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Publications

Book Contributions

S.M. Hubbard, “Basic functional principles of photovoltaics”, in PV from Fundamentals to Applications, A. Reinders, Ed. Wiley, in-press, 2016.

S. M. Hubbard, "Quantum Dot Solar Cells," in Nanotechnology for photovoltaics, L. Tsakalakos, Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2010.

S. Bailey, S. Hubbard, R. Raffaelle, “Self Assemble Quantum Dots for Photovoltaics”, in Handbook of Self Assembled Semiconductor Nanostructures for Novel Devices in Photonics and Electronics, M.Henini , Ed. Oxford:Elsevier, 2008.

Archive Journal Articles

Effect of electric field on carrier escape mechanisms in quantum dot intermediate band solar cells

Y. Dai, S. J. Polly,S. Hellstrom, M. A. Slocum, Z. S. Bittner, D. V. Forbes, and S. M. Hubbard, "Effect of electric field on carrier escape mechanisms in quantum dot intermediate band solar cells," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 121, 013101, 2017

Optical properties of InP from infrared to vacuum ultraviolet studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

I. Subedi, M. A. Slocum, D. V. Forbes, S. M. Hubbard, and N. J. Podraza "Optical properties of InP from infrared to vacuum ultraviolet studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,"Applied Surface Science, Jan 5, 2017

Effect of annealing on the compositional modulation of InAlAsSb

N. Balades, D. L. Sales, M. Herrera, F. J. Delgado, M. Gonzalez, K. Clark, P. Pinsunkajana, N. Hoven, S. Hubbard, S. Tomasulo, J. R. Walters, and S. I. Molina "  Effect of annealing on the compositional modulation of InAlAsSb"Applied Surface Science, vol. 395, pp 105-109, Feb 15, 2017

Development of InAlAsSb growth by MOVPE

M.A. Slocum, D.V. Forbes, G. Miller, B.L. Snith, J.G.J. Adams and S. Hubbard, " Development of InAlAsSb growth by MOVPE," Journal of Crystal Growth, April 2017

InAlAs Photovoltaic Cell Design for High Device Efficiency

B.L. Smith, Z.S. Bittner, S.D. Hellstrom, G.T. Nelson, M.A. Slocum, A. G. Newman, D.V. Forbes, S.M. Hubbard, "InAlAs photovoltaic cell design for high device efficiency," Progress in Photovoltaics, vol 25, pp706-713, July 2017

Calculation of Strain Compensation Thickness for III-V Semiconductor Quantum Dot Superlattices

S. Polly, C. Baily, A. Grede, S. Hubbard, “Calculation of Strain Compensation Thickness for III-V Semiconductor Quantum Dot Superlattices", J. Crystal Growth, Nov. 2016.

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Defect characterization of proton irradiated GaAs pn-junction diodes with layers of InAs quantum dots

S. Sato, K. Schmieder S.M. Hubbard, D. V. Forbes J. Warner, T. Ohshima, and R. J. Walters, " Defect characterization of proton irradiated GaAs pn-junction diodes with layers of InAs quantum dots," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 119 (18), May 2016.

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Effect of doping on room temperature carrier escape mechanisms in InAs/GaAs quantum dot p-i-n junction photovoltaic cells

D. G. Sellers, E. Y. Chen, S. J. Polly, S. M. Hubbard, and M. F. Doty, " Effect of doping on room temperature carrier escape mechanisms in InAs/GaAs quantum dot p-i-n junction photovoltaic cells," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 119 (19), p. 194301, May 2016.

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Carrier quenching in InGaP/GaAs double heterostructures

 N. P. Wells, T. U. Driskell, A. I. Hudson, S. D. LaLumondiere, W. T. Lotshaw, D. V. Forbes, and S. M. Hubbard, "Carrier quenching in InGaP/GaAs double heterostructures," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118, p. 065703, 2015.

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New Nanostructured Materials for Efficient Photon Upconversion

D. G. Sellers, S. J. Polly, Z. Yujun, S. M. Hubbard, J. M. O. Zide, and M. F. Doty, "New Nanostructured Materials for Efficient Photon Upconversion," Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of, vol. 5, pp. 224-228, 2015. 

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Synthesis and characterization of [Zn(acetate)2(amine)x] compounds (x=1 or 2) and their use as precursors to ZnO

J. S. Hyslop, A. R. Boydstun, T. R. Fereday, J. R. Rusch, J. L. Strunk, C. T. Wall, C. C. Pena, N. L. McKibben, J. D. Harris, A. Thurber, A. Punnoose, J. Brotherton, P. Walker, L. Lowe, B. Rapp, S. Purnell, W. B. Knowlton, S. M. Hubbard, and B. J. Frost, "Synthesis and characterization of [Zn(acetate)2(amine)x] compounds (x=1 or 2) and their use as precursors to ZnO," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 38, pp. 278-289, 2015.

