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CryPy: ransomware behind Israeli lines

Thu, 10/13/2016 - 05:26

A Tweet posted recently by AVG researcher, Jakub Kroustek, suggested that a new ransomware, written entirely in Python, had been found in the wild, joining the emerging trend for Pysomwares such as the latest HolyCrypt, Fs0ciety Locker and others.

This Python executable comprises two main files. One is called boot_common.py and the other encryptor.py. The first is responsible for error-logging on Windows platforms, while the second, the encryptor, is the actual locker. Within the encryptor are a number of functions including two calls to the C&C server. The C&C is hidden behind a compromised web server located in Israel. The Israeli server was compromised using a known vulnerability in a content management system called Magento, which allowed the threat actors to upload a PHP shell script as well as additional files that assist them in streaming data from the ransomware to the C&C and back.

A notable point to mention is that the server was also used for phishing attacks, and contained Paypal phishing pages. There are strong indications that a Hebrew-speaking threat actor was behind these phishing attacks. The stolen Paypal credentials were forwarded to another remote server located in Mexico and which contains the same arbitrary file upload technique, only with a different content management.

It is a known practice for attackers to look for low-hanging fruit into which they can inject their code in order to hide their C&C server. One such example was the CTB-Locker for web servers reported last March.

Ransomware Analysis

ICON:

SHA1: ad046bfa111a493619ca404909ef82cb0107f012
MD5: 8bd7cd1eee4594ad4886ac3f1a05273b
Size: 5.22 MB
Type: exe

To reverse the executable one should first conduct a number of checks using a convenient debugger. The universal steps for unpacking an unknown packer start with trying to set a memory breakpoint on popular functions that packers use, such as VirtualAlloc.

If the breakpoint hits, the next step involves switching to user mode and setting a hardware breakpoint (on access). That will assist in inspecting where exactly the program initializes the memory block. In most cases, an executable magic header (MZ) should appear in the memory block. However, in this case the following screenshot shows the readable data that was allocated to that memory block:

After the data was allocated to the memory block, it appeared to be using VM code (python vm) to execute the code. For those who are not familiar with the term, VM code is the process of creating new instruction sets based on the author’s request. The CPU uses those instruction sets to understand the instructions.

py2exe simply converts the code to x86 assembly, the architecture used on the CPU for communication, and, by loading a python DLLs, loads all the modules into the memory.

We found that the executable file was generated using py2exe. The first indicator was a stack PUSH instruction to add the string – PY2EXE_VERBOSE: a module that compiles Python scripts to Microsoft Windows executables.

PY2EXE module string disclosure

A module that reverse the operation of the py2exe can be found in Github and is called unpy2exe. This module will revert the executable back to its origin Python compiled code (i.e. .pyc file). From that format, another step will be required to fully revert to the original code. We randomly chose to use EasyPythonDecompiler.

Fully decompiled Python scripts

In it’s current state, the executable fails to encrypt the file system, simply because the threat actors must have migrated from the current server to another. By doing so, they deleted the remaining traces of the PHP files they used for data collection from a victim’s machine. The following is the log file that is generated upon exception:

Error log file being generated by the boot_common.py

The scripts in Python use two files:

  • Name: boot_common.py
    md5: dfd6237e26babdbc2b32fa0d625c2d16
    SHA1: 38fe7b64113e467375202e2708199b45a22b25a6
    Size: 3Kb
    This file throws an “error” to show that the program failed to execute if there is a problem.
  • Name: encryptor.py
    md5: 1ed3f127a0e94394ef049965bbc952ef
    SHA1: 73122712b4563fadcc9871eb3fe0efdcf70bb608
    Size: 9Kb
    This script encrypts the victim’s files.

The ransomware disables the following features from the compromised machine:
By overwriting the registry policies it disables Registry Tools, Task Manager, CMD and Run.

list of registry manipulations

It then continues with changing bcdedit to disable recovery and ignore boot status policy.

Upon successful encryption, the ransomware will encrypt the following file extensions:
*.mid, *.wma, *.flv, *.mkv, *.mov, *.avi, *.asf, *.mpeg, *.vob, *.mpg, *.wmv, *.fla, *.swf, *.wav, *.qcow2, *.vdi, *.vmdk, *.vmx, *.gpg, *.aes, *.ARC, *.PAQ, *.tar.bz2, *.tbk, *.bak, *.tar, *.tgz, *.rar, *.zip, *.djv, *.djvu, *.svg, *.bmp, *.png, *.gif, *.raw, *.cgm, *.jpeg, *.jpg, *.tif, *.tiff, *.NEF, *.psd, *.cmd, *.class, *.jar, *.java, *.asp, *.brd, *.sch, *.dch, *.dip, *.vbs, *.asm, *.pas, *.cpp, *.php, *.ldf, *.mdf, *.ibd, *.MYI, *.MYD, *.frm, *.odb, *.dbf, *.mdb, *.sql, *.SQLITEDB, *.SQLITE3, *.asc, *.lay6, *.lay, *.ms11 (Security copy), *.sldm, *.sldx, *.ppsm, *.ppsx, *.ppam, *.docb, *.mml, *.sxm, *.otg, *.odg, *.uop, *.potx, *.potm, *.pptx, *.pptm, *.std, *.sxd, *.pot, *.pps, *.sti, *.sxi, *.otp, *.odp, *.wks, *.xltx, *.xltm, *.xlsx, *.xlsm, *.xlsb, *.slk, *.xlw, *.xlt, *.xlm, *.xlc, *.dif, *.stc, *.sxc, *.ots, *.ods, *.hwp, *.dotm, *.dotx, *.docm, *.docx, *.DOT, *.max, *.xml, *.txt, *.CSV, *.uot, *.RTF, *.pdf, *.XLS, *.PPT, *.stw, *.sxw, *.ott, *.odt, *.DOC, *.pem, *.csr, *.crt, *.key and wallet.dat to encrypt crypto currency wallets

The files are encrypted using AES with CBC mode for the following paths:

D:\\
E:\\
[userhome]\\contacts
[userhome]\\Documents\\
[userhome]\\Downloads\\
[userhome]\\Favorites\\
[userhome]\\Links\\
[userhome]\\My Documents\\
[userhome]\\My Music\\
[userhome]\\My Pictures\\
[userhome]\\My Videos\\
F:\\
.
.
Z:\\
*userhome - The current user home directory

When the encryption step is done, the ransomware will remove the restore points and write the README_FOR_DECRYPT.txt file and execute it. The following screen shot is the ransom note:

CryPy Ransomware Note embedded in the Python code

The threat actor behind the attack asks the victim to contact it via email, and to send a request to the following two email addresses to receive the decryption program:

(1) m4n14k@sigaint[.]org
(2) blackone@sigaint[.]org

Note that the ransom note contains mistakes, implying that it has been written by a non-English speaker. First, the headline is missing a ‘T’ in “IMPORTAN INFORMATION”. Second, the sentence “Decrypting of your files…” is syntatically wrong. Native speakers will be able to find additional mistakes.

The threat actor claims that files will be deleted every 6 hours, which reflects the approach of more advanced ransomwares. However, it forgets to mention proof of decryption or a channel that can be used in cases where the payment process is not responsive. This points to the executable being at an early stage of development.

The ransomware survives a reboot by adding the following keys to the registry:
Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Run

regkey Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Run subkey Adobe_ReaderX data %TEMP%\\mw.exe regkey Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Run subkey explore_ data [userhome]\\Appdata\\local\\DCBC2A71-70D8-4DAN-EHR8-E0D61DEA3FDF.exe

The code for adding the values to the registry are located on the functions autorun() and autorun2().

These keys cause the computer to execute the files after the computer is restarted.

Right before launching the ransom note, the script calls a delete_shadow() function that takes no arguments, and simply executes the following command line code to remove all shadow copies and prevent recovery from backup:

os.system("vssadmin Delete shadows /all /Quiet")

Lastly, the file calls autorun2() fuction that copies the ransomware from its current location to C:\\Users\\\\AppData\\Local with hardcoded name:
DCBC2A71-70D8-4DAN-EHR8-E0D61DEA3FDF.exe

C2 Communication

The ransomware hides behind an Israeli web server which was compromised using Shell script arbitrary upload written in PHP. The compromise and upload were possible because the server carried a vulnerable Magento CMS.

The executable transfers data over an unencrypted HTTP channel in clear-text. This allows for easy traffic inspection using a network listener. The following screenshot is the traffic being sent to the server:

Inspecting the Magento exploit and the compromised server, we found that the origin of the upload carries the title Pak Haxor – Auto Xploiter and the email ardiansyah09996@gmail[.]com and that the file was uploaded in August 2016, which aligns with the case in subject. The following screenshot reveals how attackers are using massive exploiters that scan for vulnerable web servers and exploit the vulnerability, which they later visit to expand their control over the server:

Part of such an exploitation technique is dropping additional PHP scripts to refine a more sophisticated attack, such as the CryPy ransomware.

One such script can be found hard-coded in the CryPy Python code, in the form of a GET request. The request is sent with two parameters to a script that was uploaded using the Auto Xploiter and carries the name victim.php. By reviewing the Python code it is easier to understand the type of data being presented in Base64 encoding format.

As seen in the screenshot above, the configurl parameter accepts a URL querystring where the victim_info input value of the info parameter is derived from the platform module.

uname() is used when one wants to return a tuple of system, node, release, version, machine and processor values. These are encoded with Base64.

The next parameter is ip which contains the socket.gethostname() which basically collects an IP address.

The querystring is then sent to urllib.urlopen(), which will send a GET request to the selected server and read the reponse content into glob_config.

The response contains a JSON format payload which is checked for the following keys:
x_ID – the victim’s unique ID to request their decryption keys after payment.
x_UDP – Not used; perhaps saved for future use.
x_PDP – Not used; perhaps saved for future use.

The second call is implemented in a function called generate_file() which is responsible for fetching a unique key for each file before encryption.

We have seen in recent lockers that, in order to demonstrate trust and integrity, the victim is able to decrypt one/two files before processing the payment. This proves decryptor validity. In order to randomly choose a file, the attacker must first generate a unique token for each one. The second PHP script found in the code is savekey.php which is described in the following screenshot and is suspected to have the C2 IP in it. It was however deleted long before we were able to reach it.

As for the first call, the second sends two parameters. The first is the file’s name and the other is the victim ID. In return, the server responds with two keys:
X – Unique key after encryption which will be appended to the file’s header.
Y – New filename which will be stored instead of the previous one.

These parameters are then sent to an encryption routine, along with the file’s original name.

IOCs REG Keys

HKCU\\Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Policies\\System
HKCU\\Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Policies\\Explorer
HKCU\\Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Run\\explore_
HKLM\\Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Run\\Adobe_ReaderX

Domains

hxxp://www.baraherbs[.]co.il/js/owebia/victim.php
hxxp://www.baraherbs[.]co.il/js/owebia/savekey.php

Hashes

8bd7cd1eee4594ad4886ac3f1a05273b crypy.exe
1ed3f127a0e94394ef049965bbc952ef encryptor.py

Emails

m4n14k@sigaint[.]com
blackone@sigaint[.]com

Five myths about machine learning in cybersecurity

Wed, 10/12/2016 - 06:35

Machine learning has long permeated all areas of human activity. It not only plays a key role in the recognition of speech, gestures, handwriting and images – without machine learning it would be difficult to imagine modern medicine, banking, bioinformatics and any type of quality control. Even the weather forecast cannot be made without machines capable of learning and generalization.

I would like to warn about, or dispel, some of the misconceptions associated with the use of ML in the field of cybersecurity.

Myth №1: Machine learning in information security is a novelty

For some reason, discussion of artificial intelligence in cybersecurity has become all the rage of late. If you haven’t been following this theme over the longer term, you may well think it’s something new.

A bit of background: one of the first machine learning algorithms, the artificial neural network, was invented in the 1950s. Interestingly, at that time it was thought the algorithm would quickly lead to the creation of “strong” artificial intelligence. That is, intelligence capable of thinking, understanding itself and solving other tasks in addition to those it was programmed for. Then there is so-called weak AI. It can solve some creative tasks – recognize images, predict the weather, play chess, etc. Now, 60 years later, we have a much better understanding of the fact that the creation of true AI will take years, and what today is referred to as artificial intelligence is in fact machine learning.

Source: http://dilbert.com/strip/2013-02-02

When it comes to cybersecurity, machine learning is nothing new either. Algorithms of this class were first implemented 10-12 years ago. At that time the amount of new malware was doubling every two years, and once it became clear that simple automation for virus analysts was not enough, a qualitative leap forward was required. That leap came in the form of processing the files in a virus collection, which made it possible to search for files similar to the one being examined. The final verdict about whether a file was malicious was issued by a human, but this function was almost immediately transferred to the robot.

In other words, there’s nothing new about machine learning in cybersecurity.

Myth №2: Machine learning in cybersecurity is straightforward – everything’s already been thought of

It’s true that for some spheres where machine learning is used there are a few ready-made algorithms. These spheres include facial and emotion recognition, or distinguishing cats from dogs. In these and many other cases, someone has done a lot of thinking, identified the necessary signs, selected an appropriate mathematical tool, set aside the necessary computing resources, and then made all their findings publicly available. Now, every schoolkid can use these algorithms.

Machine learning determines the quality of cookies by the number of chocolate chips and the radius of the cookie
Source: http://simplyinsight.co/2016/04/26/an-introduction-to-machine-learning-theory-and-its-applications-a-visual-tutorial-with-examples/

This creates the false impression that the algorithms already exist for malware detection too. That is not the case. We at Kaspersky Lab have spent more than 10 years developing and patenting a number of technologies. And we continue to carry out research and come up with new ideas because … well, that’s where the next myth comes in.

Myth №3: Machine learning – do it once and forget about it

There is a conceptual difference between malware detection and facial recognition. Faces will remain faces – nothing is going to change in that respect. In the majority of spheres where machine learning is used, the objective is not changing with time, while in the case of malware things are changing constantly and rapidly. That’s because cybercriminals are highly motivated people (money, espionage, terrorism…). Their intelligence is not artificial; they are actively combating and intentionally modifying malicious programs to get away from the trained model.

That’s why the model has to be constantly taught, sometimes even retrained from scratch. Obviously, with rapidly modifying malware, a security solution based on a model without an antivirus database is worthless. Cybercriminals can think creatively when necessary.

Myth №4: You can let security software learn on the client side

Let’s say, it processes the client’s files. Most of them will be clean, but some will be malicious. The latter are mutating, of course, but the model will learn.

However, it doesn’t work like that, because the number of malware samples passing through the computer of an average client is much smaller than the amount of malware samples collected by an antivirus lab system. And because there will be no samples for learning, there will be no generalization. Factor in the “creativity” of the virus writers (see the previous myth) and detection will fail, the model will start recognizing malware as clean files and will “learn the wrong things.”

Myth №5: It’s possible to develop a security solution that’s based solely on the ML model, without other detection methods

Why use multi-level protection based on different technologies? Why not put all your eggs in one basket if that basket is so smart and advanced? One algorithm is enough to solve everything. Right?

The thing is most malware belongs to families consisting of a large number of modifications of one malicious program. For example, Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Shade is a family of 30,000 cryptors. A model can be taught with a large number of samples, and it will gain the ability to detect future threats (within certain limits, see Myth №3). In these circumstances machine learning works well.

However, it’s often the case that a family consists of just a few samples, or even one. Perhaps the author didn’t want to go into battle with security software after his “brainchild” was immediately detected due to its behavior. Instead, he decided to attack those who had no security software installed or those who had no behavioral detection (i.e., those who had put all their eggs in one basket).

These sorts of “mini-families” cannot be used to teach a model – generalization (the essence of machine learning) is impossible with just one or two examples. In these circumstances, it is much more effective to detect a threat using time-tested methods based on the hash, masks, etc.

Another example is targeted attacks. The authors behind these attacks have no intention of producing more and more new samples. They create one sample for one victim, and you can be sure this sample will not be detected by a protection solution (unless it is a solution specifically designed for this purpose, for example, Kaspersky Anti-Targeted Attack Platform). Once again, hash-based detection is more effective.

Conclusion: different tools need to be used in different situations. Multi-level protection is more effective than a single level – more effective tools should not be neglected just because they are “out of fashion.”

The problem of Robocop

And one last thing. This is more of a warning than a myth. Researchers are currently paying more attention to what mistakes complex models are making: in some cases, the decisions they take, cannot be explained from the point of view of human logic.

Machine learning can be trusted. But critical systems (the autopilot in planes and automobiles, medicine, control services, etc.) usually have very strict quality standards; formal verification of software programs is used, while in machine learning, we delegate part of the thought process and responsibility to the machine. That’s why quality control of a model needs to be conducted by highly respected experts.

Trust me, I have a pen

Tue, 10/11/2016 - 12:40

Earlier today we became aware of a malicious website delivering Petya through the Hunter exploit kit. While there is nothing special about yet another exploit kit page, this one caught our attention because it mimics the index page of our sinkhole systems.

A malicious webpage faking one of our research systems

With cybercriminals increasingly trying to exploit trust relationships in cyberspace, it’s easy to get fooled by such attempts. We believe the criminals attempted to mimic our sinkhole systems in order to avoid being shut down by other researchers.

Just last week we were investigating a case of a serious attack that potentially breached a company. When we collected proof of the attack, we had to contact the company to help them isolate compromised systems and remediate. This brought us to a problem we commonly see today: the problem of trust.

The first reaction you normally have when someone calls you and attempts to convince you must arouse suspicion. In our investigations we normally deal with security personnel, who are highly paranoid people and do not trust anyone by nature. So far, the reaction of the company’s security staff was spot on: get the name of the caller, the company and department name, look up the company contacts using an independent, trusted, verifiable source, contact the company and confirm the facts, asking to connect to the researcher in the office immediately to do additional voice recognition. When that is done, the conversation can be resumed. Such a reaction and verification process is what we consider standard in our business. Unfortunately, we haven’t seen the same level of cautiousness among regular users.

A typical strategy for cybercriminals is to try to hide their tools, exploit kits and other malicious files on a compromised legitimate website or inject a malicious payload into a hijacked banner network account. Attackers also will rip entire websites, or just replace links to redirect visitors to attacker controlled sites, as we observed with the StrongPity watering holes. In this case, they simply counted on the confusion caused by visual appearance.

The fake webpage looks exactly the same as the original one from our research server and there is no point in finding even minor differences. Every webpage on the web can be copied and made to look identical to the source, except for the page’s original address or validated SSL certificate. PGPHtml is an alternative possibility, with each page explicitly stating its host domain or IP and then signed and verified with a public key. The server in question has been reportedly serving the Pony Trojan, hosting the Hunter Exploit Kit and distributing Petya ransomware.

We believe that this was the act of Russian-speaking cybercriminals, who send messages to our side every time their activities are affected by the work we do. We are bringing this to your attention to make you a little bit more cautious. Having said that, our first reaction was laughter, because it brought back some memories of an excellent short video on this matter shot by our colleagues from the security industry. And, because of this history of receiving messages from malware authors in their code and on sites, we think it is unlikely that this site is a watering hole targeting security researchers.

Unfortunately, this game of shadows is a well-known method not only in the criminal world but also in the world of advanced targeted attackers. We have seen in the past that some APT groups use deceiving tactics in order to try to confuse security researchers into wrong attribution. We have seen malware samples in the past where attackers from one group implanted decoys, trying to mimic the behaviour of their rivals. This is done to harden the research process or consume extra time. The attribution process, being the hardest part of any computer investigation, can easily be driven in the wrong direction. However, we have been looking at these attempts for a long time and learned to recognize such false flags. Now we would like you to be cautious and verify everything you see.

Related to this topic, our colleagues recently presented a more in-depth analysis of these techniques at VB 2016. You can read their entire paper here: Wave your false flags!

Wave your false flags!

