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Engineering, Science, & Technology

Creating, innovating, addressing challenges, solving problems, and improving the quality of lives in society.

Template-based chemical vapor deposition (TB-CVD) is a versatile technique for manufacturing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or CNT-based devices for various applications. In this process, carbon is deposited by thermal decomposition of a carbon-based precursor gas inside the nanoscopic cylindrical pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO)... READ MORE
The dusty torus is the key component in the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) Unification Scheme that explains the spectroscopic differences between Seyfert galaxies of types 1 and 2. The torus dust is heated by the nuclear source and emits the absorbed energy in the... READ MORE
Many cryptographic applications use bilinear pairing such as identity based signature, instance identity-based key agreement, searchable public-key encryption, short signature scheme, certificate less encryption and blind signature. Elliptic curves over finite field are the most secure and efficient way to implement bilinear pairings for... READ MORE
While Organic photovoltaics (OPV) offer great promise as a low-cost renewable energy source, the relative low efficiency still challenges its commercialization potential. This challenge can be addressed with squaraine (SQ) molecules through unique material de-sign. Advantages of SQ over other materials, such as conjugate... READ MORE
Pulse rate and oxygen saturation are two important clinical measurements that indicate the state of a person’s essential body functions. Oxygen saturation is the measurement of oxygenated hemoglobin in arterial blood i.e. it indicates the level of oxygen in the blood. Pulse oximeters, consisting of... READ MORE
Studies on thermal enhancement for electronic chips has been gaining prominence as increased transistor density in the chips calls for larger heat dissipation. Various enhancement techniques have been proposed ever since 1981, to enhance the heat dissipation from the chip surface. Micro pin fins... READ MORE
In recent years, evolution of technology has contributed a major role in the field of optical communication systems. There is an ever growing demand for transmitting signals at higher data rates and compensating the transmission impairments simultaneously. Speed of the signal transmission down the optical... READ MORE
Vernal pools in the Northeastern United States are small, forested wetlands characterized by ephemeral flooding. These unique ecosystems provide critical habitat for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, abate seasonal flooding, and are biogeochemical hotspots. Vernal pools may be created to maintain key ecosystem services... READ MORE
Anthropogenic nutrient pollution is one of the most serious threats facing aquatic systems in modern times. Pollution with compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorous encourages rapid development of autotrophic biomass, or blooms, that severely degrade the quality of an aquatic system both as a habitat... READ MORE
Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, in the past half decade, have enabled many novel genomic applications and have generated unprecedented amounts of new knowledge that is quickly changing how biomedical research is being conducted, as well as, how we view human diseases and... READ MORE
Medical imaging modalities, including Computed Tomography (CT) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Ultrasound (US) are critical for the diagnosis and progress monitoring of many cardiac conditions, planning, visualization and delivery of therapy via minimally invasive intervention procedures, as well as for teaching, training and... READ MORE
The spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics (FE) makes them particularly attractive for non-volatile memory and logic applications. Non-volatile FRAM memories using perovskite structure materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) have been studied for many years. However, because of their... READ MORE
Planetary nebulae (PNe) represent the late stages of low-mass stellar evolution. The formation of the myriad of PNe morphologies involves processes that are present in many other astrophysical systems such as the wind-blown bubbles of massive stars. In this dissertation we present the result... READ MORE
In the past several decades there has been increasing research into factors that may affect the birth sex ratio of parents. These can range from nutrition to hormone levels to psychological factors. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) is a broadly encompassing governmental... READ MORE
Green walls or living walls are architectural installations comprised of plants growing in soil filled, modular panels that are attached to interior or exterior walls. The objective of this study is to explore the effectiveness of using green walls to pretreat wastewater generated by small... READ MORE
A common flexible packaging laminate is comprised of five constructs in sequence: printing layer, adhesive, barrier layer, adhesive, and sealing layer. Aluminum foil and metallized polymer films are commonly used gas barrier layers in flexible packaging, but their true environmental impacts are not well-represented. This... READ MORE
In this work we demonstrate two separate forms of augmented reality environments for use with minimally-invasive surgical techniques. In Chapter 2 it is demonstrated how a video feed from a webcam, which could mimic a laparoscopic or endoscopic camera used during an interventional procedure, can... READ MORE