Raising and Educating a Deaf Child

International experts answer your questions about the choices, controversies, and decisions faced by the parents and educators of deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

Question from N.P., Alberta

I just found out that all of the children in our son’s deaf and hard of hearing Total Communication program are only receiving approximately 18 minutes per week each of speech therapy. Is there any research that we can use to request more SLP time?

Question from N.P., Alberta. Posted October 7, 2013.
Response from Christie Yoshinaga-Itano

This is a really important question.  I don’t know that there has been any research that specifically relates to the question of amount of speech therapy time.  The question is also difficult because the ages of the children are not indicated.  Optimally, programs would determine intensity of service based upon a child’s needs, the child’s current functioning including current speech-language delay, the history of service, and the progress over time.  Individual therapy with a speech/language pathologist (SLP), which appears to be the question posed, or individual therapy with a professional trained to provide speech, auditory skills, or what is referred to as listening and spoken language services differs in programs across the United States.  If we have been following a child from early childhood and we can document growth over time from having individual services, which may include home intervention or clinic-based therapy, we would use this data to justify services for individual children.  I believe that there is a study conducted by Ann Geers and Jean Moog that found that amount of individual intervention was related to spoken language outcomes of children with cochlear implants.  However, I don’t know if the information was ever published.

This particular question, while an important one, is a difficult one to research because the needs of the child determine the intensity of service that each individual child might require.  Because most programs, unfortunately, are not evidence-based, that is, withdecisions about service provision are determined by data collected by the program, we are left without evidence that could help families.  In Colorado, we have used the Colorado Individual Performance Profile to determine the intensity of service and time per week of special services.  However, we have not specified how that service would be delivered, for exmaple, in individual instruction in speech therapy versus in group intervention, specialized classroom.