Thu, 10/06/2016 - 04:58

 Download the full report (PDF)

As a new VirusBulletin is upon us, it’s once again time to deep dive into interesting topics in anti-malware research. This time around, we’ve chosen to focus on attribution in APT research, its methods and complications, and how intermediate-to-advanced attackers are already manipulating attribution indicators in an attempt to mislead researchers and squander limited incident response resources. False flags and deception tactics have always been discussed as possibilities in this space, but we wanted to put out a wealth of examples to advance the conversation. Our hope is that we can further the dialogue regarding attribution to involve more nuanced and daunting questions that have yet to be conclusively addressed.

When reading some of the examples, keep in mind that this was written back in February to submit to the VirusBulletin call for papers. At the time, deception techniques were a topic discussed in private between researchers, but never publicly substantiated. Since then, events over the summer have made this topic commonplace to the infosec community, if still a matter of contention and skepticism. The paper is extensive (but not exhaustive) and we hope that those of you interested in the subject will take some time to go through the reasoning and examples. The following are some takeaways we hope will pique your interest and get a dialogue going regarding the nuances of attribution as it’s currently being done:

There’s nothing straightforward about ‘whodunnit’

From the perspective of threat intelligence producers, there exist complications regarding attribution and its practical purpose. As any honest anti-malware company should admit, no institution has complete or perfect visibility into the activities of any threat actor. Different companies see different fragments; different types of service providers compliment that visibility with other types of data. This is a research space rewarded by cooperation and data exchanges. As such, when attempting to describe the activities of a threat actor, it’s difficult to suggest that a single threat intelligence product can stand as the exhaustive final chapter on any of the threat actors we investigate. Much less, provide a definitive picture of their identity, activities, and resources.

The true value of a threat intelligence product is its actionable potential, its ability to help detect and mitigate attacks, to provide clear avenues for proactive defense and improved defensive posture against a persistent and shadowy adversary, and to provide understanding to institutions and individuals outmatched and outwitted by the topdogs of the cyber espionage space. And even then, we have to consider that when it comes to wide dissemination of this information for the benefit of the public, it’s not just victims that are reading threat intelligence products. As our paper sets out to demonstrate, attackers too are keenly consuming threat intelligence research, learning from researcher methods as well as other APT groups and incorporating that information to better their own operations.

What can attribution do for you?

Threat Intelligence has come a long way in the last five years or so, and with that, more and more attribution is being done publicly by companies selling this as a product. Before that, attribution was only really done within governments and kept private or classified. These days, journalists and commentators are after the ‘sexy’ part of the story and are heavily focused on the “who” and not the “why”. While we are not arguing for or against companies performing attribution and publicly sharing their discoveries, we do pose some questions around how deep attribution really needs to go based on the role of the organization defended and its ability to take action. For governments, the most fidelity is justifiably needed, especially when the outcome of the attribution results in diplomatic sanctions, offensive operations, or demarches. But for a private company consuming threat intelligence is that level of attribution really needed to protect that organization against these attacks?

We hope the paper proves thought-provoking to threat intelligence producers and consumers alike, aligning needs and expectations, and preparing the infosec community for increasingly deceptive and manipulative interactions with our adversaries.

On the StrongPity Waterhole Attacks Targeting Italian and Belgian Encryption Users

Mon, 10/03/2016 - 19:40

The StrongPity APT is a technically capable group operating under the radar for several years. The group has quietly deployed zero-day in the past, effectively spearphished targets, and maintains a modular toolset. What is most interesting about this group’s more recent activity however, is their focus on users of encryption tools, peaking this summer. In particular, the focus was on Italian and Belgian users, but the StrongPity watering holes affected systems in far more locations than just those two. Adding in their creative waterholing and poisoned installer tactics, we describe the StrongPity APT as not only determined and well-resourced, but fairly reckless and innovative as well.

Encryption Tools

Clearly this APT is interested in encrypted data and communications. The tools targeted by this group enable practices for securing secrecy and integrity of data. For example, WinRAR packs and encrypts files with strong suites like AES-256, and TrueCrypt encrypts full hard drives all in one swoop. Both WinRAR and TrueCrypt help provide strong and reliable encryption. WinRAR enables a person to encrypt a file with AES-256 in CBC mode with a strong PBKDF2 HMAC-SHA256 based key. And, TrueCrypt provides an effective open-source full disk encryption solution for Windows, Apple, Linux, and Android systems. Using both of these tools together, a sort of one off, poor man’s end-to-end encryption can be maintained for free by putting these two solutions together with free file sharing services.

Other software applications help to support encrypted sessions and communications. Well known applications supporting end-to-end encryption are used by hundreds of millions of folks, sometimes unknowingly, every day. IM clients like Microsoft’s Skype implement 256-bit AES encrypted communications, while Putty, Winscp and Windows Remote Desktop help provide private communications and sessions with fully encrypted communications as well. Most of these communications across the wire are currently unbreakable when intercepted, at least, when the applications are configured properly.

Summer 2016 Watering Hole Resources and Trickery – WinRAR and TrueCrypt

This actor set up a particularly clever site to deliver trojanized WinRAR installers in the summer of 2016, appears to have compromised another, and this activity reminds us somewhat of the early 2014 Crouching Yeti activity. Much of the Crouching Yeti intrusions were enabled by trojanizing legitimate ICS-related IT software installers like SCADA environment vpn client installers and industrial camera software driver installers. Then, they would compromise the legitimate company software distribution sites and replace the legitimate installers with the Crouching Yeti trojanized versions. The tactics effectively compromised ICS and SCADA related facilities and networks around the world. Simply put, even when visiting a legitimate company distribution site, IT staff was downloading and installing ICS-focused malware. StrongPity’s efforts did much the same.

In the case of StrongPity, the attackers were not focused on ICS or SCADA. They set up a domain name (ralrab[.]com) mimicking the legitimate WinRAR distribution site (rarlab[.]com), and then placed links on a legitimate “certified distributor” site in Europe to redirect to their poisoned installers hosted on ralrab[.]com. In Belgium, the attackers placed a “recommended” link to their ralrab[.]com site in the middle of the localized WinRAR distribution page on winrar[.]be. The big blue recommended button (here in French) linked to the malicious installer, while all the other links on the page directed to legitimate software:

Winrar[.]be site with “recommended link” leading to malicious ralrab[.]com

The winrar[.]be site evaluated what “recommended” package a visitor may need based on browser localization and processor capability, and accordingly offered up appropriate trojanized versions. Installer resources named for french and dutch versions, along with 32-bit versus 64-bit compiled executables were provided over the summer:

  • hxxp://www.ralrab[.]com/rar/winrar-x64-531.exe
  • hxxp://www.ralrab[.]com/rar/winrar-x64-531fr.exe
  • hxxp://www.ralrab[.]com/rar/winrar-x64-531nl.exe
  • hxxp://www.ralrab[.]com/rar/wrar531.exe
  • hxxp://www.ralrab[.]com/rar/wrar531fr.exe
  • hxxp://www.ralrab[.]com/rar/wrar531nl.exe
  • hxxp://ralrab[.]com/rar/winrar-x64-531.exe
  • hxxp://ralrab[.]com/rar/winrar-x64-531nl.exe
  • hxxp://ralrab[.]com/rar/wrar531fr.exe
  • hxxp://ralrab[.]com/rar/wrar531nl.exe
  • hxxp://ralrab[.]com/rar/wrar53b5.exe

Directory listing, poisoned StrongPity installers, at rarlrab[.]com

The first available visitor redirects from winrar[.]be to ralrab[.]com first appeared on May 28th, 2016, from the dutch speaking version of the winrar.be site. And around the same time, another “certified distributor” winrar[.]it served trojanized installers as well. The major difference here is that we didn’t record redirections to ralrab[.]com, but it appears the site directly served StrongPity trojanized installers:

  • hxxps://www.winrar[.]it/prelievo/WinRAR-x64-531it.exe
  • hxxps://www.winrar[.]it/prelievo/WRar531it.exe

The site started serving these executables a couple of days earlier on 5/24, where a large majority of Italian visitors where affected.

Download page, winrar[.]it

Quite simply, the download links on this site directed visitors to trojanized WinRAR installers hosted from the winrar.it site itself. It’s interesting to note that both of the sites are “distributors”, where the sites are owned and managed not by rarlabs, but by local owners in individual countries.

StrongPity also directed specific visitors from popular, localized software sharing sites directly to their trojanized installers. This activity continued into late September 2016. In particular, the group redirected visitors from software aggregation and sharing site tamindir[.]com to their attacker-controlled site at true-crypt[.]com. The StrongPity controlled Truecrypt site is a complete rip of the legitimate site, now hosted by Sourceforge. Here is the Tamindir truecrypt page, looks harmless enough.

TrueCrypt page, tamindir software sharing site

Unlike the newer poisoned WinRAR installers, StrongPity hosted several  Much like the poisoned WinRAR installers, multiple filenames have been used to keep up with visitor interests. Visitors may have been directed to the site by other means and downloaded directly from the ripped and persuasive site.

true-crypt[.]com malicious StrongPity distribution site

At the very bottom of the page, there are a couple of links to the poisoned installers:

  • hxxp://www.true-crypt[.]com/download/TrueCrypt-Setup-7.1a.exe
  • hxxp://true-crypt[.]com/files/TrueCrypt-7.2.exe

Referrers include these localized software aggregates and sharers:

  • gezginler[.]net/indir/truecrypt.html
  • tamindir[.]com/truecrypt/indir

It’s interesting that Ksn recorded appearance of the the file on two unique systems in December 2015, a third in January 2016, all in Turkey, and then nothing until May 2016. Then, deployment of the installers continued mostly within Turkey in July and September 2016.

Summer 2016 Watering Hole Victim Geolocations – WinRAR and TrueCrypt

Over the course of a little over a week, malware delivered from winrar.it appeared on over 600 systems throughout Europe and Northern Africa/Middle East. Likely, many more infections actually occurred. Accordingly, the country with the overwhelming number of detections was in Italy followed by Belgium and Algeria. The top countries with StrongPity malware from the winrar.it site from May 25th through the first few days of June are Italy, Belgium, Algeria, Cote D’Ivoire, Morroco, France, and Tunisia.

winrar[.]it StrongPity component geolocation distribution

In a similar time-span, the over sixty visitors redirected from winrar.be to ralrab.com for malicious file download were overwhelmingly located in one country. The top countries directed to StrongPity malware from the winrar.be site from May 25th through the first few days of June are Belgium, Algeria, Morroco, Netherlands, Canada, Cote D’Ivoire, and Tunisia.

winrar[.]be StrongPity component geolocation distribution

StrongPity previously set up TrueCrypt themed watering holes in late 2015. But their offensive activity surged in late summer 2016. The group set up a site directly pulled from the contents of the legitimate TrueCrypt website. From mid July to early September, dozens of visitors were redirected from tamindir[.]com to true-crypt[.]com with unsurprisingly almost all of the focus on systems in Turkey, with victims in the Netherlands as well.

tamindir[.]com to true-crypt[.]com poisoned TrueCrypt installer redirects

StrongPity Malware

The StrongPity droppers were often signed with unusual digital certificates, dropping multiple components that not only provide complete control of the victim system, but effectively steal disk contents, and can download components for further collection of various communications and contacts. Because we are talking about StrongPity watering holes, let’s take a quick look at what is being delivered by the group from these sites.

When we count all systems from 2016 infected with any one of the StrongPity components or a dropper, we see a more expansive picture. This data includes over 1,000 systems infected with a StrongPity component. The top five countries include Italy, Turkey, Belgium, Algeria, and France.

In the case of the winrar[.]be/ralrab[.]com watering hole malware, each one of the six droppers that we observed created a similar set of dropped components on disk. And, in these cases, the attackers did not re-use their fake digital certificates. In addition to installing the legitimate version of WinRAR, the dropper installed the following StrongPity components:

  • %temp%\procexp.exe
  • %temp%\sega\
  • nvvscv.exe
  • prst.cab
  • prst.dll
  • wndplyr.exe
  • wrlck.cab
  • wrlck.dll

Of these files, two are configurable and encrypted with the same keyless cipher, “wrlck.cab” and “prst.cab”. While one maintains several callback c2 for the backdoor to fetch more instructions and upload installed software and file paths, the other maintains something a bit more unusual. “prst.cab” maintains an encrypted list of programs that maintain encrypted connections. This simple encoding takes the most significant nibble for each character, swaps the nibbles of that byte, and xors the result against the original value. Its code looks something like this:

  • x = s[i];
  • j = ((x & 0xF0)>>4);
  • y = x ^ j;

Using that cipher in the ralrab[.]com malware, the package is configured to seek out several crypto-enabled software applications, highlighting the group’s interest in users of more encryption-supported software suites.

  • putty.exe (a windows SSH client)
  • filezilla.exe (supports ftps uploads)
  • winscp.exe (a windows secure copy application, providing encrypted and secure file transfer)
  • mstsc.exe (Windows Remote Desktop client, providing an encrypted connection to remote systems)
  • mRemoteNG.exe (a remote connections manager supporting SSH, RDP, and other encrypted protocols)

Also included in StrongPity components are keyloggers and additional data stealers.

Conclusion

Widely available, strong cryptography software tools help provide secure and private communications that are now easily obtained and usable. In the summer of 2016, multiple encryption-enabled software applications were targeted with watering hole, social engineering tactics, and spyware by the StrongPity APT. While watering holes and poisoned installers are tactics that have been effectively used by other APT, we have never seen the same focus on cryptographic-enabled software. When visiting sites and downloading encryption-enabled software, it has become necessary to verify the validity of the distribution site and the integrity of the downloaded file itself. Download sites not using PGP or strong digital code signing certificates need to re-examine the necessity of doing so for their own customers. We have seen other APT such as Crouching Yeti and Darkhotel distribute poisoned installers and poisoned executable code, then redistribute them through similar tactics and over p2p networks. Hopefully, simpler verification systems than the current batch of PGP and SSL applications will arise to be adopted in larger numbers. Until then, strong anti-malware and dynamic whitelisting solutions will be more necessary than ever.

For more details on APT tactics like StrongPity watering holes, contact intelreports@kaspersky.com.

Polyglot – the fake CTB-locker

Mon, 10/03/2016 - 04:58

Cryptor malware programs currently pose a very real cybersecurity threat to users and companies. Clearly, organizing effective security requires the use of security solutions that incorporate a broad range of technologies capable of preventing a cryptor program from landing on a potential victim’s computer or reacting quickly to stop an ongoing data encryption process and roll back any malicious changes. However, what can be done if an infection does occur and important data has been encrypted? (Infection can occur on nodes that, for whatever reason, were not protected by a security solution, or if the solution was disabled by an administrator.) In this case, the victim’s only hope is that the attackers made some mistakes when implementing the cryptographic algorithm, or used a weak encryption algorithm.

A brief description

The cryptor dubbed Polyglot emerged in late August. According to the information available to us, it is distributed in spam emails that contain a link to a malicious RAR archive. The archive contains the cryptor’s executable code.

Here are some examples of the links used:

hXXp://bank-info.gq/downloads/reshenie_suda.rar

hXXp://bank-info.gq/downloads/dogovor.rar

When the infected file is launched, nothing appears to happen. However, the cryptor copies itself under random names to a dozen or so places, writes itself to the autostart folder and to TaskScheduler. When the installation is complete, file encryption starts. The user’s files do not appear to change (their names remain the same), but the user is no longer able to open them.

When encryption is complete, the cryptor changes the desktop wallpaper, (interestingly, the wallpaper image is unique to each victim) and displays the ransom message.

The cryptor’s main window

New desktop wallpaper with the “open key” block unique to each victim computer

The user is offered the chance to decrypt several files for free.

The free trial decryption window

After this, the user is told to pay for file decryption in bitcoins. The cryptor contacts its C&C, which is located on the Tor network, for the ransom sum and the bitcoin address where it should be sent.

C&C communication window

From this moment on, the cryptor allows the user to check the ransom payment status on the C&C.

Ransom payment details

If the ransom is not paid on time, the cryptor notifies the user that it’s no longer possible to decrypt their files, and that it is about to ‘self-delete’.

Last window displayed by Polyglot

Imitating CTB-Locker

Initially, this cryptor caught our attention because it mimics all the features of another widespread cryptor – CTB-Locker (Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Onion). The graphical interface window, language switch, the sequence of actions for requesting the encryption key, the payment page, the desktop wallpapers – all of them are very similar to those used by CTB-Locker. The visual design has been copied very closely, while the messages in Polyglot’s windows have been copied word for word.

The main graphical interface windows:

Polyglot CTB-Locker

List of encrypted files:

Polyglot CTB-Locker

Window for the trial decryption of 5 random files:

Polyglot CTB-Locker

The private key request window:

Polyglot CTB-Locker

The desktop wallpapers:

Polyglot CTB-Locker

The ‘connection failed’ error message:

Polyglot CTB-Locker

Offline decryption instructions:

Polyglot CTB-Locker

The similarities do not stop there. Even the encryption algorithms used by the cybercriminals have clearly been chosen to imitate those used in CTB-Locker.

Polyglot CTB-Locker Algorithms used for file encryption File content is packed into a ZIP archive and then encrypted with AES-256. File content is compressed with Zlib and then encrypted with AES-256. Algorithms used while working with the keys ECDH (elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman), curve25519, SHA256. ECDH (elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman), curve25519, SHA256. Extensions of encrypted files File extensions are not changed. File extensions are changed, depending on version:
– .ctbl
– .ctb2
– 7 random lower-case Latin symbols Demo decryption 5 files are decrypted for free as a demo. Their decryption keys and file names are saved in the registry. 5 files are decrypted for free as a demo. Their decryption keys are only stored in the RAM memory while the process is running. C&C location C&C is in the Tor network, communication is via a public tor2web service. C&C is in the Tor network, communication is via a Tor client integrated into the Trojan, or (in some versions of CTB-Locker) via a public tor2web service. Traffic protection / obfuscation Bitwise NOT operation. AES encryption.

That said, we should note the following: a detailed analysis has revealed that Polyglot was developed independently from CTB-Locker; in other words, no shared code has been detected in the two Trojans (except the publicly available DLL code). Perhaps the creators of Polyglot wanted to disorient the victims and researchers, and created a near carbon copy of CTB-Locker from scratch to make it look like a CTB-Locker attack and that there was no hope of getting files decrypted for free.

C&C communication

The Trojan contacts the C&C server located on Tor via a public tor2web service, using the HTTP protocol.

Prior to each of the below data requests, a POST request is sent with the just one parameter: “live=1”.

Request 1.

At the start of operation, the Trojan reports the successful infection to the C&C. The following data is sent to the C&C:

{
“ip”:”xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx”,         //ip address of the infected computer
“method”:”register”,         //action type. “register” = Trojan informs C&C of new infection
“uid”:”xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx”,         //Infected computer’s ID
“version”:”10f”,         //Trojan version contained in its body
“info”:”Microsoft (build xxxx), 64-bit”,         //OS version on the infected computer
“description”:” “,         //Always a whitespace (” “)
“start_time”:”14740xxxxx”,         //Trojan’s start time
“end_time”:”0″,         //Encryption finish time. 0 = no encryption has run yet
“user_id”:”5″         //Number hardwired in the sample
}

This data block is passed through a bitwise NOT operation, encoded into Base64 and sent to the C&C in a POST request.

Contents of the sent request

Parameters of the POST request:

signature – CRC32 from the sent data
ver – Trojan version
gcdata – data, with contents as described above.

Request 1 and the reply received from the C&C

Request 2.

When the Trojan has finished encrypting the user’s data, it sends another request to the C&C. The content of the request is identical to that of request 1 except the field “end_time”, which now shows the time encryption was completed.

Request 3.

This is sent to the C&C to request the bitcoin address for payment and the ransom sum to be paid.

{
“method”:”getbtcpay”
“uid”:”xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx”
}

The C&C replies to this request with the following data:

{
“code”:”0″,
“text”:”OK”,
“address”:”xxxxxxxx”,         //bitcoin address (may vary)
“btc”:0.7,         //amount to be paid in BTC (may vary)
“usd”:319.98         //amount to be paid in USD (may vary)
}

Request 4.

This is sent to request a file decryption key from the C&C.

