Client input filtering is needed to prevent specific attacks.
Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
Note: SSL connectivity does not protect against this issue.
Best practices for prevention
In general, the following practices should be followed while developing dynamic web content:
- Audit the affected URL and other similar dynamic pages or scripts that could be relaying untrusted malicious data from the user input.
- If you are displaying user supplied input, the data should be displayed by a function that either escapes or converts the data into appropriate HTML.
- Explicitly set the character set encoding for each page generated by the web server
- Identify special characters
- Encode dynamic output elements
- Filter specific characters in dynamic elements
- Examine cookies
- For ASP.NET applications, the validateRequest attribute can be added to the page or the web.config. For example:
<pages validateRequest="true" />
- Dynamic content should be HTML encoded using HTML::Entities::encode or Apache::Util::html_encode (when using mod_perl).
- For PHP applications, input data should be validated using functions such as strip_tags and utf8_decode.
- For PERL applications, input data should be validated using regular expressions whenever possible.
Web applications that do not properly sanitize user input before passing it to a database system are vulnerable to SQL injection. This could potentially allow a malicious user to read and/or modify any data that the application has access to.
Best Practices for Prevention
- Ensure that the script properly validates user input before passing it to the underlying database system.
- Avoid accessing external interpreters wherever possible.
- Use bind variables wherever possible. If not, escape all user variables.
- Use pattern matching to verify user input is an expected value.
- Limit access to the web account that is accessing the database.
- Use procedures to insert records and update data; do not give the application direct access to the tables.
- Limit application to READ-only access where possible.