Raising and Educating a Deaf Child

International experts answer your questions about the choices, controversies, and decisions faced by the parents and educators of deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

Question from B.D., Virginia

I work with a profoundly deaf junior (16 years old). It is evident that he has severe processing problems because he cannot do the following:

1) Answer comprehension questions at the premier/pre-primer levels/1st grade (he can decode passages at the first grade level according to a reading specialist)
2) Express himself well or gather his thoughts
3) Has no inkling about the meaning of a thesis statement
4) Does not understand figurative language
5) Often misunderstands a teacher’s questions and has great difficulty following group discussions
6) Has limited peripheral vision
7) Has great difficulty retaining vocabulary words

Are there special tests to figure out what is going on with him? All of his previous IEPs indicate that he has been reading at the first grade level. There is no evidence of significant improvement in his reading skills.

I have exhausted the reading and writing strategies I used with this student. What seems to be effective with him is the Reading Milestones program that has very simple, direct questions. It does not include figurative language at all. He can write very simple sentences—not compound or complex sentences.

Question from B.D., Virginia. Posted November 4, 2015.
Response from Lori Day - Gallaudet University

It sounds like you have made some important observations about your student and are warranted in your concern about the lack of improvement in his skills. From the areas of weakness that you have shared, however, it seems likely that there is something going on that is above and beyond a reading problem. You describe concerns with both expressive and receptive language skills, retaining information, and visual weaknesses in addition to specific reading skills of decoding and comprehending written English.

Unless one has been done recently, given the lack of progress in academic skills and some more general areas of concern, a comprehensive psychoeducational or neuropsychological evaluation that includes assessment of language seems warranted in order to identify the specific cause(s) of the lack of academic progress. This will help to rule-in or –out an underlying language disorder or other cognitive issues that may impact reading. With this information, the student’s educational team will likely be able to better plan more specific academic accommodations that target the underlying areas of difficulty. Given the complexity of this profile, an evaluator with experience assessing deaf children is highly recommended.

With all of the said, it sounds like you are struggling to find appropriate resources to support this student’s reading in your classroom. Again, while the best first step is to get a better sense of the underlying difficulties in order to best support his overall academic learning, the following book may off same helpful strategies to use in the classroom to target various reading skills, including deciding, vocabulary building, fluency, and comprehension: http://www.proedinc.com/customer/productView.aspx?ID=3971. Additionally, the Clerc center offers some specific reading resources that may also be of help: https://www.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/info-to-go/literacy/literacy-it-all-connects/reading-to-students.html.