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Action Steps

1. Preview an assigned reading to note "trouble spots," or areas needing instruction, in advance of the assignment.

2. When previewing a text section, assess the grammatical as well as the conceptual complexity of the reading. Perhaps tell students what areas to focus on and what areas can be dealt with in class.

3. Break reading assignments into "do-able doses," as time allows. Be realistic about the amount of reading a student can effectively complete in a given time allotment.

4. Keep in mind the process nature of reading, and support the students' efforts with meaningful activities at each stage to augment students' comprehension of reading materials.

5. In the before-reading stage, set a context for the reading. Show how the assigned material fits with what has already been studied, and help students to anticipate or predict what is to come and to create questions, in other words, to form a purpose for the reading.

6. Encourage students to make use of text helps, such as:

  • pre-chapter objectives
  • glossary or term definitions
  • graphic representations such as tables, charts, and diagrams
  • end-of-chapter summaries

7. In the during-reading stage, encourage (and demonstrate) the writing of margin notes. Notes provide a visible record of the student's comprehension, as well as a potential study aid.

8. In the after-reading stage, facilitate the internalization of read material through a variety of expressive activities: writing, discussion, role play, mapping, and test creation.

9. Model strategies and provide guided practice opportunities in the classroom to help students learn valuable reading and learning skills that can markedly improve their overall academic performance.

10. Implement other suggestions presented in the "Process Summary" section of this module.