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Engineering, Science, & Technology

Creating, innovating, addressing challenges, solving problems, and improving the quality of lives in society.

Colorectal cancer (CRC), with multifactorial influences of genetic, molecular, inflammatory, and environmental factors, is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Due to the high diversity and concentration of microbes found in the human colon, the microbiome has become a prime suspect of being a... READ MORE
Introducing nucleic acids into mammalian cells is a crucial step to elucidate biochemical pathways, modify gene expression in immortalized cells, primary cells, and stem cells, and intoduces new approaches for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Current gene transfer technologies, including lipofection, electroporation, and viral delivery,... READ MORE
Various field portable goniometers have been designed to capture in-situ measurements of a material’s bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), each with a specific scientific purpose in mind.[1, 2, 3, 4] The Rochester Institute of Technology’s (RIT) Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science recently... READ MORE
Open Microchannel Manifold (OMM) with taper has proved instrumental in enhancing heat transfer performance in flow boiling while keep the pressure drop to a minimum. This makes it applicable in developing a low pressure drop system like a thermosiphon loop. To this end, a... READ MORE
The spectral signatures of vehicles in hyperspectral imagery exhibit temporal variations due to the preponderance of surfaces with material properties that display non-Lambertian bi-directional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs). These temporal variations are caused by changing illumination conditions, changing sun-target-sensor geometry, changing road surface properties,... READ MORE
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the Universe and often host the largest galaxies (known as the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG)) at its centers. These BCG’s are embedded in hot 1-10 keV X-ray gas. A subset of galaxy clusters known as... READ MORE
State of the art triple junction solar cells have achieved in excess of 43% efficiency. In order to extend this beyond a multijunction-only design, novel approaches to photon conversion must be sought and realized. Two novel mechanisms, bandgap engineering and absorption from an intermediate... READ MORE
Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) are characterized by a continuous variation in the composition of parent materials through the work piece volume. This gradual change in material composition is aimed at improving mechanical, thermal and/or electrical properties of the material. FGMs are being increasingly used... READ MORE
The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFO) to predict red blood cell trauma (hemolysis) in blood pumps based on their exposure to turbulent stresses has increased in recent years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has initiated a project to determine the fidelity... READ MORE
Syndromic surveillance of emerging diseases is crucial for timely planning and execution of epidemic response from both local and global authorities. Traditional sources of information employed by surveillance systems are not only slow but also impractical for developing countries. Internet and social media provide a... READ MORE
Historically, North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) were widely dispersed throughout the North American continent. Trapping pressures and urbanization have led to regional exclusion of North American river otter populations from historic habitats, leading the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to spearhead conservation and... READ MORE
Approximately 2.2 million people in the United States depend on a wheelchair to assist with their mobility. Often times, the wheelchair user can maneuver around using a conventional joystick. Visually impaired or wheelchair patients with restricted hand mobility, such as stroke, arthritis, limb injury,... READ MORE
Statistical machine learning uses data to model a relationship between many parameters, or explanatory variables, and a response variable. The adaptive boosting algorithm is a machine learning method that can be used to model relationships of classification data. This method uses a weak base... READ MORE
Determining the mass of a vehicle from ground based passive sensor data is important for many security and traffic safety reasons. A vehicle consists of multiple dependent and independent systems that each respond differently to changes in vehicle mass. In some cases, the responses... READ MORE
Image classification and object recognition are some of the most prominent problems in computer vision. The difficult nature of finding objects regardless of pose and occlusions requires a large number of compute resources. Recent advancements in technology have made great strides towards solving this... READ MORE