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Investigation of optical transitions in InAs/GaAs(Sb)/AlAsSb quantum dots using modulation spectroscopy

Z. S. Bittner, S. Hellstroem, S. J. Polly, R. B. Laghumavarapu, B. Liang, D. L. Huffaker, and S. M. Hubbard, "Investigation of optical transitions in InAs/GaAs(Sb)/AlAsSb quantum dots using modulation spectroscopy," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 105, p. 253903, 2014.

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Fabrication and analysis of multijunction solar cells with a quantum dot (In)GaAs junction

 C. Kerestes, S. Polly, D. Forbes, C. Bailey, A. Podell, J. Spann, P. Patel, B. Richards, P. Sharps, and S. Hubbard, "Fabrication and analysis of multijunction solar cells with a quantum dot (In)GaAs junction," Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 22, pp. 1172-1179, 2014.

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Delta-Doping Effects on Quantum-Dot Solar Cells

S. J. Polly, D. V. Forbes, K. Driscoll, S. Hellstrom, and S. M. Hubbard, "Delta-Doping Effects on Quantum-Dot Solar Cells," Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of, vol. 4, pp. 1079-1085, 2014

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Investigation of deep level defects in electron irradiated indium arsenide quantum dots embedded in a gallium arsenide matrix

W. H. Strong, D. V. Forbes, and S. M. Hubbard, "Investigation of deep level defects in electron irradiated indium arsenide quantum dots embedded in a gallium arsenide matrix," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 25, pp. 76-83, 2014.

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Analyzing carrier escape mechanisms in InAs/GaAs quantum dot p-i-n junction photovoltaic cells

D. G. Sellers, S. Polly, S. M. Hubbard, and M. F. Doty, "Analyzing carrier escape mechanisms in InAs/GaAs quantum dot p-i-n junction photovoltaic cells," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, p. 223903, 2014.

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Effect of quantum dot position and background doping on the performance of quantum dot enhanced GaAs solar cells

K. Driscoll, M. F. Bennett, S. J. Polly, D. V. Forbes, and S. M. Hubbard, "Effect of quantum dot position and background doping on the performance of quantum dot enhanced GaAs solar cells," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, pp. 023119 , 2014.

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Strain Effects on Radiation Tolerance of Triple-Junction Solar Cells With InAs Quantum Dots in the GaAs Junction

C. Kerestes, C. D. Cress, B. C. Richards, D. V. Forbes, Y. Lin, Z. Bittner, S. J. Polly, P. Sharps, and S. M. Hubbard, "Strain Effects on Radiation Tolerance of Triple-Junction Solar Cells With InAs Quantum Dots in the GaAs Junction," Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of, vol. 4, pp. 224-232, 2014.

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Epitaxial lift-off of quantum dot enhanced GaAs single junction solar cells

M. F. Bennett, Z. S. Bittner, D. V. Forbes, S. Rao Tatavarti, S. Phillip Ahrenkiel, A. Wibowo, N. Pan, K. Chern, and S. M. Hubbard, "Epitaxial lift-off of quantum dot enhanced GaAs single junction solar cells," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 103, p. 213902, 2013.

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InAs Nanowires Grown by Metal–Organic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) Employing PS/PMMA Diblock Copolymer Nanopatterning

Y. Huang, T. W. Kim, S. Xiong, L. J. Mawst, T. F. Kuech, P. F. Nealey, Y. Dai, Z. Wang, W. Guo, D.Forbes, S. M. Hubbard, and M. Nesnidal, "InAs Nanowires Grown by Metal–Organic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) Employing PS/PMMA Diblock Copolymer Nanopatterning," Nano Letters, vol. 13, pp. 5979-5984, 2013/12/11 2013.

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GaSb/InGaAs quantum dot–well hybrid structure active regions in solar cells

R. B. Laghumavarapu, B. L. Liang, Z. S. Bittner, T. S. Navruz, S. M. Hubbard, A. Norman, and D. L. Huffaker, "GaSb/InGaAs quantum dot–well hybrid structure active regions in solar cells," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 114, pp. 165-171, 2013.

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OMVPE of InAs quantum dots on an InGaP surface

D. V. Forbes, A. M. Podell, M. A. Slocum, S. J. Polly, and S. M. Hubbard, "OMVPE of InAs quantum dots on an InGaP surface," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 16, pp. 1148-1153, 2013.

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Effect of vicinal substrates on the growth and device performance of quantum dot solar cells

S. M. Hubbard, A. Podell, C. Mackos, S. Polly, C. G. Bailey, and D. V. Forbes, "Effect of vicinal substrates on the growth and device performance of quantum dot solar cells," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 108, pp. 256-262, 2013.

