Raising and Educating a Deaf Child

International experts answer your questions about the choices, controversies, and decisions faced by the parents and educators of deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

Question from R.A., India

My sister is hard of hearing and has been so since childhood. My parents (in India) tried their best at educating her with the limited resources at their disposal but they gave up when they saw that she was not making significant progress. As a result my sis who is 20 now, can read / write/ understand words in her limited vocab but has difficultly learning new words. She has difficulty in reading or understanding new words. She is good at computer graphics and animation but cannot move ahead to learn things as she cannot read the english language textbooks. She easily picks up things which can be demonstrated practically but stumbles when she has to learn theory. Is it too late for her to learn English (which is needed to work with computers)? Is there a viable path that she can follow to get her education and make a career out of it? Would the English language course at ELI, Gallaudet help her? Any there courses to learning english for people like her at NTID or elsewhere? I somehow he feels that she is falling through the cracks in the system where he is not totally deaf but her hard-of-hearing creates learning disabilities which we cannot overcome.

Question from R.A., India. Posted April 30, 2010.
Response from Rob Whitaker and James Lee - Gallaudet University

Can she learn English? Yes, however, she will always be very delayed in her English abilities and it is very unlikely that she will develop sufficient English to be successful in a work environment based on her age and description of early language exposure.

From a neurolinguistic development perspective, there is a short critical window of time for deaf children to learn English language and be efficient and age appropriate. This window is approximately from 0 to 6-years-old. Current research indicates that deaf children who learn English after the age of six demonstrate a life long delay in the language. The later English is taught the greater the delay. Her sister’s brain simply does not have the neural networks in the language centers of her brain developed related to English language. At her age, her sister would need to utilize her most native language (if that be sign language) and use any accommodations necessary to support her limited English skills.

In terms of references I would check these out and anything by Dr. Laura Ann Petitto

Kuhl, P. (2004) Early Language Acquisition: Cracking The Speech Code, Nature Reviews/Neuroscience, Vol 5.

Mayberry, R. (2002) Cognitive Development in Deaf Children: The Interface of Language and Perception in Neuropsychology, Handbook of Neuropsychology, 2nd Edition, Vol 8, Part II

McSweeney, M. (2007) Language in The Deaf Brain, Science Interviews, www.thenakedscientists.com

Spencer, P. & Harris, M. (2006) Patterns and Effects of Language Input to Deaf Infants and Toddlers From Deaf and Hearing Mothers, In M. Marshark & P. Spencer (Eds.) Advances in the Sign Language Development of Deaf Children (pp. 71-101).

[Although NTID and Gallaudet do not have any programs that would be helpful, you might want to contact a local speech-language apologist for advice.]