{
“method”:”getkeys”,
“key”:””,
“uid”:”xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx”,
“info”:[“DYqbX3m9u0Pk9bE9Rg2Co3empC2M/yrnqgNS3r0AT2vwCw8Zas08bd4BNiO3XuAqi6/5WQ0VBiUkRUToo+YFL/QtPkiRIQ/D9RyKhzpBHlNpf2hPb9eloDzpkonQl7L6cQyJ2FipEG2ggZOdTDBcNAEAAAA=”]
}

Request 5.

The Trojan reports that data decryption has been completed and states the number of decrypted files to the C&C.

{
“method”:”setend”,
“uid”:”xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx”,
“decrypted”:”1″
}

Description of the encryption algorithm

During our analysis of the malicious code, it became evident that the Trojan encrypts files in three stages, creating intermediate files:

  • First, the original file is placed in a password-protected ZIP archive. The archive has the same name as the original file plus the extension “a19”;
  • Polyglot encrypts the password-protected archive with the AES-256-ECB algorithm. The resulting file again uses the name of the original file, but the extension is now changed to “ap19”;
  • The Trojan deletes the original file and the file with the extension “a19”. The extension of the resulting file is changed from “ap19” to that of the original file.

Flowchart of the search and file encryption actions performed by Polyglot

A separate AES key is generated for each file, and is nothing more than a ‘shared secret’ generated according to the Diffie-Hellman protocol on an elliptic curve. However, first things first.

Before encrypting any files, the Trojan generates two random sequences, each 32 bytes long. The SHA256 digests of each sequence become the private keys s_ec_priv_1 and s_ec_priv_2. Then, the Bernstein elliptic curve (Curve25519) is used to obtain public keys s_ec_pub_1 and s_ec_pub_2 (respectively) from each private key.

The Trojan creates the structure decryption_info and writes the following to it: a random sequence used as the basis for creating the key s_ec_priv_1, the string machine_guid taken from the registry, and a few zero bytes.

struct decryption_info

{
        char s_rand_str_1[32];
        char machine_guid[36];
        char zeroes[12];
};

Using the private key s_ec_priv_2 and the cybercriminal’s public key mal_pub_key produces the shared secret mal_shared_secret = ECDH(s_ec_priv_2, mal_pub_key). The structure decryption_info is encrypted with algorithm AES-256-ECB using a key that is the SHA256 digest of this secret. For convenience, we shall call the obtained 80 bytes of the encrypted structure encrypted_info.

Only when Polyglot obtains the encrypted_info value does it proceed to generate the session key AES for the file. Using the above method, a new pair of keys is generated, f_priv_key and f_pub_key. Using f_priv_key and s_ec_pub_1 produces the shared secret f_shared_secret = ECDH(f_priv_key, s_ec_pub_1).

The SHA256 digest of this secret will be the AES key with which the file is encrypted.

To specify that the file has already been encrypted and that it’s possible to decrypt the file, the cybercriminals write the structure file_info to the start of each encrypted file:

struct file_info

{
        char label[4] = {‘H’,’U’, ‘I ‘, 0x00};
        uint32_t label2 = 1;
        uint64_t archive_size;
        char f_pub_key[32];
        char s_ec_pub_1[32];
        char s_ec_pub_2[32];
        char encrypted_info[80];
};

The elliptic curve, the Diffie-Hellman protocol, AES-256, a password-protected archive – it was almost flawless. But not quite, because the creator of Polyglot made a few mistakes during implementation. This gave us the opportunity to help the victims and restore files that had been encrypted by Polyglot.

Mistakes made by the creators

As was mentioned earlier, all the created keys are based on a randomly generated array of characters. Therefore, the strength of the keys is determined by the generator’s strength. And we were surprised to see the implementation of this generator:

A graphical representation of the random sequence generation procedure

Let’s convert this function into pseudocode so it’s easier to follow:

Please note that when another random byte is selected, the entire result of the function rand() is not used, just the remainder of dividing the result by 32. Only the cybercriminal knows why they decided to make the random string this much weaker – an exhaustive search of the entire set of the possible keys produced by such a pseudo-random number generator will only take a few minutes on a standard PC.

Taking advantage of this mistake, we were able to calculate the AES key for an encrypted file. Although there was a password-protected archive below the layer of symmetric encryption, we already knew that the cybercriminal had made another mistake.

Let’s look at how the archive key is generated:

We can see that the key length is only 4 bytes; moreover, these are specific bytes from the string MachineGuid, the unique ID assigned to the computer by the operating system. Furthermore, a slightly modified MachineGuid string is displayed in the requirements text displayed to the victim; this means that if we know the positions in which the 4 characters of the ZIP archive password are located, we can easily unpack the archive.

The MachineGuid string displayed in the requirements screen

Conclusion

Files that are encrypted by this cryptor can be decrypted using Kaspersky Lab’s free anti-cryptor utility RannohDecryptor Version 1.9.3.0.

All Kaspersky Lab solutions detect this cryptor malware as:
Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Polyglot
PDM:Trojan.Win32.Generic

MD5

c8799816d792e0c35f2649fa565e4ecb – Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Polyglot.a

TeamXRat: Brazilian cybercrime meets ransomware

Thu, 09/29/2016 - 12:42

Brazilian cybercriminals are notorious for their ability to develop banking trojans but now they have started to focus their efforts in new areas, including ransomware. We discovered a new variant of a Brazilian-made ransomware, Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Xpan, that is being used to infect local companies and hospitals, directly affecting innocent people, encrypting their files using the extension “.___xratteamLucked” and asking to pay the ransom.

The Kaspersky Anti-Ransom team decrypted the Xpan Trojan, allowing them to rescue the files of a Hospital in Brazil that had fallen victim to this Ransomware family.

Actually, this is not the first ransomware to come out of Brazil. In the past, we investigated TorLocker and its flawed encryption, which was created and negotiated worldwide by a Brazilian cybercriminal. We also saw a lot of copycats use HiddenTear in local attacks. Trojan Ransom Xpan was created by an organized gang, which used targeted attacks via RDP that abused weak passwords and wrong implementations.

In this post, we’ll explain this new Ransomware family and how Brazilian coders are creating new ransomware from scratch.

The group behind the attack

The group identifies itself as “TeamXRat“and “CorporacaoXRat“.
(Translating from Portuguese to English as “CorporationXRat”)

Their first ransom trojan consisted of using a simple XOR based encryption, described by some victims here (most of the victims are from Brazil). The new version of Xpan Ransomware shows that the cybercriminals behind it have improved the code to make it more complex, also switching the encryption scheme.

The ransom texts used by the group are written in Portuguese from Brazil. The messages do not inform how much the victim has to pay to retrieve their files, nor the payment method required (which is usually Bitcoins). Instead, they instruct the victim to send an email to one of the anonymous email services Mail2Tor or Email.tg. For example, corporacaoxrat@mail2tor.com, xRatTeam@mail2tor.com and xratteam@email.tg providing the public key used by the ransomware to encrypt the files. Older versions of this ransomware also used e-mail accounts from another Email service – Protonmail, such as corporacaoxrat@protonmail.com, currently deactivated.

When the victim gets in touch with the group, they start to negotiate the ransom payment. All communication is in Portuguese and they request 1 btc (about 603 USD) to decrypt the files. The group also claims that the payment is a “donation” arguing that “they exploited flaws in your system and carried out the attack in order to make sure you increase your security”. Finally, the cybercriminals also offer to decrypt one file for free:

“For me only the ‘donation’ is important. Not your files. If your files are important to you, I advise you to make the donation; otherwise, you’ll lose all your files”

Xpan, how it works

The sample is UPX packed. Once executed it checks the default language of the infected system set in the following registry key: HKLM\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\CONTROL\NLS\LOCALE

In addition, it’s able to query local time and obtain the computer name from the registry using several commands like net.exe, sc.exe, and taskkill.exe. Interestingly, it also deletes any Proxy setting defined in the system, located in: HKCU\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\INTERNET SETTINGS\ZONEMAP.

Since the targets are companies and corporations, the group might use proxies blocking access to certain Web resources. It is highly probable that this technique is used to “set victim’s free” while emailing the attackers or accessing BTC resources online.

After completing its execution, the ransomware displays the following image in the affected system:

“All your files were encrypted using a RSA 2048 bits encryption”

The sample is written in C++ and uses STL, being built as a console application. During the lenght of its execution, it logs all its actions to the console, only to clear it once the encryption process has finished.

The operation of this malware is ‘guided’ by the configuration data block stored inside the body of the Trojan:

Decrypted configuration block

The configuration contains the following details:

  • Drive letters which will be processed;
  • Blacklisted substrings: the files whose path contain any of these strings will not be encrypted;
  • Ransomware text message for the victim;
  • Extension of the encrypted files (in this case, .____xratteamLucked);
  • Name of the file with ransom notes;
  • Console commands to be executed prior to the process of file encryption;
  • Console commands to be executed after the encryption;
  • A public RSA-2048 key in the MSBLOB format.

Part of the pseudocode of the main procedure

From Xorist to Xpan

A previous ransomware sample that was believed to be part of the TeamXRat ransomware campaign used a simple encryption algorithm known as TEA (or Tiny Encryption Algorithm). After comparing this original version (dubbed Xorist) against this new Xpan variant, we could observe that now they are using an AES-256 encryption scheme.

Xorist ransomware TEA constant

Xpan ransomware now has evolved to use AES-256 encryption

Xorist Xpan Will automatically start when user is logged in. It uses the following registry key for persistence: SOFTWARE\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Run No persistence used. Tiny Encryption Algorithm AES-256 ASM, MS Linker C++, MinGW compiler Includes a list of files that are to be encrypted. Will encrypt everything except .exe and .dll files and files with blacklisted substrings in the path.

The developers have clearly shifted their development procedures in the Xpan malware. It’s typical for cybercriminals to evolve their techniques once a decryption method has been found for their ransomware, or that specific variant is widely detected.

List of file extensions that Xorist ransomware will search and encrypt

File Encryption

The trojan uses the implementation of cryptographic algorithms provided by MS CryptoAPI. The files are encrypted by AES-256 in CBC mode.

There are 2 known versions of this trojan that can be distinguished by their extensions. The 1st one uses “___xratteamLucked” (3 ‘_’ symbols) and the second one – “____xratteamLucked” (4 ‘_’ symbols).

These 2 versions employ different techniques to encrypt the files, which we will describe in more detail.

Version 1 (3 ‘_’ symbols in the extension)

The trojan generates a single 255-symbol password for all files. This password is encrypted by RSA-2048 and put into the ransom note (concatenated with the public key). Then the trojan produces a 256-bit key from this password using the API CryptDeriveKey; this key will be used to encrypt all files.

When processing each file, the malware adds the string ‘NMoreira’ to the beginning of the original file and encrypts the file content by 245-byte blocks using the AES-256 algorithm in CBC mode. Each block is additionally XOR’ed with a random byte which is stored before the padding of the corresponding block.

Version 2 (4 ‘_’ symbols in the extension)

For each file, the trojan generates a new 255-symbol password, encrypts this password by RSA-2048 and puts this data into the beginning of each encrypted file. Then, the trojan produces a 256-bit key from this password using the API CryptDeriveKey, and uses this key to encrypt the original file content (AES-256 CBC).

File search and encryption is carried out by multiple threads, each thread processes its disk.

Ransomware in action: console output inform the files encrypted

After encryption is completed, the malware will change the wallpaper in the desktop and display this file, with the ransom note:

The ransom note, in Portuguese

Before encrypting the data in the affected system, the ransomware executes the following commands, aiming to stop popular database services, to be sure that database files will be encrypted as well, so they cause a greater damage to the victim:

echo Iniciando pre comandos

echo Parando Firbird
sc config FirebirdServerDefaultInstance start=disabled
taskkill /IM fb_inet_server.exe /F
net stop FirebirdServerDefaultInstance

echo parando SQL SERVE

taskkill /IM sqlservr.exe /F
sc config MSSQLSERVER start=disabled
sc config MSSQL$SQLEXPRESS start=disabled
net stop MSSQLSERVER
net stop MSSQL$SQLEXPRESS

echo parando poostgree
taskkill /IM pg_ctl.exe /F
sc config postgresql-9.0 start=disabled
net stop postgresql-9.0

After the execution, the ransomware deletes itself from the system, to remove the original infector:

@echo off
  goto Delete
  :WaitAndDelete
  @timeout 5
  :Delete
  @del “path\sample_name.exe”
  if exist “path\sample_name.exe”
  goto WaitAndDelete
  @del %0

After the encryption has finished, the trojan modifies the registry to add a custom handler for the action of double-clicking on any of the encrypted files. As a result, when the victim clicks on a file with the extension “.____xratteamLucked“, the command stored in the registry is executed, and this command shows the ransom notes in a new window using msg.exe (a standard utility which is a part of Windows distribution).

Windows Registry modified by the ransom

How they attack

Most of the attacks performed by TeamXRat are performed manually, installing the ransomware in the hacked server. To achieve that, they perform RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) brute force attacks. Connecting remote desktop servers directly to the Internet is not recommended and brute forcing them is nothing new; but without the proper controls in place to prevent or at least detect and respond to compromised machines, brute force RDP attacks are still relevant and something that cybercriminals enjoy. Once the server is compromised, the attacker manually disables the Antivirus product installed on the server and proceeds with the infection itself.

We are also aware that vulnerabilities such as MS15-067 and MS15-030 in the RDP protocol, which allow remote code execution if an attacker sends a specially crafted sequence of packets to a targeted system, can be used by cybercriminals if a server is not patched and exposed to attacks.

As we saw in the recent xDedic research, vulnerable servers with exposed RDP connections are very valuable assets in the hands of cybercriminals. Not surprisingly, Brazil was the country with the most compromised servers being offered in the underground market to any cybercriminal.

xDedic: compromised Brazilian RDP servers were available in the underground market

Decryption: we can help!

If the victim pays the ransom, the cybercriminals will send this tool to decrypt the files:

Decryption tool sent by the bad guy after payment

But the good news is that the Kaspersky Anti-Ransom team was able to break the encryption used by the Xpan Trojan. This effort made possible the decryption of files belonging to a Hospital in Brazil, which was hit by this Ransomware family.

If you’re a victim of this new Ransomware family and need help to decrypt your files, please DON’T PAY the ransom. Instead, contact us via support.

Conclusion

As we can see, Brazilian bad guys are now diversifying their “business” with new ransomware families developed from scratch, abandoning older versions that used XOR encryption and adopting new, more robust encryption algorithms. This is a clear signal that they have started to explore new schemes with new targets and newer types of attacks.

As we forecasted in the beginning of this year, we expect ransomware attacks to gain ground on banking trojans and to transition into other platforms. Ransomware has two advantages over traditional banking threats: direct monetization using an anonymous payment system (usually Bitcoin), and relatively low cost per victim. Certainly, this is very attractive to Brazilian crooks, well-known for their banking trojans development. Brazilian law enforcement is very good at catching criminals (although they are not always convicted and imprisoned) by “following the money”, something that we know it’s not entirely possible for Bitcoin payments.

We detect this new threat as
Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Xpan.a and PDM:Trojan.Win32.Generic.

We’ll keep an eye out or new variants, which surely will appear from same or other threat actors.

MD5 reference: 34260178f9e3b2e769accdee56dac793

Future attack scenarios against ATM authentication systems

Thu, 09/22/2016 - 05:57

A lot has already been said about current cyber threats facing the owners of ATMs. The reason behind the ever-growing number of attacks on these devices is simple: the overall level of security of modern ATMs often makes them the easiest and fastest way for fraudsters to access the bank’s money. Naturally, the banking industry is reacting to these attacks by implementing a range of security measures, but the threat landscape is continually evolving. In order to prepare banks for what they should expect to see from criminals in the near future, we’ve prepared an overview report of future cyberthreats to ATMs. The report will – we hope – help the industry to better prepare for a new generation of attack tools and techniques.

The report comprises two papers in which we analyze all existing methods of authentication used in ATMs and those expected to be used in the near future, including: contactless authentication through NFC, one-time password authentication and biometric authentication systems, as well as potential vectors of attacks using malware, through to network attacks and attacks on hardware components.

We looked into what is going on underground around these technologies and were surprised to discover that there are twelve manufacturers out there that are already offering fake fingerprint scanners, otherwise known as biometric skimmers. There are also at least three other vendors researching devices that will be able to illegally obtain data from palm vein and iris recognition systems.

This is a major trend, because the problem with biometrics is that, unlike passwords or pin codes which can be easily modified in the event of compromise, it is impossible to change your fingerprint or iris image. Thus if your data is compromised once, it won’t be safe to use in the future. That is why it is extremely important to keep such data secure and transmit it in a secure way. Biometric data is also recorded in modern passports – called e-passports – and visas. So, if an attacker steals an e-passport, they not only steal the document, but also that person’s biometric data. As a result they steal a person’s identity.

The biometric data can also be accessed by criminals as a result of hacking into a bank’s infrastructure, which is also a major issue: if you lose the biometric database of your clients it won’t be possible to solve this problem just by recalling compromised payment cards. This is an unrecoverable loss and thus it is a kind of threat that the industry has never experienced before.

In general, network-based attacks against ATMs will be a headache for the security personnel of financial organizations in the coming years simply because, based on our penetration testing experience, the network infrastructure of a bank is very often built in a way that a hacker can exploit to gain access and take control of some critical parts of the network, including the network of ATMs. And this situation is not going to change any time soon, due to many reasons, one of which is the sheer size of financial organizations’ networks and the time-consuming and expensive task of upgrading them.

Nevertheless, by publishing this report we’d like to draw attention to the problem of ATM security now and in the near future, and to speed up the development of a truly secure ecosystem around these devices.

Read the full report here

Read the description of attacks here

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The banker that can steal anything

Tue, 09/20/2016 - 06:58

In the past, we’ve seen superuser rights exploit advertising applications such as Leech, Guerrilla, Ztorg. This use of root privileges is not typical, however, for banking malware attacks, because money can be stolen in numerous other ways that don’t require exclusive rights. However, in early February 2016, Kaspersky Lab discovered Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Tordow.a, whose creators decided that root privileges would come in handy. We had been watching the development of this malicious program closely and found that Tordow’s capabilities had significantly exceeded the functionality of most other banking malware, and this allowed cybercriminals to carry out new types of attacks.

Penetration

A Tordow Infection begins with the installation of a popular app, such as VKontakte, DrugVokrug, Pokemon Go, Telegram, Odnoklassniki or Subway Surf. In this particular case, we’re not talking about the original apps but copies that are distributed outside the official Google Play store. Malware writers download legitimate applications, disassemble them and add new code and new files.

Code added to a legitimate application

Anyone who possesses even a little knowledge of Android development can do it. The result is a new app that is very similar to the original, performs all the stated legitimate functions, but that also has the malicious functionality that the attackers need.

How it works

In the case in question, the code embedded in the legitimate app decrypts the file added by the cybercriminals in the app’s resources and launches it.

The launched file calls the attacker’s server and downloads the main part of Tordow, which contains links to download several more files – an exploit to gain root privileges, new versions of malware, and so on. The number of links may vary depending on the criminals’ intentions; moreover, each downloaded file can also download from the server, decrypt and run new components. As a result, the infected device is loaded with several malicious modules; their number and functionality also depend on what the Tordow owners want to do. Either way, the attackers get the chance to remotely control the device by sending commands from the C&C.

As a result, cybercriminals get a full set of functions for stealing money from users by applying the methods that have already become traditional for mobile bankers and ransomware. The functionality of the malicious app includes:

  • Sending, stealing, deleting SMS.
  • Recording, redirecting, blocking calls.
  • Checking the balance.
  • Stealing contacts.
  • Making calls.
  • Changing the C&C.
  • Downloading and running files.
  • Installing and removing applications.
  • Blocking the device and displaying a web page specified by a malicious server.
  • Generating and sending a list of files contained on the device; sending and renaming of files.
  • Rebooting a phone.
Superuser rights

In addition to downloading modules belonging to the banking Trojan, Tordow (within the prescribed load chain of modules) also downloads a popular exploit pack to gain root privileges, which provides the malware with a new attack vector and unique features.

Firstly, the Trojan installs one of the downloaded modules in the system folder, which makes it difficult to remove.

