written under Goal:
Goals and Objectives for (name of child’s) educational program to be delivered in an regular academic setting through the ____ Deaf program at _____ school as follows: (Child) will participate in all academic classes in the academic program supported by the ____ Deaf program at _____ school with classes at the 7th grade level to include – Immersion in ASL: -Reading: – Written English: – Mathematics: Science: social Studies: and electives that apply.
How Goal will be measured: Using curriculum based assessments (CBA’s), grades, rubric scores, standardized testing scores and/or other measures as needed.
Is it just me, but is this not an IEP? I’m reading it as my son’s annual objective is to go to school. Isn’t this objective just simply referring only to placement? It mentions nothing about goals for him, benchmarks, etc. – seriously, am I reading this wrong? For example, his evaluation by the school stated “Student should continue to work on his written skills using the Writing Process of pre-plannning, first draft, revisions, and final draft.” Just one example, there are others. So, wouldn’t this evaluation recommendation be the basis of one of his IEP goals, with perhaps four benchmarks of how his progress would be measured?
That’s what I think, but am I wrong?
The Individual Education Plan is one of, if not the most significant document for your child. While these may vary from state to state in some aspects, there still are universal sections that are required and mandated.
A few of these would be:
- The IEP should list your child’s strengths, interest and areas needing attention.
- Assessments to be used for your child should be listed and identified on the IEP.
- All subjects that require modification for your child need to be identified with goals as applicable.
- Grade level and functioning level should be noted.
- Goals, expectations, and performance standards should be specific and included.
- All services your child qualifies for should be listed with amount of weekly time to receive such services.
- Your child’s exceptionality should be identified.
It’s a little unclear from your question if your child is functioning at grade level; if so, then not having any goals in that subject area would be normal. We need to remember an IEP is to help a child get to that at-grade-level performance, and thus goals should be specific and measureable within the subject area.
You should be able to clearly see the stated goal, see the expectations, and see the results on a regular basis if your child is progressing or not. If for some reason progress isn’t being made then the teacher would show adaptations to try and help your child move ahead still.
There are now National Standards and Benchmarks for generally every subject area and these are found on line. These give you a good indication of what grade level performance would be and thus you would know what your child should be doing.
Perhaps to me the most important part of the IEP is the section referred to as Specially Designed Instruction. In this area one should be able to read an IEP, understand exactly where a child is functioning now, what adaptations are needed for this child and where the child needs to go. To have this section (SDI) clear and exact is very important.
My 15 year old son is profoundly deaf due to meningitis and has had a cochlear implant since he was 18 months old. He attends mainstream high school and is doing OK with modified curriculum. However, reading comprehension and both expressive and receptive language are a struggle for him. Our IEP is next month, and I am unsure what I can ask for when it comes to additional reading and language support. The school offers no additional reading classes and he already receives 30 minutes of speech therapy a day. He currently spends one class period a day with an OUTSTANDING resource room teacher.
I have been unable to locate a private speech language pathologist who is qualified to work with a deaf teenager and accepts private insurance. I am also unable to locate reading instructors in who are not $100/hour tutors. I have tried in vain to teach him myself, but I am not an educator and feel ill-equipped to teach. I am getting concerned about my son’s ability to live independently as an adult if he cannot read.
You have identified a handful of valid concerns regarding your son. First, the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team is designed to address your son’s individual needs through assessment and instruction. Your son should have an annual audiogram, or hearing test to document how he currently responds with and without his cochlear implant. This will show the amount of access he has to auditory information, including spoken language. If he does not have complete access to spoken language, he may be trying to make a complete language out of bits and pieces. Without a solid language foundation, children cannot adequately express themselves. Annual assessments of your son’s receptive and expressive language, such as the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the One-Word Expressive Vocabulary Test, and informal assessments of how he relates narrative events, can gauge his current use of language and changes in his language skills over time. He should also have periodic comprehensive assessments of his literacy skills, such as the Johns’ Basic Reading Inventory, which looks at his reading behaviors with passages of different levels and provides an analysis of the reading strategies he currently uses. This type of assessment provides a teacher with areas for instruction. Measurement of his language and literacy skills over time will document if his current instruction is successful and if it meets the educational goals developed by the IEP team. A lack of progress in language and reading may lead to additional instructional time focused on increasing literacy skills, such as vocabulary development, reading comprehension, and writing skills. Your son can also practice reading at home with materials that he can read independently. In these materials, he will come across unfamiliar words in a familiar context, which will help build his language skills. Finally, one consideration for your son may be the addition of sign support to spoken language. For a child who has incomplete access to spoken language, signs are a completely visual means to supplement speech. If you and your son decide to pursue this option, his IEP team will also need to consider the provision of an educational interpreter as part of his educational services. Your local Hands & Voices chapter, easily retrieved from an internet search, can provide additional resources for you.
