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Engineering, Science, & Technology

Creating, innovating, addressing challenges, solving problems, and improving the quality of lives in society.

The prevailing model of structure formation that describes how matter is distributed throughout the Universe is known as the Lambda Cold Dark Matter paradigm. A key component of this paradigm is dark matter, which has so far gone undetected in laboratory experiments but is... READ MORE
Video understanding has become increasingly important as surveillance, social, and informational videos weave themselves into our everyday lives. Video captioning offers a simple way to summarize, index, and search the data. Most video captioning models utilize a video encoder and captioning decoder framework. Hierarchical encoders... READ MORE
Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) have been extensively studied for their application in thin-film electronics; an area which is currently dominated by hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a Si:H) technology. Indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has garnered most of the AOS materials focus due to its high carrier mobility and... READ MORE
Selecting the capacity of a central air conditioning (AC) system is based on a long list of structural factors within a home, but is normally chosen without considering effects on stakeholders outside of the home. Energy use by residential air conditioners is relevant to... READ MORE
Industries are aware of the costs of high electricity consumption and its impact on the environment. Therefore, significant focus is given on how to reduce the consumption of electricity to lower both the carbon footprint and the cost of electricity. There are two ways... READ MORE
A three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system provides an effective platform to study cell dynamics in in vivo-mimicking conditions and thus plays an important role in understanding cell biology, organ function, and disease model. This dissertation investigates cell dynamics in a variety of 3D environments... READ MORE
Metal-oxide chemical sensor technology has been praised as a cheap and efficient method of detecting both reducing and oxidizing gases depending on the metal-oxide’s carrier type. The research conducted in this thesis explored methods of enhancing the sensitivity of an n-type metal-oxide material (indium... READ MORE
Organic photovoltaics (OPV) offer great promise as a low-cost renewable energy source, the relative low efficiency still challenges its commercialization potential. Small conjugated molecules like Squaraine (SQ) molecules show promising advancement in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Advantages of SQ over other materials is that it... READ MORE
Recently, algorithms for object recognition and related tasks have become sufficiently proficient that new vision tasks can now be pursued. In this paper, we build a system capable of answering open-ended text-based questions about images, which is known as Visual Question Answering (VQA). Our approach’s... READ MORE
In this work we study the potential for utilizing the scattering of polarized neutrons from nuclei whose spin has been modulated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). From first principles, we present an in-depth development of the differential scattering cross sections that would arise in such... READ MORE
Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and... READ MORE
The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds... READ MORE
onic Liquids have emerged as effective lubricants and additives to lubricants, in the last decade. Halogen-free ionic liquids have recently been considered as more environmentally stable than their halogenated counterparts, which tend to form highly toxic and corrosive acids when exposed to moisture. Most... READ MORE
The amount of energy that can be gained from the wind is unlimited, unlike current energy sources such as fossil and coal. While there is an important push in the use of wind energy, gears and bearing components of the turbines often fail due... READ MORE
Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA is assembled into regularly spaced nucleosomes, which play a central role in gene regulation by determining accessibility of control regions. The nucleosome contains ∼147 bp of DNA wrapped ∼1.7 times around a central core histone octamer. The linker histone, H1, binds both... READ MORE
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important index of arterial hemodynamics, which lays the foundation for continuous, noninvasive blood pressure automated monitoring. The goal of this paper is to examine the accuracy of PWV prediction based on a traditional homogeneous structural model for thin-walled arterial... READ MORE