There are two main questions that determine whether an activity is reviewed by the HSRO.
- Is it research, and
- Is it research with humans
“a systematic investigation, including research development, testing, and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” (ref. 45CFR46)
The key word in the definition is designed. The HSRO looks at the primary intent of an activity. If the intent is to generate new or generalizable knowledge – information that can be applied in other settings - the activity is considered research.
Human subject means:
“a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains:
(1) Data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or
(2) Identifiable private information.” (ref. 45CFR46)
Intervention includes both physical procedures by which data are gathered and manipulations of the subject or the subject's environment that are performed for research purposes.
Interaction includes communication or interpersonal contact between investigator and subject.
Private information includes information about behavior that occurs in a context in which an individual can reasonably expect that no observation or recording is taking place, and information which has been provided for specific purposes by an individual and which the individual can reasonably expect will not be made public (for example, a medical record). Private information must be individually identifiable (i.e., the identity of the subject is or may readily be ascertained by the investigator or associated with the information) in order for obtaining the information to constitute research involving human subjects.
An activity that meets the above criteria would be considered research and the responsibility of the HSRO. Often people believe that since they don’t plan to publish their results they don’t need review by an HSRO. This is incorrect; intent to publish has no part in determining whether an activity needs review.
General attributes of research
Produces generalizable knowledge
Benefits extend beyond the participants
General attributes of non-research
Intent is to identify and control a specific problem or improve a program or service
Benefits are primarily or exclusively for the participants or their community
Data are used to assess and/or improve the program or service
Knowledge doesn’t extend beyond the scope of the activity