Secondly, using superuser rights the attackers steal the database of the default Android browser and the Google Chrome browser if it’s installed.

Code for sending data from browsers to the server

These databases contain all the logins and passwords stored by the user in the browser, browsing history, cookies, and sometimes even saved bank card details.

Login and password from a specific site in the browser database

As a result, the attackers can gain access to several of the victim’s accounts on different sites.

And thirdly, the superuser rights make it possible to steal almost any file in the system – from photos and documents to files containing mobile app account data.

These attacks can result in the theft of huge amounts of critical user data. We recommend that users do not install apps from unofficial sources and use antivirus solutions to protect Android-based devices.

Fooling the ‘Smart City’

Thu, 09/15/2016 - 04:59

The concept of a smart city involves bringing together various modern technologies and solutions that can ensure comfortable and convenient provision of services to people, public safety, efficient consumption of resources, etc. However, something that often goes under the radar of enthusiasts championing the smart city concept is the security of smart city components themselves. The truth is that a smart city’s infrastructure develops faster than security tools do, leaving ample room for the activities of both curious researchers and cybercriminals.

Smart Terminals Have Their Weak Points Too

Parking payment terminals, bicycle rental spots and mobile device recharge stations are abundant in the parks and streets of modern cities. At airports and passenger stations, there are self-service ticket machines and information kiosks. In movie theaters, there are ticket sale terminals. In clinics and public offices, there are queue management terminals. Even some paid public toilets now have payment terminals built into them, though not very often.

Ticket terminals in a movie theater

However, the more sophisticated the device, the higher the probability that it has vulnerabilities and/or configuration flaws. The probability that smart city component devices will one day be targeted by cybercriminals is far from zero. Сybercriminals can potentially exploit these devices for their ulterior purposes, and the scenarios of such exploitation come from the characteristics of such devices.

  • Many such devices are installed in public places
  • They are available 24/7
  • They have the same configuration across devices of the same type
  • They have a high user trust level
  • They process user data, including personal and financial information
  • They are connected to each other, and may have access to other local area networks
  • They typically have an Internet connection

Increasingly often, we see news on another electronic road sign getting hacked and displaying a “Zombies ahead” or similar message, or news about vulnerabilities detected in traffic light management or traffic control systems. However, this is just the tip of the iceberg; smart city infrastructure is not limited to traffic lights and road signs.

We decided to analyze some smart city components:

  • Touch-screen payment kiosks (tickets, parking etc.)
  • Infotainment terminals in taxis
  • Information terminals at airports and railway terminals
  • Road infrastructure components: speed cameras, traffic routers

Smart City Terminals

From a technical standpoint, nearly all payment and service terminals – irrespective of their purpose – are ordinary PCs equipped with touch screens. The main difference is that they have a ‘kiosk’ mode – an interactive graphical shell that blocks the user from accessing the regular operating system functions, leaving only a limited set of features that are needed to perform the terminal’s functions. But this is theory. In practice, as our field research has shown, most terminals do not have reliable protection preventing the user from exiting the kiosk mode and gaining access to the operating system’s functions.

Exiting the kiosk mode

Techniques for Exiting the Kiosk Mode

There are several types of vulnerabilities that affect a large proportion of terminals. As a consequence, there are existing attack methods that target them.

The sequence of operations that can enable an attacker to exit the full-screen application is illustrated in the picture below.

Methodology for analyzing the security of public terminals

Tap Fuzzing

The tap fuzzing technique involves trying to exit the full-screen application by taking advantage of incorrect handling when interacting with the full-screen application. A hacker taps screen corners with his fingers and tries to call the context menu by long-pressing various elements of the screen. If he is able to find such weak points, he tries to call one of the standard OS menus (printing, help, object properties, etc.) and gain access to the on-screen keyboard. If successful, the hacker gets access to the command line, which enables him to do whatever he wants in the system – explore the terminal’s hard drive in search of valuable data, access the Internet or install unwanted applications, such as malware.

Data Fuzzing

Data fuzzing is a technique that, if exploited successfully, also gives an attacker access to the “hidden” standard OS elements, but by using a different technique. To exit the full-screen application, the hacker tries filling in available data entry fields with various data in order to make the ‘kiosk’ work incorrectly. This can work, for example, if the full-screen application’s developer did not configure the filter checking the data entered by the user properly (string length, use of special symbols, etc.). As a result, the attacker can enter incorrect data, triggering an unhandled exception: as a result of the error, the OS will display a window notifying the user of the problem.

Once an element of the operating system’s standard interface has been brought up, the attacker can access the control panel, e.g., via the help section. The control panel will be the starting point for launching the virtual keyboard.

Other Techniques

Yet another technique for exiting the ‘kiosk’ is to search for external links that might enable the attacker to access a search engine site and then other sites. Due to developer oversight, many full-screen applications used in terminals contain links to external resources or social networks, such as VKontakte, Facebook, Google+, etc. We have found external links in the interface of cinema ticket vending machines and bike rental terminals, described below.

One more scenario of exiting the full-screen application is using standard elements of the operating system’s user interface. When using an available dialog window in a Windows-based terminal, an attacker is sometimes able to call the dialog window’s control elements, which enables him to exit the virtual ‘kiosk’.

Exiting the full-screen application of a cinema ticket vending terminal

Bike Rental Terminals

Cities in some countries, including Norway, Russia and the United States, are dotted with bicycle rental terminals. Such terminals have touch-screen displays that people can use to register if they want to rent a bike or get help information.

Status bar containing a URL

We found that the terminal system shown above has a curious feature. The Maps section was implemented using Google maps, and the Google widget includes a status bar, which contains “Report an Error”, “Privacy Policy” and “Terms of Use” links, among other information. Tapping on any of these links brings up a standard Internet Explorer window, which provides access to the operating system’s user interface.

The application includes other links, as well: for example, when viewing some locations on the map, you can tap on the “More Info” button and open a web page in the browser.

The Internet Explorer opens not only a web page, but also a new opportunity for the attacker

It turned out that calling up the virtual keyboard is not difficult either. By tapping on links on help pages, an attacker can access the Accessibility section, which is where the virtual keyboard can be found. This configuration flaw enables attackers to execute applications not needed for the device’s operation.

Running cmd.exe demonstrates yet another critical configuration flaw: the operating system’s current session is running with administrator privileges, which means that an attacker can easily execute any application.

The current Windows session is running with administrator privileges

In addition, an attacker can get the NTLM hash of the administrator password. It is highly probable that the password used on this device will work for other devices of the same type, as well.

Note that, in this case, an attacker can not only obtain the NTLM hash – which has to be brute-force cracked to get the password – but the administrator password itself, because passwords can be extracted from memory in plain text.

An attacker can also make a dump of the application that collects information on people who wish to rent a bicycle, including their full names, email addresses and phone numbers. It is not impossible that the database hosting this information is stored somewhere nearby. Such a database would have an especially high market value, since it contains verified email addresses and phone numbers. If it cannot be obtained, an attacker can install a keylogger that will intercept all data entered by users and send it to a remote server.

Given that these devices work 24/7, they can be pooled together to mine cryptocurrency or used for hacking purposes seeing as an infected workstation will be online around the clock.

Particularly audacious cybercriminals can implement an attack scenario that will enable them to get customer payment data by adding a payment card detail entry form to the main window of the bike rental application. It is highly probable that users deceived by the cybercriminals will enter this information alongside their names, phone numbers and email addresses.

Terminals at Government Offices

Terminals at some government offices can also be easily compromised by attackers. For example, we have found a terminal that prints payment slips based on the data entered by users. After all fields have been filled with the relevant data, the user taps the “Create” button, after which the terminal opens a standard print window with all the print parameters and control tools for several seconds. Next, the “Print” button is automatically activated.

A detail of the printing process on one of the terminals

An attacker has several seconds to tap the Change [printer] button and exit into the help section. From there, they can open the control panel and launch the on-screen keyboard. As a result, the attacker gets all the devices needed to enter information (the keyboard and the mouse pointer) and can use the computer for their own mercenary purposes, e.g., launch malware, get information on printed files, obtain the device’s administrator password, etc.

Public Devices at Airports

Self-service check-in kiosks that can be found at every modern airport have more or less the same security problems as the terminals described above. It is highly probable that they can be successfully attacked. An important difference between these kiosks and other similar devices is that some terminals at airports handle much more valuable information that terminals elsewhere.

Exiting the kiosk mode by opening an additional browser window

Many airports have a network of computers that provide paid Internet access. These computers handle the personal data that users have to enter to gain access, including people’s full names and payment card numbers. These terminals also have a semblance of a kiosk mode, but, due to design faults, exiting this mode is possible. On the computers we have analyzed, the kiosk software uses the Flash Player to show advertising and at a certain point an attacker can bring up a context menu and use it to access other OS functions.

It is worth noting that web address filtering policies are used on these computers. However, access to policy management on these computers was not restricted, enabling an attacker to add websites to the list or remove them from it, offering a range of possibilities for compromising these devices. For example, the ability to access phishing pages or sites used to distribute malware potentially puts such computers at risk. And blacklisting legitimate sites helps to increase the chances of a user following a phishing link.

List of addresses blocked by policies

We also discovered that configuration information used to connect to the database containing user data is stored openly in a text file. This means that, after finding a way to exit kiosk mode on one of these machines, anyone can get access to administrator credentials and subsequently to the customer database – with all the logins, passwords, payment details, etc.

A configuration file in which administrator logins and password hashes are stored

Infotainment Terminals in Taxicabs

In the past years, Android devices embedded in the back of the front passenger seat have been installed in many taxicabs. Passengers in the back seat can use these devices to watch advertising, weather information, news and jokes that are not really funny. These terminals have cameras installed in them for security reasons.

The application that delivers the content also works in kiosk mode and exiting this mode is also possible.

Exiting the kiosk mode on a device installed in a taxi makes it possible to download external applications

In those terminals that we were able to analyze, there was hidden text on the main screen. It can be selected using standard Android tools using a context menu. This leads to the search option being activated on the main screen. As a result, the shell stops responding, terminates and the device is automatically restarted. While the device is starting, all the hacker needs to do is exit to the main menu at the right time and open the RootExplorer – an Android OS file manager.

Android interface and folder structure

This gives an attacker access to the terminal’s OS and all of its capabilities, including the camera. If the hacker has prepared a malicious application for Android in advance and hosted it on a server, that application can be used to remotely access the camera. In this case, the attacker can remotely control the camera, making videos or taking photos of what is going on in the taxi and uploading them to his server.

Exiting the terminal’s full-screen application in a taxi gives access to the operating system’s functions

Our Recommendations

A successful attack can disrupt a terminal’s operation and cause direct financial damage to its owners. Additionally, a hacker can use a compromised terminal to hack into others, since terminals often form a network. After this, there are extensive possibilities for exploiting the network – from stealing personal data entered by users and spying on them (if the terminal has a camera or document scanner built into it) to stealing money (if the terminal accepts cash or bank cards).

To prevent malicious activity on public devices that have a touch interface, the developers and administrators of terminals located in public places should keep the following recommendations in mind:

  • The kiosk’s interactive shell should have no extra functions that enable the operating system’s menu to be called (such as right mouse click, links to external sites, etc.)
  • The application itself should be launched using sandboxing technology, such as jailroot, sandbox, etc. This will help to keep the application’s functionality limited to the artificial environment
  • Using a thin client is another method of protection. If a hacker manages to ‘kill’ an application, most of the valuable information will be stored on the server rather than the compromised device if the device is a thin client
  • The current operating system session should be launched with the restricted privileges of a regular user – this will make installing new applications much more difficult
  • A unique account with a unique password should be created on each device to prevent attackers who have compromised one of the terminals from using the password they have cracked to access other similar devices
Elements of the Road Infrastructure

The road infrastructure of modern cities is being gradually equipped with a variety of intelligent sensors, regulators, traffic analyzers, etc. All these sensors collect and send traffic density information to data centers. We looked at speedcams, which can be found everywhere these days.

Speed Cameras

We found speedcam IP addresses by pure chance, using the Shodan search engine. After studying several of these cameras, we developed a dork (a specific search request that identifies the devices or sites with pinpoint accuracy based on a specific attribute) to find as many IP addressed of these cameras as possible. We noticed a certain regularity in the IP addresses of these devices: in each city, all the cameras were on the same subnet. This enabled us to find those devices which were not shown in Shodan search results but which were on the same subnets with other cameras. This means there is a specific architecture on which these devices are based and there must be many such networks. Next, we scanned these and adjacent subnets on certain open ports and found a large number of such devices.

After determining which ports are open on speed cameras, we checked the hypothesis that one of them is responsible for RTSP – the real-time streaming protocol. The protocol’s architecture enables streaming to be either private (accessible with a login and password) or public. We decided to check that passwords were being used. Imagine our surprise when we realized there was no password and the entire video stream was available to all Internet users. Openly broadcast data includes not only the video stream itself, but additional data, such as the geographical coordinates of cameras, as well.

Direct broadcast screenshot from a speed camera

We found many more open ports on these devices, which can also be used to get many interesting technical details, such as a list of internal subnets used by the camera system or the list of camera hardware.

We learned from the technical documentation that the cameras can be reprogrammed over a wireless channel. We also learned from documentation that cameras can detect rule violations on specified lanes, making it possible to disable detection on one of the lanes in the right place at the right time. All of this can be done remotely.

Let’s put ourselves in criminals’ shoes and assume they need to remain undetected in the car traffic after performing certain illegal actions. They can take advantage of speed camera systems to achieve this. They can disable vehicle detection on some or all lanes along their route or monitor the actions of law-enforcement agents chasing them.

In addition, a criminal can get access to a database of vehicles registered as stolen and can add vehicles to it or remove them from it.

We have notified the organizations responsible for operating speed cameras in those countries where we identified the above security issues.

Routers

We also analyzed another element of the road infrastructure – the routers that transfer information between the various smart city elements that are part of the road infrastructure or to data centers.

As we were able to find out, a significant part of these routers uses either weak password protection or none at all. Another widespread vulnerability is that the network name of most routers corresponds to their geographic location, i.e., the street names and building numbers. After getting access to the administration interface of one of these routers, an attacker can scan internal IP ranges to determine other routers’ addresses, thereby collecting information on their locations. After this, by analyzing road load sensors, traffic density information can be collected from these sensors.

Such routers support recording traffic and uploading it to an FTP server that can be created by an attacker. These routers can also be used to create SSH tunnels. They provide access to their firmware (by creating its backup copy), support Telnet connections and have many other capabilities.

These devices are indispensable for the infrastructure of a smart city. However, after gaining access to them, criminals can use them for their own purposes. For example, if a bank uses a secret route to move large amounts of cash, the route can be determined by monitoring information from all sensors (using previously gained access to routers). Next, the movements of the vehicles can be monitored using the cameras.

Our Recommendations

To protect speed cameras, a full-scale security audit and penetration testing must first be carried out. From this, well-thought-out IT security recommendations be prepared for those who provide installation and maintenance of such speed monitoring systems. The technical documentation that we were able to obtain does not include any information on security mechanisms that can protect cameras against external attacks. Another thing that needs to be checked is whether such cameras are assigned an external IP address. This should be avoided where possible. For security reasons, none of these cameras should be visible from the Internet.

The main issue with routers used in the road infrastructure is that there is no requirement to set up a password during initial loading and configuration of the device. Many administrators of such routers are too forgetful or lazy to do such simple things. As a result, gaining access to the network’s internal traffic is sufficiently easy.

Conclusion

The number of new devices used in the infrastructure of a modern city is gradually growing. These new devices in turn connect to other devices and systems. For this environment to be safe for people who live in it, smart cities should be treated as information systems whose protection requires a custom approach and expertise.

This article was prepared as part of the support provided by Kaspersky Lab to “Securing Smart Cities”, an international non-profit initiative created to unite experts in smart city IT security technologies. For further information about the initiative, please visit securingsmartcities.org

Rooting Pokémons in Google Play Store

Wed, 09/14/2016 - 07:50

A few days ago we reported to Google the existence of a new malicious app in the Google Play Store. The Trojan presented itself as the “Guide for Pokémon Go”. According to the Google Play Store it has been downloaded more than 500,000 times. Our data suggests there have been at least 6,000 successful infections, including in Russia, India and Indonesia. However, since the app is oriented towards English-speaking users, people in such geographies, and more, are also likely to have been hit.

Analysis reveals that the app contains a malicious piece of code that downloads rooting malware – malware capable of gaining access to the core Android operating system, in this case for the purposes of unsolicited app install and adware.

Kaspersky Lab products detect the Trojan as HEUR:Trojan.AndroidOS.Ztorg.ad.

At least one other version of this particular app was available through Google Play in July 2016. Further, we have tracked back at least nine other apps infected with this Trojan and available on Google Play Store at different times since December 2015.

Trojan characteristics

The Trojan has many layers of defense in place to help it bypass detection. This includes a commercial packer that decrypts the original executable file to make it harder to analyze. The unpacked executable file contains useful code related to the malicious Pokémon Go guide, and one small and obfuscated module.

Process of infection

This small module doesn’t start when the user launches the app. Instead, it waits for the user to install or uninstall another app, then checks to see if that app runs on a real device or on a virtual machine. If it turns out that it’s dealing with a device, the Trojan will wait for a further two hours before starting its malicious activity.

The first thing it does is connect to its command-and-control (CnC) server and upload data about the device, including country, language, device model and OS version.

If the server wants the Trojan to continue it will respond with an ID string. Only if the Trojan receives this ID string will it make its next request to the CnC. If it doesn’t receive anything, it will wait for two hours and then resubmit the first request. This feature is included so that the control server can stop the attack from proceeding if it wants to – skipping those users it does not wish to target, or those which it suspects are a sandbox/virtual machine, for example. Among other things, this provides an additional layer of protection for the malware.

Upon receiving the second request, the CnC server will send the Trojan a JSON file with urls. The Trojan will download this file, decrypt it and execute. In our case the Trojan downloaded a file detected as HEUR:Trojan.AndroidOS.Ztorg.a. This file is obfuscated too.

After execution, the Trojan will drop and download some more files. All downloaded files are encrypted and most of them are local root exploit packs for vulnerabilities dating from 2012 to 2015, including one that was previously used by Hacking Team.

These other files represent additional modules of the Trojan and are detected by Kaspersky Lab as:

HEUR:Backdoor.AndroidOS.Ztorg.c, HEUR:Trojan.AndroidOS.Muetan.b, HEUR:Trojan.AndroidOS.Ztorg.ad, HEUR:Backdoor.AndroidOS.Ztorg.h, HEUR:Backdoor.AndroidOS.Ztorg.j, HEUR:Trojan-Dropper.AndroidOS.Agent.cv, HEUR:Trojan.AndroidOS.Hiddad.c. And a few clean tools like busybox and chattr.

Using these exploit packs the Trojan will gain root access rights to the device.

With rooting rights enabled, the Trojan will install its modules into the system folders, silently installing and uninstalling other apps and displaying unsolicited ads to the user.

Most of the other apps with this Trojan module available in Google Play had about 10,000 downloads (according to Google Play), but one – “Digital Clock” had more than 100,000 downloads.

MD5 of Malicious Files Mentioned in Article
8CB3A269E50CA1F9E958F685AE4A073C
0235CE101595DD0C594D0117BB64C8C3

Gugi: from an SMS Trojan to a Mobile-Banking Trojan

Mon, 09/12/2016 - 04:59

In the previous article, we described the mechanisms used by Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.c to bypass a number of new Android 6 security features. In this article, we review the entire Gugi mobile-banking Trojan family in more detail.

The use of WebSocket by Gugi

The mobile-banking Trojan family, Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi is interesting due to its use of the WebSocket protocol to interact with its command-and-control servers. This protocol combines the advantages of HTTP with those of commonly used sockets: there is no need to open extra ports on a device, as all the communication goes through standard port 80. At the same time, real-time data exchange is possible.

It is worth noting that even though this technology is user-friendly, it is not that popular among attackers. Among all the mobile Trojans that utilize WebSocket technology, more than 90% are related to the Gugi family.

