Raising and Educating a Deaf Child

International experts answer your questions about the choices, controversies, and decisions faced by the parents and educators of deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

Question from K.L., Arkansas

I am a state-wide consultant for schools and early intervention programs. The mother of a 1st grade student called me asking for help with the school who has recommended that her child repeat 1st grade in the fall, because she “just needs one more year for things to click” (the child has cytomegalovirus). She uses an interpreter in school and has bilateral cochlear implants. She is a bilingual child, but in a mainstream class and a school thathas no deaf education specialist or anyone with experience working with this population. So their expertise is limited and their recommendations often not appropriate for educating a deaf child who is bilingual.

I am looking for research on retention and the impact this has and why this decision may or may not be the best for this child. I would love to hear from any expert who can guide me to resources I can share with the family and the school.

Question from K.L., Arkansas. Posted July 27, 2017.
Response from Jessica Trussell - NTID

There is no research to support either grade retention or “social promotion” as a beneficial intervention for students who are performing below grade or age-equivalent standards. When talking about grade retention specifically, the evidence suggests that grade retention is more detrimental than helpful to students. Students who are retained tend to have poorer self-esteem than their peers. They are also less likely to graduate from high school. This holds true for students with and without disabilities. Apparently the only study that has involved deaf students showed that if they had ever been held back a year, they performed more poorly on achievement tests in reading and mathematics in high school.

When students are retained, they often experience a short-term boost in their academic achievement (perhaps because the material is now familiar), but that boost does not maintain throughout their school years. Instead of grade retention or social promotion, the National Association of School Psychologist (NASP) recommends implementing evidence-based, culturally-responsive instructional interventions that are directly linked to the student’s needs (find their parent information document here). The invention instruction should be paired with progress monitoring in order to adjust instruction as the student’s needs change. Carefully-planned intervention instruction based on the child’s needs is a more appropriate plan of action than grade retention. NASP advises that if the team and parents decide that grade retention is appropriate, then simply repeating the grade is not enough. The student must also be provided the intervention instruction mentioned previously.