Objective Predictors of Career Success
- Promotions — advancement or transfer of position. (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005)
- Salary Level — level of pay within a position, increased income over time period — (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005)
- Motivation — Putting in more effort in performing task for better job performance outcome. (Katzell and Thompson, 1990; Ng. Vroom, 1964)
Subjective Predictors of Career Success
- Career Satisfaction — (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005) The satisfaction individuals derive from intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of their career, including pay, advancement, and developmental opportunities (Greenhaus, Parasuraman, & Wormley, 1990) Accumulated positive work and psychological outcomes resulting from one’s work experiences (Seibert & Kraimer, 2001)
- Human Capital — a combination of one’s education, personal characteristics, and professional experiences (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005)
- Education - Level of education (high school, college degree, graduate degree)
- Professional Experiences - Number of hours worked (Ng. Gladwell, 2008; Judge and Bretz, 1994; Bretz and Judge, 1994; Schneer and Reitman, 1990, 1993), job involvement, job and organization tenure (e.g., length of time at that specific job) (e.g., Judge and Bretz, 1994; Judge et al., 1995; Powell and Butterfield, 1994, 1997; Stroh et al., 1992), work experience (e.g., number of years worked), willingness to transfer, international work experience, political knowledge and skills, and having a career plan (Aryee and Yaw, 1993).
- Stable Individual Differences/ Personal Characteristics - Personality traits that can support or prevent career development (Ng. Bell & Shaw, 1989), (Costa & McCrae, 1992)
- Neuroticism - Having anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, vulnerability and impulsiveness.
- Conscientiousness - Being hard working, persistent, responsible, careful, planful, organized, and having a need for achievement, order, and persistence.
- Extroversion - Being sociable, active, impulsive, positive, a leader, being self-occupied.
- Agreeableness - Is cooperative, trusting of others, caring, likable, good-natured, cheerful, and gentle.
- Openness to Experience - Is philosophical, intellectual, imaginative, autonomous, and nonconforming. Suggests that open individuals are more likely to emerge as leaders and be effective leaders. (Sosik, Kahai, & Avolio, 1998)
- Proactivity — Taking action to influence environments, unconstrained by situational forces and effects environmental changes. Identifying opportunities for self-improvement and act upon them. Showing initiative and persevere until change happens. (Ng, Bateman, & Crant, 1993), (Festinger, 1954) Proactive individuals select and create situations that enhance the likelihood of high levels of job performance. (Ng, Crantm 1995)
- Sponsored Mobility — Investment in career development is limited to those who are recognized and receive support from their supervisor/organization to move up in position (Ng. Rosenbaum, 1984)
- Socio-Demographic Status — Position in career is influenced by individuals’ demographic and social backgrounds such as gender, race, marital status and age (Thomas W.H. Ng. et al, 2005), (Ng. Greenhaus, 1990), (Ng. Turban &Dougherty, 1994)
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