WebSocket Usage in Mobile SMS Trojans

We registered the first case of WebSocket technology use in mobile Trojans at the end of December 2013. It was Trojan-SMS.AndroidOS.FakeInst.fn. Judging by the code, the Trojan was created by the same malefactors who created the Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi family.

During the initial registration, the FakeInst.fn Trojan uploads a large amount of device-related data to its server. The data includes the telephone number, the carrier information, IMEI, IMSI, etc.

From the server, the malware may receive a JSON file with the following commands (and data for the commands):

  • SMS – send a text message with specified text to a specified number;
  • intercept – enable or disable the interception of incoming SMS messages;
  • adres – change a command-and-control server address;
  • port – change a command-and-control server port;
  • contacts – send a bulk SMS message with specified content to all the contact numbers listed on the infected device.

In addition, the Trojan steals all outgoing SMS messages.

In the middle of January 2014, just a couple of weeks after discovering FakeInst.fn, a new version of the Trojan appeared. The malware was no longer using WebSocket; instead the communication was performed with the help of the HTTP protocol (GET and POST requests). Among all the installation packages of the Trojan, we could discover only two (dating back to the middle of March 2014) that utilized WebSocket. Everything seemed to indicate that the attackers decided to drop the technology for a while. They started to use it again almost two years later, in the Gugi family.

From SMS Trojans to Mobile Banking Trojans

Two years after finding the first version of Trojan-SMS.AndroidOS.FakeInst.fn, which utilized WebSocket, a new Websocket-using Trojan appeared, Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.a.

There are multiple matches in the Gugi code (variable and method names) with the Trojan-SMS.AndroidOS.FakeInst.fn code. The major changes within Gugi were the addition of a phishing window to steal the device user’s credit-card data and the use of WebSocket. Within all the Gugi mobile-banking Trojan family installation packages detected by us, WebSocket technology is used to communicate with the command-and-control server. Thus, the attackers had switched from Trojan-SMS to Trojan-Banker.

Evolution of the Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi

The evolution of the Gugi Trojan can be split into two stages:

“Fanta”

The first stage started in the middle of December 2015. The word “Fanta” is used within the name of all versions of the Trojan related to this stage, for example, “Fanta v.1.0”.

On request from the command-and-control server, Gugi Trojan version 1.0 could perform the following actions:

  • stop its operation;
  • steal all the contacts from the device;
  • steal all the SMS messages from the device;
  • send an SMS message with specified text to a specified number;
  • send a USSD request;
  • steal SMS messages from a specified group/conversation.

In late December 2015, we spotted the next version of Gugi, “Fanta v.1.1”. Its major difference from the previous version was that the code had a way of disabling the phishing window (we would like to remind you that Gugi can also be used as an SMS Trojan). Another new feature allowed contacts to be added to the infected device at the request of the server. This version was spread much more actively than the first one.

At the beginning of February 2016, we detected two new versions of Gugi, “Fanta v2.0” and “Fanta v2.1”. These versions had an increased focus on banking. First, they came with a new phishing window for stealing the username and password from the mobile banking software of one of the largest Russian banks. Secondly, the Trojan code introduced the list of phone numbers of two Russian banks. All incoming SMS messages from these numbers were not only sent to the malefactors’ server (like other SMS messages) but were hidden from the user.

These versions had a phishing window, shown either on request from the server or right after the smartphone had booted up. The window would not close until the user had entered their data.

Then, in the middle of March 2016, we found “Fanta v.2.2”. This became the most popular version of al, accounting for more than 50% of all of the installation packages related to the “Fanta” stage. Starting from this version, phishing windows were drawn over banking applications and Google Play.

Phishing window over Google Play Store

One more phishing window started to appear, right before the window for stealing credit-card data. This window read: “Link your credit card to Google Play Store and get 200 rubles for any apps!”

Additionally, starting from this version, the Trojan actively fights its removal. If the malware has Device Administrator rights, then its removal is possible only after disabling those rights. Therefore, whenever the Trojan does not have Device Administrator rights, it aggressively demands such permission, drawing its window over the device settings window.

In April 2016, we found the most recent “Fanta” version to date, “Fanta v.2.3”. That version had only one significant change: if the user disables the Device Administrator rights for the Trojan, then the malware changes the device password, effectively blocking the device.

All versions of “Fanta” are detected by the Kaspersky Lab products as Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.a.

“Lime”

The first file related to the second stage, “Lime”, was found a week before “Fanta v2.3” appeared, at the beginning of April 2016.

The installation package code for “Lime” seems to have been rewritten from the Fanta stage. The code, as well as the version names, had the word “Fanta” excluded and replaced with “Lime” in some lines. The same Trojan name, “Lime”, is seen in the administration panel through which the malefactors control this malware.

Trojan’s administration panel

Versions of the Trojan relating to the “Lime” stage do not change the device password when Device Administrator rights are disabled.

The first file discovered by us in April 2016 was version 1.1 and, judging by the code, was a test file. The next installation package related to the “Lime” stage was discovered in the middle of May 2016. It had the same version number, 1.1, but improved functionality.

The major change in version 1.1 of the “Lime” stage was that it showed new phishing windows. At that time, the Trojan could attack five banking apps of various Russian banks. Additionally, it had a new command to get the list of rules for processing incoming SMS messages. These rules define which messages should be hidden from the user and which messages should be replied to with specific messages.

Further, during the course of May 2016, we discovered files labelled 1.2 and 1.5 by the authors, even though the features of the files had not been changed.

Meanwhile, a new version of the Android OS, version 6.0, was released with security features that did not let the Trojan function properly. In June, we found a new version of the Trojan, 2.0, in which the malefactors had added support for Android 6. On Android 6 devices, the Trojan first requests permission to draw over other apps. Then, using the permission to its own advantage, it practically blocks the device, forcing the user to give Device Administrator rights to the malicious application as well as permission to read and send SMS messages and make calls.

Versions 3.0 and 3.1, which were found in July, have the same features as version 2.0 and utilize the same command-and-control server but different ports. Only one installation package for each version has been found by us. At the same time, version 2.0 continues to be actively spread.

All of the “Lime”-stage versions are detected by Kaspersky Lab products as Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.b and Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.c.

Transmission

The Trojan is actively transmitted via SMS spam, with a link to phishing web pages that show a message indicating that the user has, supposedly, received an MMS picture.

Information about MMS message on phishing website

If the “show” button in the message is clicked, then the Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi will be downloaded onto the device. It is highly likely that the name of the Trojan downloaded from such a websi фte will be similar to img09127639.jpg.apk.

As we have written in a previous post, we have encountered an explosive growth of Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi attacks. August revealed 3 times as many users attacked by Gugi as in July, and almost 20 times as many as in June.

An amount of Kaspersky Lab mobile product users attacked by Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi mobile-banking Trojan family

Today, the biggest number of attacks is performed by Lime version 2.0. All of the known active command-and-control servers of this Trojan are related to Lime versions 1.5 – 3.1. Not a single “Fanta” server known to us has been accessible since the middle of August 2016.

More than 93% of attacked users were located in Russia.

MD5 of Malicious Files Mentioned in Article

0x8EB8170A6B0957ED4943DAF6BA5C0F0A
0x01BC8A2C84D1481042723F347056B1B3
0xBF257FD4F46605A5DBE258561891D77B
0x01CD86238FE594CAC2495CE6BD38FAFA
0xCBCC996BF49FFE3F90B207103102177B
0x4C7C48B919C26278DD849ED4BB0B3192
0x11F51C119BC1E7D2358E2565B2287925
0xFA7C61CF2563F93DEA4BB9964D2E7806
0xC5A727E6C6A5E57EDDB16E6556D5D666
0xD644E6E68F83504787443E8C8A3CB47F
0xE778EAB7A2FB55C7BC67F15A692DE246
0xE6C3329A8CC357C5BA455BB3C4372DE3
0x8BE9C3EDED33E2ADD22DE1A96C4A6B2B

A malicious pairing of cryptor and stealer

Fri, 09/09/2016 - 04:59

We have already seen some cryptor attacks where malicious programs with different functions have been used in combination. For example, one version of the Shade cryptor checks victim computers for signs of accounting activity; if it finds any, it doesn’t encrypt the files, but instead installs remote control tools in the infected system. The bot can then be used by cybercriminals to steal money, a much more profitable outcome than just receiving a ransom to decrypt some files.

The owners of the RAA cryptor, however, took a different tack. The Trojan is delivered in emails that mostly target corporate users. After a successful infection, RAA executes its main task, i.e. encrypts the user’s files. However, it doesn’t stop there: some versions of RAA also include a Pony Trojan file, which steals confidential information from the infected computer. Using the stolen data, the cybercriminals can gain access to the victim’s mail clients and other resources. We can assume that the owners of RAA use these resources to carry out targeted attacks – sending out emails with the cryptor malware to the addresses on the victim’s contact list. This substantially improves the probability of subsequent infections.

In this article, we will provide details of how a pair of malicious programs – a new version of the RAA cryptor and the Pony stealer Trojan – work in unison.

The RAA cryptor

The RAA cryptor (Kaspersky Lab verdict: Trojan-Ransom.JS.RaaCrypt) was first detected in June 2016. It caught the attention of researchers and analysts due to the fact that it was written entirely in JavaScript, which is a rarity when it comes to ransomware cryptor Trojans.

We recently detected a new version of this Trojan that has a few differences from earlier known modifications. Let’s have a closer look at this particular sample, which has been assigned the verdict Trojan-Ransom.JS.RaaCrypt.ag.

Propagation

The body of this new version of RAA is a script in JScript (with a .js file extension). The malicious script is sent to potential victims attached to a spam message in a ZIP file with the password ‘111’.

The attack is aimed primarily at corporate users: the message mimics finance-related business correspondence, and the script’s name is similar to those shown below:

Счета на оплату _ август 2016 согласовано и отправлено контрагенту для проведения оплаты _aytOkOTH.doc.js (Invoice_August 2016 approved and sent to contractor for payment _aytOkOTH.doc.js)

Счета на оплату _ август 2016 согласовано и отправлено контрагенту для проведения оплаты _EKWT.doc.js (Invoice_August 2016 approved and sent to contractor for payment _ EKWT.doc.js)

“Let’s presume we made a concession when we allowed you to postpone your due payment.

“We understand you may have difficulties, but do we have to wait for another two months? To be honest, we don’t really want to go to court. Please make all the payments in next few days.”

The message includes a notice saying:

“The company… notifies you that in line with internal security regulations, all outgoing emails are subject to asymmetric encryption. Dear client, your password for this message is 111.”

People who know what ‘asymmetric encryption’ is will probably just smile at this; however, the message is obviously targeting a different audience.

It should be noted that sending malicious content in a password-protected archive is a well-known trick used by cybercriminals to prevent anti-malware systems installed on mail servers from unpacking the archive and detecting any malicious content. To unpack an archive like this, the anti-malware product must automatically retrieve the password from the message, which isn’t always possible.

For an infection to occur, users have to unpack the archive themselves and launch the .js file.

Script obfuscation

The code of the malicious script was deliberately obfuscated to complicate things for malware analysts. The content of the script looks like this in the source code:

Fragment of the obfuscated code

If we restore the line breaks and indents, it becomes obvious that the obfuscation involves renamed variables and functions, as well as strings hidden in the global array. After de-obfuscation and function renaming, the same section of code becomes much easier to read.

Fragment of de-obfuscated code

The script is nearly 3,000 lines long. Most of this is taken up by an implementation of the legitimate DLL CryptoJS, and an implementation of the RSA encryption procedure, which was also taken from public sources by the cybercriminals.

How the Trojan works

To lull the victim into a false sense of security, the RAA cryptor demonstrates a fake Microsoft Word document immediately after it launches. This document is in fact an RTF file specially crafted by the cybercriminals. (The document is contained in the Trojan’s body encoded in Base64 format.)

The fake document displayed to the victim

While the user is reading the message about a document that’s supposedly not being displayed properly, the Trojan is doing its dirty work:

  • Registers itself to be autostarted with Windows;
  • Deletes the registry key associated with the VSS service (to prevent the restoring of files from shadow copies);
  • Sends a request to the C&C server (unlike all previous versions of this Trojan, this version doesn’t wait for the delivery of keys from the server – the request is only sent so the cybercriminals can collect statistics);
  • Proceeds to search for files and encrypts them.
Key generation

Unlike earlier RAA modifications, this version of the cryptor does not request an encryption key from the C&C. Instead, the Trojan generates a session key on the client. To do so, it calls the WinAPI function RtlGenRandom which is considered a cryptographically secure generator of pseudorandom numbers.

To ensure it can call WinAPI functions from JS code, the Trojan uses a legitimate third-party OCX component called DynamicWrapperX. The Trojan stores it in its body in a Base64-encoded format, and installs it in the infected system. RAA has both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of DynamicWrapperX so it can attack systems running under both Windows architectures.

The Trojan encrypts the generated session key with an RSA algorithm (the public RSA-2048 key is contained within the script) and saves it to a file with the name “KEY-…”, where the multiple periods stand for a unique 36-character infection ID.

File encryption

RAA searches for and encrypts files with the extensions .doc, .xls, .rtf, .pdf, .dbf, .jpg, .dwg, .cdr, .psd, .cd, .mdb, .png, .lcd, .zip, .rar, .csv whose names do not contain the substrings “.locked”, “~”, “$”.

When searching for files, the Trojan skips folders named “WINDOWS”, “RECYCLER”, “Program Files”, “Program Files (x86)”, “Windows”, “Recycle.Bin”, “RECYCLE.BIN”, “Recycler”, “TEMP”, “APPDATA”, “AppData”, “Temp”, “ProgramData”, and “Microsoft”.

When processing each file, RAA uses the session key to generate a file key and initialization vector (IV). The contents of the files are encrypted in different ways depending on the file size:

  • 0 to 6,122 bytes: the file is encrypted in full.
  • 6,123 to 4,999,999 bytes: three fragments are selected for encryption in different sections of the file. The first, 2000- to 2040-byte fragment is selected at the beginning of file; the location and size of the two other fragments depend on the size of the first fragment and the overall size of the file.
  • 5,000,001 to 500,000,000 bytes: two fragments of 90000-125000 bytes are selected for encryption (from the beginning and end of the file).
  • 500,000,001 bytes and larger: not encrypted.

A string is added at the end of the encrypted file that contains “IDNUM” (infection ID), “KEY_LOGIC” (indexes to construct the file key from the session key), “IV_LOGIC” (indexes to construct the IV from the session key), and “LOGIC_ID” (possible values are “1”, “2” or “3” – the selected encryption method depending on the file size). The encrypted file is given the additional extension .locked.

The string added to the end of the encrypted file

Ransom demand

When the files are encrypted, RAA displays a file with the cybercriminals’ demands and contacts in WordPad. The Trojan fills the text template with a 36-character ID which is unique for each case.

The file containing the cybercriminals’ demands

The cybercriminals suggest that the victims purchase a file decryption key and software from them. Two methods of communication are available: email and the Bitmessage service. The victim is expected to pay for the decryption key in bitcoins.

Plus a stealer Trojan

The damage caused by the Trojan is not limited to encrypting files. Like some of the earlier versions of RAA, the version we are examining has some added features. The Trojan contains an executable file encoded in Base64, which it writes to the hard drive at ‘C:\Users\<username>\Documents\ii.exe’ and launches after it has finished encrypting files. Analysis revealed that ‘ii.exe’ is none other than Pony, a known password-stealing Trojan (detection verdict: Trojan-PSW.Win32.Tepfer.gen).

Pony has proved to be an unusually long-lived Trojan. Its early versions supposedly emerged back in 2011, while in December 2013, as reported by the mass media, it stole the credentials of over 2 million users.

Naturally, after all that time Pony’s source code appeared on the web at some point. Analysis showed that the executable file we are analyzing here was constructed using Pony source code.

Pony: confidential data theft

To recap, Pony’s main task is to collect confidential information from an infected computer and then send it to the cybercriminals.

Step 1. Stealing information

Below is a short list of the information that Pony hunts for.

  • Passwords stored in web browsers
Microsoft Internet Explorer Google Chrome Opera Mozilla Firefox K-Meleon Яндекс.Браузер Flock
  • Credentials to dozens of the most popular FTP clients
CuteFTP 6\7\8\9\Pro\Lite FTP Navigator FlashFXP 3\4 FileZilla FTP Commander Bullet Proof FTP Client SmartFTP TurboFTP FFFTP COREFTP FTP Explorer ClassicFTP SoftX.org FTPClient LeapFTP FTP CONTROL FTPVoyager LeechFTP WinFTP FTPGetter ALFTP BlazeFtp Robo-FTP 3.7 NovaFTP FTP Surfer LinasFTP Cyberduck WiseFTP
  • Accounts with the most widespread mail clients
Microsoft Outlook Mozilla Thunderbird The Bat! Windows Live Mail Becky! Internet Mail Pocomail IncrediMail
  • Various cryptocurrency wallet files
PPCoin Primecoin Feathercoin ProtoShares Quarkcoin Worldcoin Infinitecoin Fastcoin Phoenixcoin Craftcoin

The Trojan also has the following capabilities:

  • Pony steals the user’s digital certificates.
  • Pony stores a list of the most widespread combinations that users use as passwords. Using this list, it attempts to gain access to the accounts on an infected computer.

Step 2. Data encryption and sending

Before sending the collected information to cybercriminals, Pony encrypts it using the RC4 algorithm. When doing so, the Trojan keeps records of the checksums for the obtained data (slightly modified results of the CRC32 algorithm are used.) The sequence is as follows:

  1. Calculate the checksum of the non-encrypted data.
  2. Write the obtained value next to the input data.
  3. Encrypt input data with the RC4 algorithm using the key that the cybercriminals specified when they compiled the Trojan.
  4. Calculate the checksum of the encrypted data.
  5. Write the obtained value next to the input data.
  6. Generate a random 4-byte key
  7. Encrypt the input data with the RC4 algorithm using the generated key.
  8. Generate a data package ready for sending that can be described with a ToSend structure (see below)
struct ToSend { dword random_key; byte* double_encrypted_data; };

A non-encrypted fragment of the generated report

Fragment of the report that is ready for sending. The encryption key is highlighted in red

When the data is brought up to the required form, Pony sends it to the cybercriminals.

MD5

Trojan-Ransom.JS.RaaCrypt.ag:
68288a9f7a6bc41c9550a417d1721321

Trojan-PSW.Win32.Tepfer.gen (Pony):
1de05ee1437d412cd328a6b3bd45fffc

The Missing Piece – Sophisticated OS X Backdoor Discovered

Wed, 09/07/2016 - 09:19

In a nutshell
  • Backdoor.OSX.Mokes.a is the most recently discovered OS X variant of a cross-platform backdoor which is able to operate on all major operating systems (Windows,Linux,OS X). Please see also our analysis on the Windows and Linux variants.
  • This malware family is able to steal various types of data from the victim’s machine (Screenshots, Audio-/Video-Captures, Office-Documents, Keystrokes)
  • The backdoor is also able to execute arbitrary commands on the victim’s computer
  • To communicate it’s using strong AES-256-CBC encryption
Background

Back in January this year we found a new family of cross-platform backdoors for desktop environments. After the discovery of the binaries for Linux and Windows systems, we have now finally come across the OS X version of Mokes.A. It is written in C++ using Qt, a cross-platform application framework, and is statically linked to OpenSSL. This leads to a filesize of approx. 14MB. Let’s have a look into this very fresh sample.

“Unpacked” Backdoor.OSX.Mokes.a

Its filename was “unpacked” when we got our hands on it, but we’re assuming that in-the-wild it comes packed, just like its Linux variant.

Startup

When executed for the first time, the malware copies itself to the first available of the following locations, in this order:

  • $HOME/Library/App Store/storeuserd
  • $HOME/Library/com.apple.spotlight/SpotlightHelper
  • $HOME/Library/Dock/com.apple.dock.cache
  • $HOME/Library/Skype/SkypeHelper
  • $HOME/Library/Dropbox/DropboxCache
  • $HOME/Library/Google/Chrome/nacld
  • $HOME/Library/Firefox/Profiles/profiled

Corresponding to that location, it creates a plist-file to achieve persistence on the system:

After that it’s time to establish a first connection with its C&C server using HTTP on TCP port 80:

The User-Agent string is hardcoded in the binary and the server replies to this “heartbeat” request with “text/html” content of 208 bytes in length. Then the binary establishes an encrypted connection on TCP port 443 using the AES-256-CBC algorithm.

