Raising and Educating a Deaf Child

International experts answer your questions about the choices, controversies, and decisions faced by the parents and educators of deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

Question from A Mom, Confusion USA

I am the mother of a 7 year old deaf child. My daughter passed her newborn hearing screen and a follow up ABR at 6 months old (she was high risk due to being in the NICU). But she began losing her hearing by 15 months old and was dx’ed with a moderately severe loss by 18 months and fitted with hearing aids.

We began to speak and sign but she never “caught on” to spoken language. At 3, she was placed at a Deaf school. We continued to do therapy, but she didn’t gain any spoken language. She quickly became pretty fluent in ASL.

In kindergarten her hearing loss progressed and she received a CI. She suddenly was able to process spoken language. She has made tremendous gains in her spoken language in the two years since she was implanted. She understands and discriminates running spoken language and has gained nearly 5 years worth of language. She is now in a well respected oral school.

So, my question is this….can she actually catch up? She hears very well, but can she reach age appropriate with her spoken language? Or do we eventually de-emphasis it and go back to ASL?

Question from A Mom, Confusion USA. Posted March 21, 2011.
Response from Linda Spencer - SUNY Geneseo

It sounds as if your daughter had a very solid language base (ASL) in those first years of her life, which tells us that her language-learning skills seem to be intact, thus she is a “language learner.” You also say that she has made 5 years of gain in her language skills (I am assuming English skills) over the past few years, which again provides evidence that she had a strong language system in place to “map” the spoken English language onto. From what we know about second language learning and from deaf children learning spoken language with CIs, I would say she has an excellent prognosis.  A study published by Nichols and Geers (2007, see below), also provides us with evidence that would suggest your daughter is on the road to success.  That study found that the smaller language delay a child has when they receive a CI, the better the chances are that the child will, indeed catch up. Given that your daughter seems to have been performing at a very high level with regard to language (ASL) at the time she received a CI in the first place, we can be very optimistic about her future language abilities.  It will be very important in the next few years to target her ability to learn to read and write.  Once she is reading, she will continue to acquire the higher levels of language she will need to become a competent language learner.

Further reading:

Nichols, J. & Geers, A. (2007). Will they catch up ?  The role of age at cochlear implantation in the spoken language development of children with severe to profound hearing loss.  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1048–1062.