Determining the remaining useful life of vehicle components. Constant-velocity (CV) joints, which enable a car’s drive shaft to transmit power from the engine through a variable angle, at constant rotational speed, are critical and expensive components of front-wheel and all-wheel drive systems. Successfully remanufacturing CV joints depends on how much hardness the original joint has retained after its first lifetime. C3R’s® Structural & Material Analysis Team conducted an independent study on the hardness depth of both new and used Constant Velocity joints from different manufacturers to determine the hardness of the joints. To ensure proper functionality in a remanufactured joint, the remanufacturer needs to know how deeply the original hardness penetrates the joint components and the amount of hardness remaining after the depressions are ground out. The team determined the hardness of various CV joints and how the joint can be expected to perform with age, wear and grinding. As a part of this study, C3R's® Intelligent Testing & Diagnostic Team completed the second modification of a test fixture that allows for observation of a CV joint in various stages of dynamic operation. With this technology, remanufacturers can quantitatively compare CV joints from different manufacturers.