Backdoor functionality

Its next task is to setup the backdoor features:

  • Capturing Audio
  • Monitoring Removable Storage
  • Capturing Screen (every 30 sec.)
  • Scanning the file system for Office documents (xls, xlsx, doc, docx)

The attacker controlling the C&C server is also able to define own file filters to enhance the monitoring of the file system as well as executing arbitrary commands on the system.

Just like on other platforms, the malware creates several temporary files containing the collected data if the C&C server is not available.

  • $TMPDIR/ss0-DDMMyy-HHmmss-nnn.sst (Screenshots)
  • $TMPDIR/aa0-DDMMyy-HHmmss-nnn.aat (Audiocaptures)
  • $TMPDIR/kk0-DDMMyy-HHmmss-nnn.kkt (Keylogs)
  • $TMPDIR/dd0-DDMMyy-HHmmss-nnn.ddt (Arbitrary Data)

DDMMyy = date: 070916 = 2016-09-07
HHmmss = time: 154411 = 15:44:11
nnn = milliseconds

If the environment variable $TMPDIR is not defined, “/tmp/” is used as the location (http://doc.qt.io/qt-4.8/qdir.html#tempPath).

Hints from the author

The author of this malware again left some references to the corresponding source files:

Detection

We detect this type of malware as HEUR:Backdoor.OSX.Mokes.a

IOCs

Hash:
664e0a048f61a76145b55d1f1a5714606953d69edccec5228017eb546049dc8c

Files:
$HOME/LibraryApp Store/storeuserd
$HOME/Library/com.apple.spotlight/SpotlightHelper
$HOME/Library/Dock/com.apple.dock.cache
$HOME/Library/Skype/SkypeHelper
$HOME/Library/Dropbox/DropboxCache
$HOME/Library/Google/Chrome/nacld
$HOME/Library/Firefox/Profiles/profiled
$HOME/Library/LaunchAgents/$filename.plist
$TMPDIR/ss*-$date-$time-$ms.sst
$TMPDIR/aa*-$date-$time-$ms.aat
$TMPDIR/kk*-$date-$time-$ms.kkt
$TMPDIR/dd*-$date-$time-$ms.ddt

Hosts:
158.69.241[.]141
jikenick12and67[.]com
cameforcameand33212[.]com

User-Agent:
Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_9_3) AppleWebKit/537.75.14 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/7.0.3 Safari/7046A194A

Banking Trojan, Gugi, evolves to bypass Android 6 protection

Tue, 09/06/2016 - 05:58

Almost every Android OS update includes new security features designed to make cybercriminals’ life harder. And, of course, the cybercriminals always try to bypass them.

We have found a new modification of the mobile banking Trojan, Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.c that can bypass two new security features added in Android 6: permission-based app overlays and a dynamic permission requirement for dangerous in-app activities such as SMS or calls. The modification does not use any vulnerabilities, just social engineering.

Initial infection

The Gugi Trojan is spread mainly by SMS spam that takes users to phishing webpages with the text “Dear user, you receive MMS-photo! You can look at it by clicking on the following link”.

Clicking on the link initiates the download of the Gugi Trojan onto the user’s Android device.

Circumventing the security features

To help protect users from the impо, неact of phishing and ransomware attacks, Android 6 introduced a requirement for apps to request permission to superimpose their windows/views over other apps. In earlier versions of the OS they were able to automatically overlay other apps.

The Trojan’s ultimate goal is to overlay banking apps with phishing windows in order to steal user credentials for mobile banking. It also overlays the Google Play Store app to steal credit card details.

The Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.c modification gets the overlay permission it needs by forcing users to grant this permission. It then uses that to block the screen while demanding ever more dangerous access.

The first thing an infected user is presented with is a window with the text “Additional rights needed to work with graphics and windows” and one button: “provide.”

After clicking on this button, the user will see a dialog box that authorizes the app overlay (“drawing over other apps”).

System request to permit Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.c to overlay other apps

But as soon as the user gives Gugi this permission, the Trojan will block the device and show its window over any other windows/dialogs.

Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.c window that blocks the infected device until it receives all the necessary rights

It gives the user no option, presenting a window that contains only one button: “Activate”. Once the user presses this button they will receive a continuous series of requests for all the rights the Trojan is looking for. They won’t get back to the main menu until they have agreed to everything.

For example, following the first click of the button, the Trojan will ask for Device Administrator rights. It needs this for self-defense because it makes it much harder for the user to uninstall the app.

After successfully becoming the Device Administrator, the Trojan produces the next request. This one asks the user for permission to send and view SMS and to make calls.

It is interesting that Android 6 has introduced dynamic request capability as a new security features

Earlier versions of the OS only show app permissions at installation; but, starting from Android 6, the system will ask users for permission to execute dangerous actions like sending SMS or making calls the first time they are attempted, or allows apps to ask at any other time – so that is what the modified Gugi Trojan does.

TSystem request for dynamic permission

The Trojan will continue to ask the user for each permission until they agree. Should the user deny permission, subsequent requests will offer them the option of closing the request. If the Trojan does not receive all the permissions it wants, it will completely block the infected device. In such a case the user’s only option is to reboot the device in safe mode and try to uninstall the Trojan.

TRepeating system request for dynamic permission

A standard banking Trojan

With the exception of its ability to bypass Android 6 security features, and its use of the Websocket protocol, Gugi is a typical banking Trojan. It overlays apps with phishing windows to steal credentials for mobile banking or credit card details. It also steals SMS, contacts, makes USSD requests and can send SMS by command from the CnC.

The Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi family has been known about since December 2015, with the modification Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.c first discovered in June 2016.

Victim profile

The Gugi Trojan mainly attacks users in Russia: more than 93% of attacked users to date are based in that country. Right now it is a trending Trojan – in the first half of August 2016 there were ten times as many victims as in April 2016.

TUnique number users attacked by Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi.

We will shortly be publishing a detailed report into the Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi malware family, its functionality and its use of the Websocket protocol.

All Kaspersky Lab products detect all modifications of the Trojan-Banker.AndroidOS.Gugi malware family.

How Trojans manipulate Google Play

Wed, 08/31/2016 - 04:57

For malware writers, Google Play is the promised land of sorts. Once there, a malicious application gains access to a wide audience, gains the trust of that audience and experiences a degree of leniency from the security systems built into operating systems. On mobile devices, users typically cannot install applications coming from sources other than the official store, meaning this is a serious barrier for an app with malicious intent. However, it is far from easy for the app to get into Google Play: one of the main conditions for it is to pass a rigorous check for unwanted behavior by different analysis systems, both automatic and manual.

Some malware writers have given up on their efforts to push their malicious creations past security checks, and instead learned how to use the store’s client app for their unscrupulous gains. Lately, we have seen many Trojans use the Google Play app during promotion campaigns to download, install and launch apps on smartphones without the owners’ knowledge, as well as leave comments and rate apps. The apps installed by the Trojan do not typically cause direct damage to the user, but the victim may have to pay for the created excessive traffic. In addition, the Trojans may download and install paid apps as if they were free ones, further adding to the users’ bills.

Let us look into the methods how such manipulations with Google Play happen.

Level 1. N00b

The first method is to make the official Google Play app store undertake the actions the cybercriminal wants. The idea is to use the Trojan to launch the client, open the page of the required app in it, then search for and use special code to interact with the interface elements (buttons) to cause download, installation and launch of the application. The misused interface elements are outlined with red boxes in the screenshots below:

The exact methods of interaction with the interface vary. In general, the following techniques may be identified:

  1. Use of the Accessibility services of the operating system (used by modules in Trojan.AndroidOS.Ztorg).
  2. Imitation of user input (used by Trojan-Clicker.AndroidOS.Gopl.c).
  3. Code injection into the process of Google Play client to modify its operation (used by Trojan.AndroidOS.Iop).

To see how such Trojans operate. Let us look at the example of Trojan.AndroidOS.Ztorg.n. This malicious program uses Accessibility services originally intended to create applications to help people with disabilities, such as GUI voice control apps. The Trojan receives a job from the command and control server (C&C) which contains a link to the required application, opens it in Google Play, and then launches the following code:

This code is needed to detect when the required interface element appears on the screen, and to emulate the click on it. This way, the following buttons are clicked in a sequence: “BUY” (the price is shown in the button), “ACCEPT” and “CONTINUE”. This is sufficient to purchase the app, if the user has a credit card with sufficient balance connected to his/her Google account.

Level 2. Pro

Some malware writers take roads less traveled. Instead of using the easy and reliable way described above, they create their own client for the app store using HTTPS API.

The difficult part about this approach is that the operation of the self-made client requires information (e.g. user credentials and authentication tokens) which is not available to a regular app. However, the cybercriminals are very fortunate that all required data are stored on the device in clear text, in the convenient SQLite format. Access to the data is limited by the Android security model, however apps may abuse it e.g. by rooting the device and thus gaining unlimited access.

For example, some versions of the Trojan.AndroidOS.Guerrilla.a have their own client for Google Play, which is distributed with the help of the rooter Leech. This client successfully fulfils the task of downloading and installing free and paid apps, and is capable of rating apps and leaving comments in the Google store.

After launch, Guerrilla starts to collect the following required information:

  1. The credentials to the user’s Google Play account.

    Activities in Google Play require special tokens that are generated when the user logs in. When the user is already logged in to Google Play, the Trojan can use the locally cached tokens. They can be located through a simple search through the database located at /data/system/users/0/accounts.db:

    With the help of the code below, the Trojan checks if there are ready tokens on the infected device, i.e. if the user has logged on and can do activities in Google Play:

    If no such tokens are available, the Trojan obtains the user’s username and hashed password, and authenticates via OAuth:

  2. Android_id is the device’s unique ID.
  3. Google Service Framework ID is the device’s identifier across Google services.

    First, the Trojans attempts to obtain this ID using regular methods. If these fail for whatever reason, it executes the following code:

  4. Google Advertising ID is the unique advertising ID provided by Google Play services.

    Guerrilla obtains it as follows:

  5. In a similar way, the Trojan obtains hashed data about the device from the file “/data/data/com.google.android.gms/shared_prefs/Checkin.xml“.

    When the Trojan has collected the above data, it begins to receive tasks to download and install apps. Below is the structure of one such task:

The Trojan downloads the application by sending POST requests using the links below:

  1. https://android.clients.google.com/fdfe/search: a search is undertaken for the request sent by the cybercriminals. This request is needed to simulate the user’s interaction with the Google Play client. (The main scenario of installing apps from the official client presupposes that the user first does the search request and only then visits the app’s page).
  2. https://android.clients.google.com/fdfe/details: with this request, additional information needed to download the app is collected.
  3. https://android.clients.google.com/fdfe/purchase: the token and purchase details are downloaded, used in the next request.
  4. https://android.clients.google.com/fdfe/delivery: the Trojan receives the URL and the cookie-files required to download the Android application package (APK) file.
  5. https://android.clients.google.com/fdfe/log: the download is confirmed (so the download counter is incremented.)
  6. https://android.clients.google.com/fdfe/addReview: the app is rated and a comment is added.

When creating the requests, the cybercriminals attempted to simulate most accurately the equivalent requests sent by the official client. For example, the below set of HTTP headers is used in each request:

After the request is executed, the app may (optionally) get downloaded, installed (using the command ‘pm install -r’ which allows for installation of applications without the user’s consent) and launched.

Conclusion

The Trojans that use the Google Play app to download, install and launch apps from the store to a smartphone without the device owner’s consent are typically distributed by rooters – malicious programs which have already gained the highest possible privileges on the device. It is this particular fact that allows them to launch such attacks on the Google Play client app.

This type of malicious program pose a serious threat: in Q2 2016, different rooters occupied more than a half of the Top 20 of mobile malware. All the more so, rooters can download not only malicious programs that compromise the Android ecosystem and spend the user’s money on purchasing unnecessary paid apps, but other malware as well.

The Hunt for Lurk

Tue, 08/30/2016 - 04:58

In early June, 2016, the Russian police arrested the alleged members of the criminal group known as Lurk. The police suspected Lurk of stealing nearly three billion rubles, using malicious software to systematically withdraw large sums of money from the accounts of commercial organizations, including banks. For Kaspersky Lab, these arrests marked the culmination of a six-year investigation by the company’s Computer Incidents Investigation team. We are pleased that the police authorities were able to put the wealth of information we accumulated to good use: to detain suspects and, most importantly, to put an end to the theft. We ourselves gained more knowledge from this investigation than from any other. This article is an attempt to share this experience with other experts, particularly the IT security specialists in companies and financial institutions that increasingly find themselves the targets of cyber-attacks.

When we first encountered Lurk, in 2011, it was a nameless Trojan. It all started when we became aware of a number of incidents at several Russian banks that had resulted in the theft of large sums of money from customers. To steal the money, the unknown criminals used a hidden malicious program that was able to interact automatically with the financial institution’s remote banking service (RBS) software; replacing bank details in payment orders generated by an accountant at the attacked organization, or even generating such orders by itself.

In 2016, it is hard to imagine banking software that does not demand some form of additional authentication, but things were different back in 2011. In most cases, the attackers only had to infect the computer on which the RBS software was installed in order to start stealing the cash. Russia’s banking system, like those of many other countries, was unprepared for such attacks, and cybercriminals were quick to exploit the security gap.

We participated in the investigation of several incidents involving the nameless malware, and sent samples to our malware analysts. They created a signature to see if any other infections involving it had been registered, and discovered something very unusual: our internal malware naming system insisted that what we were looking at was a Trojan that could be used for many things (spamming, for example) but not stealing money.

Our detection systems suggest that a program with a certain set of functions can sometimes be mistaken for something completely different. In the case of this particular program the cause was slightly different: an investigation revealed that it had been detected by a “common” signature because it was doing nothing that could lead the system to include it in any specific group, for example, that of banking Trojans.

Whatever the reason, the fact remained that the malicious program was used for the theft of money.

So we decided to take a closer look at the malware. The first attempts to understand how the program worked gave our analysts nothing. Regardless of whether it was launched on a virtual or a real machine, it behaved in the same way: it didn’t do anything. This is how the program, and later the group behind it, got its name. To “lurk” means to hide, generally with the intention of ambush.

We were soon able to help investigate another incident involving Lurk. This time we got a chance to explore the image of the attacked computer. There, in addition to the familiar malicious program, we found a .dll file with which the main executable file could interact. This was our first piece of evidence that Lurk had a modular structure.

Later discoveries suggest that, in 2011, Lurk was still at an early stage of development. It was formed of just two components, a number that would grow considerably over the coming years.

The additional file we uncovered did little to clarify the nature of Lurk. It was clear that it was a Trojan targeting RBS and that it was used in a relatively small number of incidents. In 2011, attacks on such systems were starting to grow in popularity. Other, similar, programs were already known about, the earliest detected as far back as in 2006, with new malware appearing regularly since then. These included ZeuS, SpyEye, and Carberp, etc. In this series, Lurk represented yet another dangerous piece of malware.

It was extremely difficult to make Lurk work in a lab environment. New versions of the program appeared only rarely, so we had few opportunities to investigate new incidents involving Lurk. A combination of these factors influenced our decision to postpone our active investigation into this program and turn our attention to more urgent tasks.

A change of leader

For about a year after we first met Lurk, we heard little about it. It later turned out that the incidents involving this malicious program were buried in the huge amount of similar incidents involving other malware. In May 2011, the source code of ZeuS had been published on the Web and this resulted in the emergence of many program modifications developed by small groups of cybercriminals.

In addition to ZeuS, there were a number of other unique financial malware programs. In Russia, there were several relatively large cybercriminal groups engaged in financial theft via attacks on RBS. Carberp was the most active among them. At the end of March 2012, the majority of its members were arrested by the police. This event significantly affected the Russian cybercriminal world as the gang had stolen hundreds of millions of rubles during a few years of activity, and was considered a “leader” among cybercriminals. However, by the time of the arrests, Carberp’s reputation as a major player was already waning. There was a new challenger for the crown.

A few weeks before the arrests, the sites of a number of major Russian media, such as the agency “RIA Novosti”, Gazeta.ru and others, had been subjected to a watering hole attack. The unknown cybercriminals behind this attack distributed their malware by exploiting a vulnerability in the websites’ banner exchange system. A visitor to the site would be redirected to a fraudulent page containing a Java exploit. Successful exploitation of the vulnerability initiated the launch of a malicious program whose main function was collecting information on the attacked computer, sending it to a malicious server, and in some cases receiving and installing an extra load from the server.

The code on the main page of RIA.ru that is used to download additional content from AdFox.ru

From a technical perspective, the malicious program was unusual. Unlike most other malware, it left no traces on the hard drive of the system attacked and worked only in the RAM of the machine. This approach is not often used in malware, primarily because the resulting infection is “short-lived”: malware exists in the system only until the computer is restarted, at which point the process of infection need to be started anew. But, in the case of these attacks, the secret “bodiless” malicious program did not have to gain a foothold in the victim’s system. Its primary job was to explore; its secondary role was to download and install additional malware. Another fascinating detail was the fact that the malware was only downloaded in a small number of cases, when the victim computer turned out to be “interesting”.

Part of the Lurk code responsible for downloading additional modules

Analysis of the bodiless malicious program showed that it was “interested” in computers with remote banking software installed. More specifically, RBS software created by Russian developers. Much later we learned that this unnamed, bodiless module was a mini, one of the malicious programs which used Lurk. But at the time we were not sure whether the Lurk we had known since 2011, and the Lurk discovered in 2012, were created by the same people. We had two hypotheses: either Lurk was a program written for sale, and both the 2011 and 2012 versions were the result of the activity of two different groups, which had each bought the program from the author; or the 2012 version was a modification of the previously known Trojan.

The second hypothesis turned out to be correct.

Invisible war with banking software

A small digression. Remote banking systems consist of two main parts: the bank and the client. The client part is a small program that allows the user (usually an accountant) to remotely manage their organization’s accounts. There are only a few developers of such software in Russia, so any Russian organization that uses RBS relies on software developed by one of these companies. For cybercriminal groups specializing in attacks on RBS, this limited range of options plays straight into their hands.

In April 2013, a year after we found the “bodiless” Lurk module, the Russian cybercriminal underground exploited several families of malicious software that specialized in attacks on banking software. Almost all operated in a similar way: during the exploration stage they found out whether the attacked computer had the necessary banking software installed. If it did, the malware downloaded additional modules, including ones allowing for the automatic creation of unauthorized payment orders, changing details in legal payment orders, etc. This level of automation became possible because the cybercriminals had thoroughly studied how the banking software operated and “tailored” their malicious software modules to a specific banking solution.

The people behind the creation and distribution of Lurk had done exactly the same: studying the client component of the banking software and modifying their malware accordingly. In fact, they created an illegal add-on to the legal RBS product.

Through the information exchanges used by people in the security industry, we learned that several Russian banks were struggling with malicious programs created specifically to attack a particular type of legal banking software. Some of them were having to release weekly patches to customers. These updates would fix the immediate security problems, but the mysterious hackers “on the other side” would quickly release a new version of malware that bypassed the upgraded protection created by the authors of the banking programs.

It should be understood that this type of work – reverse-engineering a professional banking product – cannot easily be undertaken by an amateur hacker. In addition, the task is tedious and time-consuming and not the kind to be performed with great enthusiasm. It would need a team of specialists. But who in their right mind would openly take up illegal work, and who might have the money to finance such activities? In trying to answer these questions, we eventually came to the conclusion that every version of Lurk probably had an organized group of cybersecurity specialists behind it.

The relative lull of 2011-2012 was followed by a steady increase in notifications of Lurk-based incidents resulting in the theft of money. Due to the fact that affected organizations turned to us for help, we were able to collect ever more information about the malware. By the end of 2013, the information obtained from studying hard drive images of attacked computers as well as data available from public sources, enabled us to build a rough picture of a group of Internet users who appeared to be associated with Lurk.