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M. A. Slocum, D. V. Forbes, and S. M. Hubbard, "Subbandgap current collection through the implementation of a doping superlattice solar cell," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 101, pp. 073901-4, 2012

C. G. Bailey, D. V. Forbes, S. J. Polly, Z. S. Bittner, Y. Dai, C. Mackos, R. P. Raffaelle, and S. M. Hubbard, "Open-Circuit Voltage Improvement of InAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Solar Cells Using Reduced InAs Coverage," Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of, vol. 2, pp. 1-7, 2012.

J. E. Rossi, C. D. Cress, A. R. Helenic, C. M. Schauerman, R. A. DiLeo, N. D. Cox, S. R. Messenger, B. D. Weaver, S. M. Hubbard, and B. J. Landi, "Ion irradiation of electronic-type-separated single wall carbon nanotubes: A model for radiation effects in nanostructured carbon," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 112, pp. 034314-11, 2012.

C. D. Cress, J. J. McMorrow, J. T. Robinson, B. J. Landi, S. M. Hubbard, and S. R. Messenger, "Radiation Effects in Carbon Nanoelectronics," Electronics, vol. 1, pp. 23-31, 2012.

C. G. Bailey, D. V. Forbes, R. P. Raffaelle, and S. M. Hubbard, "Near 1V open circuit voltage InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 (163105) 2011.

D. Cress, S. J. Polly, S. M. Hubbard, R. P. Raffaelle, and R. J. Walters, "Demonstration of a nipi- diode photovoltaic," Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 2011.

Forbes, S. Hubbard, R. Raffaelle, and J. S. McNatt, "Au-catalyst-free epitaxy of InAs nanowires," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 312, pp. 1391-1395, 2010.

C. Bailey, S. M. Hubbard, D. Forbes, and R. Raffaelle, "Evaluation of strain balancing layer thickness for InAs / GaAs QD arrays using HRXRD and Photoluminescence," Applied Physics Letters 95, 203110 (2009).

S. M. Hubbard, C. Bailey, S. Polly, C. Cress, J. Andersen, D. Forbes, and R. Raffaelle, "Nanostructured photovoltaics for space power," Journal of Nanophotonics 3, 031880-031816 (2009).

S. M. Hubbard, C. D. Cress, C. G. Bailey, R. P. Raffaelle, “Effect of strain compensation on quantum dot enhanced GaAs solar cells”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123512 (2008).

R. Raffaelle, C. Bailey, S. Hubbard, S. Polly, D. Forbes, “Quantum Dot Spectral Tuning of Multijunction III-V Solar Cells”, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1121E, (2008).

C. Cress, S.M. Hubbard, B. Landi, D. Wilt, R. Raffaelle, “Quantum dot solar cell tolerance to alpha- particle irradiation”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183108 (2007). A. Saluja, J. Pan, L. Kerr, E. Cho, and S. Hubbard, “Gas Sensing Properties of Porous ZnO Nano-Platelet Films”, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1035, L11-07 (2007).

C. Bailey, C. Cress, R. Raffaelle, S.M. Hubbard, D. Wilt, W. Maurer, S. Bailey, “Analysis of Strain Compensation in Quantum Dot Embedded GaAs Solar Cells”, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1031E, H13-18 (2007).

C. D. Cress, S. M. Hubbard, C. Bailey, R. Robinson, B. Landi, R. Raffaelle, “Thermal Dependence of Quantum Dot Solar Cells”, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1031H13-19 (2007).

S.M. Hubbard, R. Raffaelle, R. Robinson, C. Bailey, D. Wilt, D. Wolford, W. Maurer, S. Bailey, “Growth and Characterization of InAs Quantum Dot Enhanced Photovoltaic Devices”, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1017E, DD13-11 (2007).

C. Cho, D. Pavlidis, G. Zhao, S.M. Hubbard, J. Schwank, “Improvement of CO sensitivity in GaN- based gas sensors”, IEICE Transactions on Electronics E89-C, 1047 (2006).

S.M. Hubbard, G. Zhao, D. Pavlidis, W. Sutton, E. Cho, “High Resistivity GaN Buffer Templates and their Optimization for GaN-Based HFETs”, J. Crystal Growth 284, 297-305 (2005).

S.M. Hubbard, D. Pavlidis, V. Valiaev, A. Eisenbach, “Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of AlN/GaN Heterostructures”, J. Elect. Mat. 31, 395-401 (2002).

S.M. Hubbard, D. Pavlidis, V. Valiaev, M.A. Stevens-Kalceff, I.M. Tiginyanu, “Electrical characterization and cathodoluminescence microanalysis of AlN/GaN heterostructures”, Mat. Sci. Eng. B, B91-92, 336-340 (2002).

S.M. Hubbard, M. Tabib-Azar, C.M. Schnabel, S. Bailey, “Mapping of crystal defects and the minority carrier diffusion length in 6H-SiC using a novel electron beam induced current technique”, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3986-92 (1998).