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‘LEAD-FREE RESEARCH COMPENDIUM’ REPORT OUTLINE

The compendium is divided into chapters and the outline topics discussed in each chapter is shown below:

Chapter 1: WHY LEAD-FREE?

 

  • Significance of ‘lead’
  • Why ban lead from electronics?
  • Global lead-free implementation status
  • Lead and lead-free comparison

 

Chapter 2: SELECTION OF LEAD-FREE SOLDERS

 

  • Desired characteristics of lead-free solder paste
  • Various lead-free elements
  • Viable lead-free compositions
  • Recommended lead-free solder alloys for SMT

 

Chapter 3: LEAD-FREE SURFACE MOUNT TECHNOLOGY

 

  • Compatibility issues  

                   - PCB surface finish compatibility  

                   - Component compatibility

                   - Flux for lead-free technology

                   - Cleaning of lead-free residues

                   - Solder Vs PCB finish Vs Component terminal finish Vs Flux

  • Lead-free solder paste printing and component placement

                   - Factors affecting lead-free solder paste printing

                   - Rheology of solder paste and its significance in printing

                   - Rheology process window for lead-free solder paste

                   - Effect of metal content, particle size distribution and flux

                   - Process window for lead-free solder paste printing

                   - Component placement

  • Lead-free soldering

         - Wave soldering

         - Critical process parameters (includes inert atmosphere)

         - Dross

         - Impact of lead-free solder in wave soldering equipment

         - Energy Consumption

         - Reflow soldering

         - Critical process parameters (includes inert atmosphere)

         - Impact of lead-free solder in reflow equipment

         - Energy consumption

         - Rework and repair

         - Inspection

 

Chapter 4: LEAD-FREE DEFECTS

 

  • Defects due to lead-free materials

        - Lead contamination

        - Black pad

        - Tin whiskers

        - Tin pest

        - Voids

        - Conductive Anodic Filament

  • Process related defects

        - Fillet lifting

 

Chapter 5: RELIABILITY OF LEAD-FREE TECHNOLOGY

 

  • Detailed discussion of lead-free reliability

 

Chapter 6: ALTERNATIVES TO LEAD-FREE

 

  • Conductive Adhesives
  • Press fit connections

 

Chapter 7: IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAD-FREE TECHNOLOGY

 

  • Detailed discussion of steps to successfully implement lead-free technology