proportions are wrong. Draw an axis line from the blossom to the
stem. Just as with the leaf, the contour and shape on either side
of the axis might differ but the areas have to be the same.
through all the ellipse in order to better understand the form.
A diagrammatic drawing.
a pencil rendering shading in all the values describing the forms
in order to better understand the form.
an ellipse or trapezoid (square in perspective) and draw the base
of the fruit so it touches all the sides describing the space it
top line is straight across where it should be curved because it
is the top line of an ellipse.
bottom line is straight across where it should be curved because
it is the bottom line of an ellipse.
the two side lines where they meet the stem because now they cut
off the stem.
an ellipse at the top of the fruit and begin the stem from the center
of the ellipse rather than drawing it from the contour.
at proportions. The vegetable has two basic elements with an extended
neck and a body. Play with size differentiate between the two elements.
with the scale of the cap and stem to the body.
though the detail of the blossom scar is inverted, reverse it so
that it extends and becomes part of the contour.
exaggerating the thinness and length of the stem in relationship
to the body.
should be a point rather than a curve to suggest this form going
behind that form.
flopping the drawing and see if it works better.
around with the different ways you can set the drawing on the board.
Play the bottom line of the vegetable against the straight line
forming the bottom edge of the board.
top of the stem has to be curved also because it is circular.
drawing is too symmetrical. One side is just like the other. Play
one line against the other.
quality is terrible! No tension in the lines!
draw the stem cap as on a tomato, eggplant or squash, draw the elliptical
contours from where the stem attaches. Draw the cap to sit on the
contours. When you fill in, the cap will then describe the volume.
four 10-inch squares on tracing paper and with marker fill in four
different rotations. When the best positioning is identified, the
final presentation is made with plaka visually centered on a 10-inch
the purpose of maintaining a record, the previous practice for assigning
this stage of the course is retained, and is as follows.
the instance of animals, birds, reptiles, insects and fish, students
are required to do considerable research which must be included
in the progress book. It is important at this stage to insist that
students collect information and sketch in a professional, systematic
manner. Sketches should be well organized on the page. The research
sketching should require all the criteria and demands of the drawing
class. A principal concern at this stage is teaching students how
to use research material (images) as a source for information. It
is important to teach them how to use visual research as a source
of information , and not as something to copy . This is an extremely
important point and worth the effort and time to teach. I take time
and make special effort to emphasize and require students to use
found images as sources only, how to use the sources, and never
permit them to copy. Research involves drawing details such as mouths,
hoofs, ins, ears, legs, etc. I put emphasis on this part of the
problem; I am critical of drawing quality. It is a technical, or
information drawing, not artistic nor rendering. It is important
to me to emphasize to students that they draw what they know mores
than what they see. This point cannot be over-stated.
Students are expected to build in the illusion of dimensionality.
In the instance of any four-legged creature, they draw a rectangle
in perspective in order to place the feet; wherever one form overlaps
another is indicated in the contour. They also make diagrammatic
drawings of the spine using right angle lines for placement and
perspective of eyes, ears and limbs. Some sketches are volumetric,
drawing through the forms to accentuate better understanding the
illusion of dimensional imagery.
is also discussed and explored during the sketching stages. There
is usually a great deal of distortion such as making heads smaller,
legs longer, thinner and reducing the size of feet, identifying
and exaggerating characteristic qualities. A few insects and fish
are entirely invention designed from parts of several varieties
of the species. We talk about designing into the image intangible
qualities such as a fox being sly, antelope as graceful, etc. The
objective was to create an interpretive, symbolic image with high
communication value and not to make an image that is biologically
first step is pencil sketches to understand anatomy, ind a posture,
explore proportions and drawing of details. Most of this work is
quite small. When the major decisions are made, the drawing is enlarged
to size and work begins on contours. These drawings are then tested
by filling them in as black shapes with no internal details. Students
are encouraged to pin these on the wall and study them before working
on them some more. This is to establish shape and dimensionality
through contour. At this stage, the filled in shapes are put up
for critique and discussion. After defining shapes, students are
permitted to introduce some reversed internal lines to define details.
I emphasize that these are minimal, and students should be selective
about how much, where, and weight of white lines. Normally there
is a great deal of trial and error exploration at this stage.
a later date, students began to introduce texture. Since this was
obviously what they wanted to do, I added dimension as an option,
but with the condition that texture had to show form.