This was not an easy task. The people behind Lurk were pretty good at anonymizing their activity on the network. For example, they were actively using encryption in everyday communication, as well as false data for domain registration, services for anonymous registration, etc. In other words, it was not as easy as simply looking someone up on “Vkontakte” or Facebook using the name from Whois, which can happen with other, less professional groups of cybercriminals, such as Koobface. The Lurk gang did not make such blunders. Yet mistakes, seemingly insignificant and rare, still occurred. And when they did, we caught them.

Not wishing to give away free lessons in how to run a conspiracy, I will not provide examples of these mistakes, but their analysis allowed us to build a pretty clear picture of the key characteristics of the gang. We realized that we were dealing with a group of about 15 people (although by the time it was shut down, the number of “regular” members had risen to 40). This team provided the so-called “full cycle” of malware development, delivery and monetization – rather like a small, software development company. At that time the “company” had two key “products”: the malicious program, Lurk, and a huge botnet of computers infected with it. The malicious program had its own team of developers, responsible for developing new functions, searching for ways to “interact” with RBS systems, providing stable performance and fulfilling other tasks. They were supported by a team of testers who checked the program performance in different environments. The botnet also had its own team (administrators, operators, money flow manager, and other partners working with the bots via the administration panel) who ensured the operation of the command and control (C&C) servers and protected them from detection and interception.

Developing and maintaining this class of malicious software requires professionals and the leaders of the group hunted for them on job search sites. Examples of such vacancies are covered in my article about Russian financial cybercrime. The description of the vacancy did not mention the illegality of the work on offer. At the interview, the “employer” would question candidates about their moral principles: applicants were told what kind of work they would be expected to do, and why. Those who agreed got in.

A fraudster has advertised a job vacancy for java / flash specialists on a popular Ukrainian website. The job requirements include a good level of programming skills in Java, Flash, knowledge of JVM / AVM specifications, and others. The organizer offers remote work and full employment with a salary of $2,500.

So, every morning, from Monday to Friday, people in different parts of Russia and Ukraine sat down in front of their computer and started to “work”. The programmers “tuned” the functions of malware modifications, after which the testers carried out the necessary tests on the quality of the new product. Then the team responsible for the botnet and for the operation of the malware modules and components uploaded the new version onto the command server, and the malicious software on botnet computers was automatically updated. They also studied information sent from infected computers to find out whether they had access to RBS, how much money was deposited in clients’ accounts, etc.

The money flow manager, responsible for transferring the stolen money into the accounts of money mules, would press the button on the botnet control panel and send hundreds of thousands of rubles to accounts that the “drop project” managers had prepared in advance. In many cases they didn’t even need to press the button: the malicious program substituted the details of the payment order generated by the accountant, and the money went directly to the accounts of the cybercriminals and on to the bank cards of the money mules, who cashed it via ATMs, handed it over to the money mule manager who, in turn, delivered it to the head of the organization. The head would then allocate the money according to the needs of the organization: paying a “salary” to the employees and a share to associates, funding the maintenance of the expensive network infrastructure, and of course, satisfying their own needs. This cycle was repeated several times.

Each member of the typical criminal group has their own responsibilities.

These were the golden years for Lurk. The shortcomings in RBS transaction protection meant that stealing money from a victim organization through an accountant’s infected machine did not require any special skills and could even be automated. But all “good things” must come to an end.

The end of “auto money flow” and the beginning of hard times

The explosive growth of thefts committed by Lurk and other cybercriminal groups forced banks, their IT security teams and banking software developers to respond.

First of all, the developers of RBS software blocked public access to their products. Before the appearance of financial cybercriminal gangs, any user could download a demo version of the program from the manufacturer’s website. Attackers used this to study the features of banking software in order to create ever more tailored malicious programs for it. Finally, after many months of “invisible war” with cybercriminals, the majority of RBS software vendors succeeded in perfecting the security of their products.

At the same time, the banks started to implement dedicated technologies to counter the so-called “auto money flow”, the procedure which allowed the attackers to use malware to modify the payment order and steal money automatically.

By the end of 2013, we had thoroughly explored the activity of Lurk and collected considerable information about the malware. At our farm of bots, we could finally launch a consistently functioning malicious script, which allowed us to learn about all the modifications cybercriminals had introduced into the latest versions of the program. Our team of analysts had also made progress: by the year’s end we had a clear insight into how the malware worked, what it comprised and what optional modules it had in its arsenal.

Most of this information came from the analysis of incidents caused by Lurk-based attacks. We were simultaneously providing technical consultancy to the law enforcement agencies investigating the activities of this gang.

It was clear that the cybercriminals were trying to counteract the changes introduced in banking and IT security. For example, once the banking software vendors stopped providing demo versions of their programs for public access, the members of the criminal group established a shell company to receive directly any updated versions of the RBS software.

Thefts declined as a result of improvements in the security of banking software, and the “auto money flow” became less effective. As far as we can judge from the data we have, in 2014 the criminal group behind Lurk seriously reduced its activity and “lived from hand to mouth”, attacking anyone they could, including ordinary users. Even if the attack could bring in no more than a few tens of thousands of rubles, they would still descend to it.

In our opinion, this was caused by economic factors: by that time, the criminal group had an extensive and extremely costly network infrastructure, so, in addition to employees’ salaries, it was necessary to pay for renting servers, VPN and other technical tools. Our estimates suggest that the network infrastructure alone cost the Lurk managers tens of thousands of dollars per month.

Attempts to come back

In addition to increasing the number of “minor” attacks, the cybercriminals were trying to solve their cash flow problem by “diversifying” the business and expanding their field of activity. This included developing, maintaining and renting the Angler exploit pack (also known as XXX). Initially, this was used mainly to deliver Lurk to victims’ computers. But as the number of successful attacks started to decline, the owners began to offer smaller groups paid access to the tools.

By the way, judging by what we saw on Russian underground forums for cybercriminals, the Lurk gang had an almost legendary status. Even though many small and medium-sized groups were willing to “work” with them, they always preferred to work by themselves. So when Lurk provided other cybercriminals with access to Angler, the exploit pack became especially popular – a “product” from the top underground authority did not need advertising. In addition, the exploit pack was actually very effective, delivering a very high percentage of successful vulnerability exploitations. It didn’t take long for it to become one of the key tools on the criminal2criminal market.

As for extending the field of activity, the Lurk gang decided to focus on the customers of major Russian banks and the banks themselves, whereas previously they had chosen smaller targets.

In the second half of 2014, we spotted familiar pseudonyms of Internet users on underground forums inviting specialists to cooperate on document fraud. Early the following year, several Russian cities were swamped with announcements about fraudsters who used fake letters of attorney to re-issue SIM cards without their owners being aware of it.

The purpose of this activity was to gain access to one-time passwords sent by the bank to the user so that they could confirm their financial transaction in the online or remote banking system. The attackers exploited the fact that, in remote areas, mobile operators did not always carefully check the authenticity of the documents submitted and released new SIM cards at the request of cybercriminals. Lurk would infect a computer, collect its owner’s personal data, generate a fake letter of attorney with the help of “partners” from forums and then request a new SIM card from the network operator.

Once the cybercriminals received a new SIM card, they immediately withdrew all the money from the victim’s account and disappeared.

Although initially this scheme yielded good returns, this didn’t last long, since by then many banks had already implemented protection mechanisms to track changes in the unique SIM card number. In addition, the SIM card-based campaign forced some members of the group and their partners out into the open and this helped law enforcement agencies to find and identify suspects.

Alongside the attempts to “diversify” the business and find new cracks in the defenses of financial businesses, Lurk continued to regularly perform “minor thefts” using the proven method of auto money flow. However, the cybercriminals were already planning to earn their main money elsewise.

New “specialists”

In February 2015, Kaspersky Lab’s Global Research and Analysis Team (GReAT) released its research into the Carbanak campaign targeting financial institutions. Carbanak’s key feature, which distinguished it from “classical” financial cybercriminals, was the participation of professionals in the Carbanak team, providing deep knowledge of the target bank’s IT infrastructure, its daily routine and the employees who had access to the software used to conduct financial transactions. Before any attack, Carbanak carefully studied the target, searched for weak points and then, at a certain moment in time, committed the theft in no more than a few hours. As it turned out, Carbanak was not the only group applying this method of attack. In 2015, the Lurk team hired similar experts.

How the Carbanak group operated.

We realized this when we found incidents that resembled Carbanak in style, but did not use any of its tools. This was Lurk. The Lurk malware was used as a reliable “back door” to the infrastructure of the attacked organization rather than as a tool to steal money. Although the functionality that had previously allowed for the near-automatic theft of millions no longer worked, in terms of its secrecy Lurk was still an extremely dangerous and professionally developed piece of malware.

However, despite its attempts to develop new types of attacks, Lurk’s days were numbered. Thefts continued until the spring of 2016. But, either because of an unshakable confidence in their own impunity or because of apathy, day-by-day the cybercriminals were paying less attention to the anonymity of their actions. They became especially careless when cashing money: according to our incident analysis, during the last stage of their activity, the cybercriminals used just a few shell companies to deposit the stolen money. But none of that mattered any more as both we and the police had collected enough material to arrest suspected group members, which happened early in June this year.

No one on the Internet knows you are a cybercriminal?

My personal experience of the Lurk investigation made me think that the members of this group were convinced they would never be caught. They had grounds to be that presumptuous: they were very thorough in concealing the traces of their illegal activity, and generally tried to plan the details of their actions with care. However, like all people, they made mistakes. These errors accumulated over the years and eventually made it possible to put a stop to their activity. In other words, although it is easier to hide evidence on the Internet, some traces cannot be hidden, and eventually a professional team of investigators will find a way to read and understand them.

Lurk is neither the first nor the last example to prove this. The infamous banking Trojan SpyEye was used to steal money between 2009 and 2011. Its alleged creator was arrested 2013, and convicted in 2014.

The first attacks involving the banking Trojan Carberp began in 2010; the members of the group suspected of creating and distributing this Trojan were arrested in 2012 and convicted in 2014. The list goes on.

The history of these and other cybercriminal groups spans the time when everyone (and members of the groups in particular) believed that they were invulnerable and the police could do nothing. The results have proved them wrong.

Unfortunately, Lurk is not the last group of cybercriminals attacking companies for financial gain. We know about some other groups targeting organizations in Russia and abroad. For these reasons, we recommend that all organizations do the following:

  • If your organization was attacked by hackers, immediately call the police and involve experts in digital forensics. The earlier you apply to the police, the more evidence the forensics will able to collect, and the more information the law enforcement officers will have to catch the criminals.
  • Apply strict IT security policies on terminals from which financial transactions are made and for employees working with them.
  • Teach all employees who have access to the corporate network the rules of safe online behavior.

Compliance with these rules will not completely eliminate the risk of financial attacks but will make it harder for fraudsters and significantly increase the probability of their making a mistake while trying to overcome these difficulties. And this will help law enforcement agencies and IT security experts in their work.

P.S.: why does it take so long?

Law enforcement agencies and IT security experts are often accused of inactivity, allowing hackers to remain at large and evade punishment despite the enormous damage caused to the victims.

The story of Lurk proves the opposite. In addition, it gives some idea of the amount of work that has to be done to obtain enough evidence to arrest and prosecute suspects. Unfortunately, the rules of the “game” are not the same for all participants: the Lurk group used a professional approach to organizing a cybercriminal enterprise, but, for obvious reasons, did not find it necessary to abide by the law. As we work with law enforcement, we must respect the law. This can be a long process, primarily because of the large number of “paper” procedures and restrictions that the law imposes on the types of information we as a commercial organization can work with.

Our cooperation with law enforcement in investigating the activity of this group can be described as a multi-stage data exchange. We provided the intermediate results of our work to the police officers; they studied them to understand if the results of our investigation matched the results of their research. Then we got back our data “enriched” with the information from the law enforcement agencies. Of course, it was not all the information they could find; but it was the part which, by law, we had the right to work with. This process was repeated many times until we finally we got a complete picture of Lurk activity. However, that was not the end of the case.

A large part of our work with law enforcement agencies was devoted to “translating” the information we could get from “technical” into “legal” language. This ensured that the results of our investigation could be described in such a way that they were clear to the judge. This is a complicated and laborious process, but it is the only way to bring to justice the perpetrators of cybercrimes.

Wildfire, the ransomware threat that takes Holland and Belgium hostage

Tue, 08/23/2016 - 14:00

While ransomware is a global threat, every now and then we see a variant that targets one specific region. For example, the Coinvault malware had many infections in the Netherlands, because the authors posted malicious software on Usenet and Dutch people are particular fond of downloading things over Usenet. Another example is the recent Shade campaign, which targets mostly Russia and CIS.

Today we can add a new one to the list: Wildfire.

Infection vector

Wildfire spreads through well-crafted spam e-mails. A typical spam e-mail mentions that a transport company failed to deliver a package. In order to schedule a new delivery the receiver is asked to make a new appointment, for which a form has to be filled in, which has to be downloaded from the website of the transport company.

Three things stand out here. First, the attackers registered a Dutch domain name, something we do not see very often. Second, the e-mail is written in flawless Dutch. And thirdly, they actually put the address of the targeted company in the e-mail. This is something we do not see very often and makes it for the average user difficult to see that this is not a benign e-mail.

However, when we look at who registered the domain name, we immediately see that something is suspicious:

The registration date (registered a few days before the spam campaign started), as well as the administrative contact person seem to be very suspicious.

The Word document

After the user downloaded and opened the Word document, the following screen is shown:

Apparently the document has some macros, containing pieces of English text, which clearly show the intent of the attackers (actually it is the lyrics of the famous Pink Floyd song Money), but also has several variables in the Polish language.

The ransomware itself

The macros download and execute the actual Wildfire ransomware which consists in the case we analyzed of the following three files:

  1. Usiyykssl.exe;
  2. Ymkwhrrxoeo.png;
  3. Iesvxamvenagxehdoj.xml

The exe file is an obfuscated .net executable that depends on the other two files. This is exactly similar to the Zyklon ransomware that also consists of three files. Another similarity is that, according to some sources (http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/611342/zyklon-locker-gnl-help-topic-locked-and-unlock-files-instructionshtml/, http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/618641/wildfire-locker-help-topic-how-to-unlock-files-readme-6de99ef7c7-wflx/), Wildfire, GNLocker and Zyklon mainly target the Netherlands. In addition, the ransom notes of Wildfire and Zyklon look quite similar. Also note that Wildfire and Zyklon increase the amount you have to pay three-fold if you don’t pay within the specified amount of time.

Anyway, back to Wildfire. The binary is obfuscated, meaning that when there is no deobfuscator available reversing and analyzing it can take a lot of time. Therefore we decided to run it and see what happens. Just as we hoped, this made things a bit easier, because after a while Usiyykssl.exe launched Regasm.exe, and when we looked into the memory of Regasm.exe, we clearly saw that some malicious code had been injected into it.

Dumping it gave us the binary of the actual Wildfire malware. Unfortunately for us, this binary is also obfuscated, this time with Confuserex 0.6.0. Even though it is possible to deobfuscate binaries obfuscated with Confuserex, we decided to skip that for now. Why? Well it takes a bit of time, and because by working together with the police on this case, we had something much better in our hands: The botnetpanel code!

Inside the botnetpanel code

When you are infected with Wildfire, the malware calls home to the C2 server where information such as the IP, username, rid and country are stored. The botnetpanel then checks whether the country is one of the blacklisted countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Estonia and Moldova). It also checks whether the “rid” exists within a statically defined array (we therefore expect the rid to be an affiliate ID).

If the rid is not found, or you live in one of the blacklisted countries, the malware terminates and you won’t get infected.

Each time the malware calls home, a new key is generated and added to the existing list of keys. The same victim can thus have multiple keys. Finally the botnetpanel returns the bitcoin address to which the victim should pay, and the cryptographic key with which the files on the victim’s computer are encrypted. We don’t quite understand why a victim can have multiple keys, especially since the victim only has one bitcoin address.

Also interesting is the encryption scheme. It uses AES in CBC mode but the key and the IV are both derived from the same key. This doesn’t add much security and defeats the sole purpose of having an IV in the first place.

Conclusion

Even though Wildfire is a local threat, it still shows that ransomware is effective and evolving. In less than a month we observed more than 5700 infections and 236 users paid a total amount of almost 70.000 euro . This is also due to the fact that the spam e-mails are getting better and better.

We therefore advise users to:

  • Be very suspicious when opening e-mails;
  • Don’t enable Word macro’s;
  • Always keep your software up-to-date;
  • Turn on Windows file extensions;
  • Create offline backups (or online backups with unlimited revisions);
  • Turn on the behavioral analyzer of your AV.

A decryption tool for Wildfire can be downloaded from the nomoreransom.org website.

P.S. the attackers agree with us on some points:

Threat intelligence report for the telecommunications industry

Mon, 08/22/2016 - 04:56

 Download PDF

Introduction

The telecommunications industry keeps the world connected. Telecoms providers build, operate and manage the complex network infrastructures used for voice and data transmission – and they communicate and store vast amounts of sensitive data. This makes them a top target for cyber-attack.

According to PwC’s Global State of Information Security, 2016, IT security incidents in the telecoms sector increased 45% in 2015 compared to the year before. Telecoms providers need to arm themselves against this growing risk.

In this intelligence report, we cover the main IT security threats facing the telecommunications industry and illustrate these with recent examples.

Our insight draws on a range of sources. These include:

  • The latest telecoms security research by Kaspersky Lab experts.
  • Kaspersky Lab monitoring systems, such as the cloud antivirus platform, Kaspersky Security Network (KSN), our botnet tracking system and multiple other internal systems including those used to detect and track sophisticated targeted (advanced persistent threat, APT) attacks and the corresponding malware.
  • Underground forums and communities.
  • Centralized, specialized security monitoring systems (such as Shodan).
  • Threat bulletins and attack reports.
  • Newsfeed aggregation and analysis tools.

Threat intelligence is now a vital weapon in the fight against cyber-attack. We hope this report will help telecoms providers to better understand the cyber-risk landscape so that they can develop their security strategies accordingly.

We can provide more detailed sector and company-specific intelligence on these and other threats. For more information on our Threat Intelligence Reporting services please email intelligence@kaspersky.com.

Executive summary

Telecommunications providers are under fire from two sides: they face direct attacks from cybercriminals intent on breaching their organization and network operations, and indirect attacks from those in pursuit of their subscribers. The top threats currently targeting each of these frontlines feature many classic attack vectors, but with a new twist in terms of complexity or scale that place new demands on telecoms companies.

These threats include:

  • Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. DDoS attacks continue to increase in power and scale and, according to the 2016 Data Breach Investigations Report, the telecommunications sector is hit harder than any other. Kaspersky Lab’s research reveals that in Q2, 2016, the longest DDoS attack lasted for 291 hours (or 12.1 days) – significantly longer than the previous quarter’s maximum (8.2 days), with vulnerable IoT devices increasingly used in botnets. Direct DDoS attacks can reduce network capacity, degrade performance, increase traffic exchange costs, disrupt service availability and even bring down Internet access if ISPs are hit. They can be a cover for a deeper, more damaging secondary attack, or a route into a key enterprise subscriber or large-scale ransomeware attack.
  • The exploitation of vulnerabilities in network and consumer devices. Our intelligence shows that vulnerabilities in network devices, consumer or business femtocells, USBs and routers, as well as root exploits for Android phones, all provide new channels for attacks – involving malware and technologies that individuals, organisations and even basic antivirus solutions cannot always easily remove.
  • Compromising subscribers with social engineering, phishing or malware. These classic techniques remain popular and can easily be mastered by entry-level cybercriminals, although 2016 sees changes in how more sophisticated attackers conduct their campaigns. Growing numbers of cyber-attackers now combine data sets from different sources, including open sources, to build up detailed pictures of potential targets for blackmail and social engineering purposes.
  • Insider threat is growing. Detailed profiles of targets are also used to recruit insiders to help perpetrate cybercrime. Some insiders help voluntarily, others are cooerced through blackmail. Insiders from cellular service providers are recruited mainly to provide access to data, while staff working for Internet service providers are chosen to support network mapping and man-in-the-middle attacks.