I work with a deaf CI student with a cognitive (FS IQ 67 WISC-IV), as well as a speech and language disability. While we continue to work on phonological awareness skills and some phonics while reading, the student is proving to be mostly a sight word, or whole word, reader. This student is reading at the 1st grade level and has a sight word vocabulary of about 85 words. I am looking for a reading series or curriculum that would fit the student’s needs for a very pragmatic reading program which will build knowledge, language and vocabulary of common social and community content. The Edmark nor Milestones are a good fits, nor is the Fairview. The student (an “Only”) has some receptive sign skills, but is primarily oral.
In working with schools to implement phonics-based reading curricula with a variety of learners who are deaf or hard of hearing (including those with additional disabilities), I have found that some students initially struggle with understanding the abstract nature of phonology and benefit from starting with a sight word approach. A curriculum we have used in these cases is the PCI Reading Program. This research-based program contains three levels, the first teaches 140 basic sight words (primarily nouns and verbs) and the second focuses on an additional 140 more complex, sight words (compound words, inflectional endings) and introduces beginning letter-sound relationships. Finally, the third level bridges to a phonics-based approach. To learn more about this curriculum, I would recommend visiting the company’s website, which provides detailed information about the approach, a nice overview video, and a link to order sample lessons. http://www.pcieducation.com/reading/lvl1.aspx
My sister is deaf and she needs a job. How can we help her and other deaf boys and girls get jobs?
There are many areas to address, such as getting training or education in the field you are interested in, developing a resume, practicing interview skills, and so forth. “Networking” is also one of the best way to find a job. Networking is making contact with people you know and letting people know what your skills, experience, and strengths are. Research has shown that 75-80% of people find jobs through networking.
Job-seekers can network with everyone, everywhere, and all the time. It is important for job seekers to network with friends, relatives, businesspeople, doctors, clergy, clubs, teachers…etc. It can be scary and a challenge for deaf individuals to know what to say. Here are some suggestions, “I’m looking for a job, do you know anyone whom I could contact?, can you think of 5 companies where I should apply?, do you know other people who could be helpful?”.
Networking can help you grow in your area of interest and as a person. Every time you go up to a stranger, talk to them, and get through that little wall of fear, you’re boosting your self-confidence. That confidence is what people see in you even before you communicate.
Does anyone have any evidence that deaf children who have significant language delays but are otherwise able, do well by repeating a year in school and then staying with that cohort?
General experience in many countries suggests that having children leave their cohort to catch up academically (by repeating a school year) works for some children. At least it does for those who demonstrate normal development and miss a significant amount of school time due, for example, to the need for medical care or because the family has been abroad in a country with a school system not as well developed as the “home” one.
If the student has any disability, comes from another country, or is particularly well-established socially in their original cohort, the outcomes after being held back often are not so good. Then again, if the parents and/or the student want it – the chances for success increase. Involuntarily holding a child back is more likely to hinder good development.
Unfortunately, there does not appear to be any research on this topic specifically with regard to deaf children and/or those with specific language delays, but there certainly needs to be! So, in Scandinavia, at least, I would only recommend repeating agree if the student appears to have a documented, fair chance to catch up.
I am the parent of a 17 year old male with a Nucleus 24 cochlear implant. He signs and speaks and has been going to a great high school, but is having difficulties in his reading and comprehension. He is currently reading around a 6 grade level. Are there any programs you would recommend to bring his levels up? I am being recommended Fariview (total communication) and Linda Mood Bell (oral only) by different sources and they are completely different from one another.
Congratulations to you and your son for all of your diligence with reading.
Does your son read 6th grade text fluently (between 120 and 150 words read orally per minute) and accurately (decoding 95 to 100 percent of the words or about one error for every 20 words)? Fluent reading does not mean reading fast but your son should use a speed for reading that reflects the mood and expression of the text. If he reads in a slow and labored manner, he will have difficulty comprehending text. There are some programs that focus on fluency (i.e. Read Naturally) but your son would need to have the auditory ability to distinguish the text read orally and then try to copy that text. Often times though enhancing background knowledge, vocabulary and comprehension strategies fluency increases. Repeated reading and some practice with chunking words into phrases have shown some success.
