SEA - Supporting English Acquisition
Anaphoric, Cataphoric, Exophoric Words

The underlined reference words in the two paragraphs below are either "anaphoric" (referring upward to previously mentioned words), "cataphoric" (referring downward to subsequent words), or "exophoric" (referring to something outside the text). Identify whether the reference words are anaphoric, cataphoric, or exophoric by selecting your choice in the pull-down menu next to each item. After you make your selection, you will receive feedback at the bottom of the page.

 

1. For many years, East German people devised 1creative ways to sneak out of East Germany. Some people dug tunnels; 2 others tried crashing through checkpoints with cars, trucks, or busses; 3still others flew out in small airplanes or balloons. One woman tied herself to the bottom of a car and passed through a checkpoint unnoticed. And one family sewed fake Russian uniforms for 4themselves; then, they pretended to be Russian soldiers and simply drove through a checkpoint. Some desperate people tried scrambling over a barbed-wire fence or a wall. 5These people were often shot.

1. creative ways

anaphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
cataphoric: CORRECT: creative ways is cataphoric, referring downward to digging tunnels, crashing through checkpoints, flying out, tying oneself to the bottom of a car, sewing fake Russian uniforms, and scrambling over a fence or wall.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

2. others

anaphoric: CORRECT: others is anaphoric, referring upward to people.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

3. still others

anaphoric: CORRECT: still others is anaphoric, referring upward to people.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

4. themselves

anaphoric: CORRECT: themselves is anaphoric, referring upward to family.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

5. These people

anaphoric: CORRECT: These people is anaphoric, referring upward to desperate people.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

6. On 21 December 1972, 6the Basic Treaty was signed by East and West Germany, and relations between 7the two countries started to improve. During the next two decades, they began to cooperate with 8each other by sharing cultural and commercial 9activities such as arts exchange programs and joint business ventures. However, East Germans were still dissatisfied, for 10their living standard was lower than 11that of West Germany. 12Their industries produced inferior goods, and 13their country was polluted from inferior mining methods and careless industrial waste.

6. the Basic Treaty

anaphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: CORRECT: the Basic Treaty is exophoric, referring out of the text to the de facto recognition of East Germany by the West German government. This is not mentioned anywhere in the text; the reader is assumed to know what it is, making it exophoric. Note also the use of exophoric the, indicating that only one example of this item exists in the time and place mentioned and that the reader most likely knows about it.

7. the two countries

anaphoric: CORRECT: the two countries is anaphoric, referring upward to East and West Germany.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

8. each other

anaphoric: CORRECT: each other is anaphoric, referring upward to East and West Germany.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

9. activities

anaphoric: INCORRECT. Try agian!
cataphoric: CORRECT: activities is cataphoric, referring downward to arts exchange programs and joint business ventures.'
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

10. their

anaphoric: CORRECT: their is anaphoric, referring upward to East Germany's.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

11. that

anaphoric: CORRECT: that is anaphoric, referring upward to living standard.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

12. Their

anaphoric: CORRECT: Their is anaphoric, referring upward to East Germans
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

13. their country

anaphoric: CORRECT: their country is anaphoric, referring upward to East Germany.
cataphoric: INCORRECT. Try again.
exophoric: INCORRECT. Try again.

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