Raising and Educating a Deaf Child

International experts answer your questions about the choices, controversies, and decisions faced by the parents and educators of deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

Question from M.Y., Turkey

I am from Turkey. My son has autism and was born with a profound sensorineural hearing loss. He was implanted at 5 years of age. He is now 12 years old.. He cannot speak or write. It seems there isn’t anybody else like him in Turkey and I cannot get any assistance in dealing with his multiple challenges. I want to teach him speak. How can I do that? How can I help my son?

Question from M.Y., Turkey. Posted September 27, 2012.
Response from James Bebko - York University

I am sorry to hear that you have not been able to access help for your son that you feel has been useful. Certainly deafness and autism each present their own challenges, but together things are much more complex.

Autism alone is associated with language impairments that are often quite significant. Many hearing children who have autism develop only very limited speech, and some only sounds, with no functional speech. The focus for these children should usually be on communication, not speech. This means trying to build communication of any kind, including gestures, manual signs, picture systems, as well as  speech — basically anything that allows the child a chance to communicate with the world around him. And an important part is trying to motivate the child to want to or need to communicate.

Your son also has a profound hearing loss. That is also by itself a high risk factor for acquiring speech. A cochlear implant may make speech sounds more available to him. But even if that were the case, he still may be affected by the language disorder I mentioned in connection with autism. So many, many questions remain that will impact on your son’s ability to speak and to write.

So the situation is complex. But does that mean there is no hope? Absolutely not! With appropriate and consistent support, most children make significant gains in many areas. If it has not already been done recently, I would recommend having an assessment done of your son’s intellectual, language and daily living skills, so you can understand where his skill levels are currently. Then try to find someone who can provide a program of systematic behavioral therapy, with a special focus on communication in as many activities as possible.

I don’t know the availability of services in your area, but hopefully a physician might know of available services, or the professionals who did the implant, or perhaps if there is  a university in your area. Did anyone provide you with support after the implant? That person may also be able to help connect you with services. Two sources that I am ware of online are:  The Tohum Foundation   http://www.tpfund.org/TOHUM/default.asp and The Gunsigi Services  http://www.gunisigichildtherapy.com/cigdem-ergul.php

Both, I believe, are in Istanbul, but hopefully they can connect you with services where you are located. The Tohum Foundation indicates their “ key purpose is to lead and disseminate early diagnosis, education, and social integration services for children with autism throughout Turkey.”

There is a family support group in North America that you should be able to access through   http://groups.yahoo.com/group/DEAF-Autreat   I have met some of these families, and they are wonderful people and many have struggled with similar concerns.