Once someone reads at the sixth grade level they tend to already be able to decode but have difficulty with more complex vocabulary and language structures. At http://www.meadowscenter.org/vgc/downloads/special_ed/SEDsecondaryoriginal/2000_enhance_read_2_SE.PDF there are wonderful resources from the Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language (through the University of Texas at Austin) that provide strategies for all parts of the comprehension process (from activating prior knowledge, to monitoring and using repair strategies, summarizing, using visual imaging, asking questions and reflecting on the text).
Not knowing your son it would be hard to pick where to begin but ask yourself if he can decode words well (recognize the printed word)
- if yes don’t spend time teaching sound symbol
- if he struggles with the sounds of words and decoding, Lindamood-Bell and other companies have some great programs (LIPS, Seeing Stars) that may be of benefit.
Can he only say the words but not understand the meaning of the words?
- then lots of language
- possibly bits of Fairview may be a tool to help with understanding the various sign meanings (concepts) of different sight words)
- pre-expose to a variety of text specific words, concepts and there meanings
Does he read words quickly enough to make meaning from the words he reads?
- rereading, or partner reading
- chunking and phrasing of text
- Read Naturally or possibly Vocaroo (can record online)
Does he engage himself in the reading process by using comprehension strategies while reading?
- If he decodes at about the 6th grade level, I would focus on text based vocabulary and comprehension strategies.
- He should be able to establish a purpose for reading, see the text structure and begin to ask the right questions to aid in comprehension.
Developing the type of academic language and vocabulary necessary to succeed although daunting can be done. Three cheers for encouraging your son and keep up the great work.
Is the national curriculum suitable for deaf children’s education?
This question looks deceptively easy – but it is not. In principle, yes, satisfaction of the national curriculum should be the educational goal for all deaf children, regardless of what country they live in. However, this assumes that there are sufficient support services (early intervention, assistive listening devices, classroom support, etc.) so that deaf children are “ready” for school and are supported by individuals who understand the special educational needs of deaf children. In reality, many countries, as well as locales within countries, do not have such services. In the United States and elsewhere, many local education authorities do not understand or believe that special accommodations for deaf children are necessary. In that case, however, the goal still must be to support deaf children in achieving the milestones of the national curriculum. To expect any less denies them the opportunities for full education, future employment, and personal success.
Hi! I am a teacher for the deaf in RI. I am looking for articles on the long term effects of hearing loss on education performance. This actually is for a friend who is a parent of a hoh 11th grader and has to face a team at her local school who is saying things like “oh she listens when she wants to” and “she can hear just fine with out FM” all this despite a mod bilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing aids, and an FM recommendation from the audiologist. She is looking for articles that speak to the affects of hearing loss on educational performance for high school aged students.
Unfortunately, this is a much bigger question that can be answered in a single article. There are two books currently available in paperback (or used@Amazon.com) that would be inexpensive and useful. The first probably more so, because it has more information on older students, but the second one also has a lot of relevant information (despite the name) and was written for parents. The second one also is available in many public libraries.
Marschark, M., Lang, H.G., & Albertini, J.A. (2002). Educating deaf students: From research to practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Marschark, M. (2007). Raising and educating a deaf child, Second edition. New York: Oxford University Press.
I am a teacher for deaf children in Kenya and looking at English compositions written by most deaf children in our school now and in the past, most tend to take the sign language structure. Is there any research which has been carried out to find the relationship between sign language and written English and how can I access it?
Many teachers notice that children will write the way they sign. Teachers can sometimes read and understand these texts, but because they are not written in standard English, they are often not understood by readers who do not know sign language.
A considerable amount of research has been done describing the nature of this writing and the writing of DHH children in general (see Mayer, 2010 for a recent review). As to the issue of the relationship between signed language and written English, it is worth thinking about this from two perspectives –meaning (content) and form (syntax, grammar etc.). Children can discuss and develop the ideas for what they will write about in a natural signed language (e.g., ASL. BSL). This can be helpful in the planning stage of writing. But when it comes to writing down these ideas, children need to have control of English as well. If they are generating ideas in a natural sign language, they will need to translate these ideas into English before they write them down. This can be very challenging and there is evidence of interference from the L1 (e.g., ASL) to the L2 (e.g., English). This can make it look like “sign language written down.”
Suggestions for further reading:
Mayer, C. (2010). The demands of writing and the deaf writer. In M. Marschark & P. Spencer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education: Volume 2 (pp. 144-155). New York: Oxford University Press.
Mayer, C. (1999). Shaping at the point of utterance: An investigation of the composing processes of the deaf student writer. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 4, 37- 49.
Singleton, J.L., Morgan, D., DiGello, E., Wiles, J. & Rivers, R. (2004). Vocabulary use by low, moderate and high ASL-proficient writers compared to hearing ESL and monolingual speakers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 9, 86-103.