Other threats facing telecommunications companies include targeted attacks; poorly configured access controls, particularly where interfaces are publicly available to any Internet user; inadequate security for 2G/3G communications; and the risk of telecoms providers being drawn into unrelated attacks that exploit telecoms resources, and suffering collateral damage as a result.

Typical threats targeting telecoms Overview

We can divide the main threats facing the telecommunications industry into two, interrelated, categories:

  • Threats targeting telecommunication companies directly. These include DDoS attacks, targeted attacks (APT campaigns), network device vulnerabilities and human-related threats like insider access, social engineering and the risk of allowing third parties to access information.
  • Threats targeting subscribers of telecoms services – particularly the customers of cellular service providers (CSPs) and Internet service providers (ISPs). These include malware for mobile devices, subscriber data harvesting, end-user device vulnerabilities, and more.
Threats directed at telecoms companies DDoS

DDoS (distributed denial of service) attacks remain a serious threat to telecoms providers around the world as attackers discover ever more ways of boosting the power and scale of attacks. Kaspersky Lab’s DDoS intelligence report for Q2, 2016 notes that websites in 70 countries were targeted with attacks. By far the most affected country was China, with South Korea and the US also among the leaders. 70.2% of all detected attacks were launched from Linux botnets, with cybercriminals paying close attention to financial institutions working with cryptocurrency. Another trend observed in Q2 was the use of vulnerable IoT devices in botnets to launch DDoS attacks.

The telecommunications sector is particularly vulernable to DDoS attacks. According to the 2016 Data Breach Investigations Report, the telecommunications sector was hit around twice as hard as the second placed sector (financial exchanges), with a median DDoS packet count of 4.61 million packets per second (compared to 2.4 Mpps for exchanges.)

The impact of a DDoS attack should not be underestimated. Direct attacks can reduce network capacity, degrade performance, increase traffic exchange costs, disrupt service availability and even bring down Internet access if ISPs are affected. With a growing number of connected devices and systems supporting mission-critical applications in areas such as healthcare and transport, unexpected downtime could be life threatening.

Further, DDoS attacks can be a cover for a deeper, more damaging secondary attack, or a route into a key enterprise subscriber or large-scale ransomeware attack.

A good example of the first is the 2015 cyber-attack on the UK telecoms company, TalkTalk. The hack, alledgedly perpetrated by a couple of teenagers, resulted in the loss of around 1.2 million customers’ email addresses, names and phone numbers, as well as many thousands of customer dates of birth and financial information – all ideal for use in financially-motivated social engineering campaigns. The forensic investigation revealed that the hackers had used a smokescreen DDoS attack to conceal their main activities.

DDoS attacks are also evolving. 2015 saw attackers amplify the power of DDoS attacks by turning them into DrDoS (Distributed reflection Denial of Service) attacks through the use of standard network protocols like NTP, RIPv1, NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) and BGP (Border Gateway Patrol). Another approach that is becoming more commonplace is the compromise of end-user routers via network-scanning malware and firmware vulnerabilities. Today’s faster mobile data transfer speeds and the growing adoption of 4G are also making smartphone-based botnets more useful for implementing DDoS attacks.

The worrying thing is that even inexperienced attackers can organize quite an effective DDoS campaign using such techniques.

Targeted attacks

The core infrastructure of a telecommunications company is a highly desirable target for cybercriminals, but gaining access is extremely difficult. Breaking into the core requires a deep knowledge of GSM architecture, rarely seen except among the most skilled and resourced cybercriminals. Such individuals can generally be found working for advanced, international APT groups and nation-state attackers, entities that have a powerful interest in obtaining access to the inner networks of telecommunication companies. This is because compromised network devices are harder to detect by security systems and they offer more ways to control internal operations than can be achieved through simple server/workstation infiltration.

Once inside the core infrastructure, attackers can easily intercept calls and data, and control, track and impersonate subscibers.

Other APTs with telecommunications on their radar

The Regin APT campaign, discovered in 2014, remains of the most sophisticated ever seen and has the ability to infiltrate GSM networks, while the Turla group, has developed the ability to hijack satellite-based Internet links as part of it’s Command & Control process, successfully obscuring its actual location.

Others, such as Dark Hotel and a new cyber-espionage threat actor likely to be of Chinese origin, exploit telecoms networks in their targeted campaigns. In these cases, the telecoms providers often suffer collateral damage even though they are not directly related to the attack. Further details on these can be found on Kaspersky Lab’s expert Securelist blog or through a subscription to the Kaspersky APT Threat Intelligence Reporting service.

Unaddressed software vulnerabilities

Despite all the high profile hacks and embarrassing data leaks of the last 12 months, attackers are still breaching telecoms defenses and making off with vast quantities of valuable, personal data. In many cases, attackers are exploiting new or under-protected vulnerabilities. For example, in 2015, two members of the hacker group, Linker Squad gained access to Orange Spain through a company website vulnerable to a simple SQL injection, and stole 10 million items of customer and employee data.

SQL injection vulnerability on Orange Spain web site

The impact of service misconfiguration

In many cases, the hardware used by by the telecommunications industry carries configuration interfaces that can be accessed openly via HTTP, SSH, FTP or telnet. This means that if the firewall is not configured correctly, the hardware in question becomes an easy target for unauthorized access.

The risk presented by publicly exposed GTP/GRX (GPRS Tunneling Protocol/GPRS Roaming Exchange) ports on devices provides a good example of this.

As CSPs encrypt the GPRS traffic between the devices and the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), it is difficult to intercept and decrypt the transferred data. However, an attacker can bypass this restriction by searching on Shodan.io for devices with open GTP ports, connecting to them and then encapsulating GTP control packets into the created tunnel.

Table 1. Top 10 countries with GTP/GRX ports exposed to Internet access

# Country Number of GTP/GRX 1 China 52.698 2 Turkey 8.591 3 United States of America 6.403 4 Canada 5.807 5 Belgium 5.129 6 Colombia 2.939 7 Poland 2.842 8 Morocco 1.585 9 Jamaica 862 10 United Arab Emirates 808

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the routing protocol used to make decisions on routing between autonomous systems. Acceptance and propagation of routing information coming from other peers can allow an attacker to implement man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks or cause denial of service. Any route that is advertised by a neighboring BGP speaker is merged in the routing database and propagated to all the other BGP peers.

Table 2. Top five countries with BGP protocol exposed to Internet access

# Country Number of devices
(end of 2015)
1 Republic of Korea 16.209 2 India 8.693 3 United States of America 8.111 4 Italy 2.909 5 Russian Federation 2.050

An example of such an attack took place in March 2015, when Internet traffic for 167 important British Telecom customers, including a UK defense contractor that helps to deliver the country’s nuclear warhead program, was illegally diverted to servers in Ukraine before being passed along to its final destinations.

To avoid probable attacks against BGP from unauthorized remote malefactors, we recommend that companies provide network filtering, allowing only a limited number of authorized peers to connect to BGP services. To protect against malicious re-routing and hijacking initiated through authorized autonomous systems we recommend that they monitor anomalies in BGP communications (this can be done through specialized software solutions or by subscribing to alerts from vendors providing this kind of monitoring.)

Vulnerabilities in network devices

Routers and other network devices are also primary targets for attacks against telecommunications companies.

In September 2015, FireEye researchers revealed the router malware “SYNful knock”, a combination of leaked privilege (root) credentials and a way of replacing device firmware that targets Cisco 1841, 2811 and 3825 routers (see Cisco advisory here).

Put simply, SYNful knock is a modified device firmware image with backdoor access that can replace the original operating system if the attacker has managed to obtain privileged access to the device or can physically connect to it.

SYNful is not a pure software vulnerability, but a combination of leaked privileged credentials combined with a certain way of replacing device firmware. Still, it is a dangerous way of compromising an organization’s IT infrastructure.

SYNful knock backdoor sign-in credentials request

Worldwide distribution of devices with the SYNful knock backdoor

The latest information on the number of potentially compromised devices is available through the link https://synfulscan.shadowserver.org/stats/.

A second Cisco vulnerability, CVE-2015-6389 enables attackers to access some sensitive data, such as the password file, system logs, and Cisco PCA database information, and to modify data, run internal executables and potentially make the system unstable or inaccessible. Cisco Prime Collaboration Assurance Software releases prior to 11.0 are vulnerable. Follow this Cisco bulletin for remediation actions.

For further information on Cisco fixes for its devices see https://threatpost.com/cisco-warning-of-vulnerabilities-in-routers-data-center-platforms/115609.

Juniper, another network device manufacturer has been found to carry vulnerabilities in its operating system for its NetScreen VPN appliances, enabling third-party access to network traffic. The issue was reported by the vendor in the security advisory JSA10713 on December 18th, 2015, along with the release of the patch.

It appears that the additional code with hardcoded password was planted in the source code in late 2013. The backdoor allows any user to log in with administrator privileges using hard-coded password “<<< %s(un=’%s’) = %u”.This vulnerability has been identified as CVE-2015-7755 and is considered highly critical.

Top countries where ScreenOS devices are used are the Netherlands, the United States, China, Italy and Mexico.

Juniper ScreenOS-powered devices worldwide

Another Juniper backdoor, CVE-2015-7756, affects ScreenOS 6.2.0r15 through 6.2.0r18 and 6.3.0r12 through 6.3.0r20 and allows a third party to monitor traffic inside VPN connections due to security flaws in the Dual_EC PRNG algorithm for random number generation.

To protect the organization from misconfiguration and network device vulnerabilitiy, Kaspresky Lab recommendats that companies pay close attention to vulnerabilities in the network services of telecommunication equipment, establish effective vulnerability and configuration management processes, and regularly perform security assessments, including penetration testing for different types of attackers (a remote intruder, a subscriber, a contractor, etc.).

Malicious insiders

Even if you consider your critical systems and devices protected and safe, it is difficult to fully control some attack vectors. People rank at the very top of this list. Their motivations are often hard to predict and anticipate, ranging from a desire for financial gain to disaffection, coercion and simple carelessness.

While insider-assisted attacks are uncommon, the impact of such attacks can be devastating as they provide a direct route to the most valuable information.

Examples of insider attacks in recent years include:

  • A rogue telecoms employee leaking 70 million prison inmate calls, many breaching client-attorney privilege.
  • An SMS center support engineer who had intercepted messages containing OTP (One-Time Passwords) for the two-step authentication required to login to customer accounts at a popular fintech company. The engineer was found to be freely offering his services on a popular DarkNet forum.

For attackers, infiltrating the networks of ISPs and CSPs requires a certain level of experience – and it is often cheaper and easier to stroll across the perimeter with the help of a hired or blackmailed insider. Cybercriminals generally recruit insiders through two approaches: enticing or coercing individual employees with relevant skills, or trawling around underground message boards looking for an appropriate employee or former employee.

Employees of cellular service providers are in demand for fast track access to subscriber and company data or SIM card duplication/illegal reissuing, while staff working for Internet service providers are needed for network mapping and man-in-the-middle attacks.

A particularly promising and successful attack vector for recruiting an insider for malicious intrusion is blackmail.

Data breaches, such as the 2015 Ashley Madison leak reveal information that attackers can compare with other publically available information to track down where people work and compromise them accordingly. Very often, these leaked databases contain corporate email addresses, including those of telecommunication companies.

Further information on the emerging attack vectors based on the harvesting of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) can be obtained using Kaspersky Lab’s customer-specific Intelligence Reporting services.

Threats targeting CSP/ISP subscribers Overview

Attacks targeting the customers of cloud and Internet service providers remain a key area of interest for cybercriminals. We’ve revealed a number of malware activities and attack techniques based on internal information and incidents that were caught in our scope. As a result of analyzing this data the following main threats were identified:

  • Obtaining subscribers’ credentials. This is growing in appeal as consumers and businesses undertake ever more activity online and particularly on mobile. Further, security levels are often intentionally lowered on mobile devices in favor of usability, making mobile attacks even more attractive to criminals.
  • Compromising subscribers’ devices. The number of mobile malware infections is on the rise, as is the sophistication and functionality of the malware. Experienced and skilled programmers are now focusing much of their attention on mobile – looking to exploit payment services as well as low-valued assets like compromised Instagram or Uber accounts, collecting every piece of data from the infected devices.
  • Compromising small-scale telecoms cells used by consumers and businesses. Vulnerabilities in CSP-provided femtocells allow criminals to compromise the cells and even gain access to the entire cloud provider’s network.
  • Successful Proof-Of-Concept attacks on USIM cards. Recent research shows that the cryptography of 3G/4G USIM cards is no longer unbreakable. Successful attacks allow SIM card cloning, call spoofing and the interception of SMS.
Social engineering, phishing and other ways in

Social engineering and phishing remain popular activities and they continues to evolve and improve, targeting unaware or poorly aware subscribers and telecoms employees.

The attackers exploit trust and naiivity. In 2015, the TeamHans hacker group penetrated one of Canada’s biggest communications groups, Rogers, simply by repeatedly contacting IT support and impersonating mid-ranking employees, in order to build up enough personal information to gain access to the employee’s desktop. The attack provided hackers with access to contracts with corporate customers, sensitive corporate e-mails, corporate employee IDs, documents, and more.

Both social engineering and phishing approaches are worryingly successful. The Data Breach Investigations Report 2016 found that 30% of phishing emails were opened, and that 12% clicked on the malicious attachment – with the entire process taking, on average, just 1 minute and 40 seconds.

Social engineers and phishers also use multiple ways for increasing the likeness of authenticity in their attacks, enriching their data with leaked profiles, or successfully impersonating employees or contractors. Recently criminals have successfully stolen tens of thousands of euros from dozens of people across Germany after finding a way around systems that text a code to confirm transactions to online banking users. After infecting their victims with banking malware and obtaining their phone numbers, they called the CSP’s support and, impersonating a retail shop, asked for a new SIM card to be activated, thus gaining access to OTP (One Time Passwords) or “mTan’s” used for two-factor authentication in online banking.

Kaspersky Lab recommends that telecommunications providers implement notification services for financial organizations that alert them when a subscriber’s SIM card has been changed or when personal data is modified.

Some CSPs have also implemented a threat exchange service to inform financial industry members when a subscriber’s phone is likely to have been infected with malware.

Vulnerable kit

USBs, modems and portable Wi-Fi routers remain high-risk assets for subscribers, and we continue to discover multiple vulnerabilities in their firmware and user interfaces. These include:

  • Vulnerabilities in web interfaces designed to help consumers configure their devices. These can be modified to trick a user into visiting a specially crafted page.
  • Vulnerabilities that result from insufficient authentication. These can allow for the modification of device settings (like DNS server addresses), and the interception, sending and receiving of SMS messages, or USSD requests, by exploiting different XSS and CSRF vulnerabilities.
  • RCE (Remote Code Execution) vulnerabilities based on different variants of embedded Linux that can enable firmware modification and even a complete remote compromise.

Built-in “service” backdoor allowing no-authentication access to device settings

Examples of these kind of vulnerabilities were demonstrated in research by Timur Yunusov from the SCADAStrangeLove team. The author assessed a number of 3G/4G routers from ZTE, Huawei, Gemtek and Quanta. He has reported a number of serious vulnerabilities:

  • Remote Code Execution from web scripts.
  • Arbitrary device firmware modification due to insufficient consistency checks.
  • Cross Site Request Forgert and Cross Site Scripting attacks.

All these vectors can be used by an external attacker for the following scenarios:

  • Infecting a subscriber’s computer via PowerShell code or badUSB attack.
  • Traffic modification and interception.
  • Subscriber account access and device settings modification.
  • Revealing subscriber location.
  • Using device firmware modification for APT attack persistence.

Most of these issues exist due to web interface vulnerabilities (like insufficient input validation or CSRF) or modifications made by the vendor during the process of branding its devices for a specific telecommunications company.

The risk of local cells

Femtocells, which are essentially a personal NodeB with an IP network connection, are growing in popularity as an easy way to improve signal coverage inside buildings. Small business customers often receive them from their CSPs. However, unlike core systems, they are not always submitted to suitably thorough security audits.

Femtocell connection map

Over the last year, our researchers have found a number of serious vulnerabilities in such devices that could allow an attacker to gain complete control over them. Compromising a femtocell can lead to call interception, service abuse and even illegal access to the CSP’s internal network.

At the moment, a successful attack on a femtocell requires a certain level of engineering experience, so risks remain low – but this is likely to change in the future.

USIM card vulnerabilities

Research presented at BlackHat USA in 2015 revealed successful attacks on USIM card security. USIMs had previously been considered unbreakable thanks to the AES-based MILENAGE algorithm used for authentication. The reseachers conducted differential power analysis for the encryption key and secrets extraction that allowed them to clone the new generation of 3G/4G SIM cards from different manufacturers.

Right byte guess peak on differential power analysis graph

Conclusion

Telecommunications is a critical infrastructure and needs to be protected accordingly. The threat landscape shows that vulnerabilities exist on many levels: hardware, software and human, and that attacks can come from many directions. Telecoms providers need to start regarding security as a process – one that encompasses threat prediction, prevention, detection, response and investigation.

A comprehensive, multi-layered security solution is a key component of this, but it is not enough on its own. It needs to be complemented by collaboration, employee education and shared intelligence. Many telecommunications companies already have agreements in place to share network capability and capacity in the case of disruption, and now is the time to start reaping the benefit of shared intelligence.

Our Threat Intelligence Reporting services can provide customer-specific insight into the threats facing your organization. If you’ve ever wondered what your business looks like to an attacker, now’s the time to find out. Contact us at intelligence@kaspersky.com

Brazilian banking Trojans meet PowerShell

Thu, 08/18/2016 - 11:43

Crooks are always creating new ways to improve the malware they use to target bank accounts, and now Brazilian bad guys have made an important addition to their arsenal: the use of PowerShell. Brazil is the most infected country worldwide when it comes to banking Trojans, according to our Q1 2016 report, and the quality of the malware is evolving dramatically. We found Trojan-Proxy.PowerShell.Agent.a in the wild a few days ago, marking a new achievement by Brazil’s cybercriminals.

The malware is distributed using a malicious email campaign disguised as a receipt from a mobile operator with a malicious .PIF file. After the file is executed it changes the proxy configuration in Internet Explorer to a malicious proxy server that redirects connections to phishing pages for Brazilian banks. It’s the same technique used by malicious PACs that we described in 2013, but this time no PACs are used; the changes in the system are made using a PowerShell script. As Windows 7 and newer OS versions are now the most popular in Brazil, the malware will not face a problem running on victims’ computers.

The malware has no C&C communication. After execution it spawned the process “powershell.exe” with the command line “-ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File %TEMP%\599D.tmp\599E.ps1” aiming to bypass PowerShell execution policies. The .ps1 file in the temp folder uses random names. It’s a base64 encoded script capable of making changes in the system.

After some deobfuscation we can see the goal of the script: to change the Internet Settings key and enable a proxy server on it:

And this is the result in the browser of the victim – a small change in the proxy settings:

This change will not only affect IE but all other browsers installed in the system as well, as they tend to use the same proxy configuration set on IE. The proxy domains used in the attack are listed below. All of them use dynamic DNS services and their goal is to redirect all traffic to a server located in the Netherlands (89.34.99.45), where there are several phishing pages for Brazilian banks:

gbplugin.[REMOVED].com.br
moduloseguro.[REMOVED].com.br
x0x0.[REMOVED].com.br
X1x1.[REMOVED].com.br

The malware also has other features of interest: it checks for the language of the OS and aborts if it’s not PTBR, a clever trick to avoid infecting Windows versions in languages other than Brazilian Portuguese.

To protect a network against malware that uses PowerShell, it is important to modify its execution, using administrative templates that only allow signed scripts. We are sure this is the first of many that Brazil’s bad guys will code.

Hash of the malware: cancelamento.pif -> MD5: 9419e7cd60487532313a43559b195cb0