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Recent Grants

Development of C-Print technology and research on the effectiveness of C-Print is generously supported by grants. Following is a description of currently grant-funded projects:

Supporting Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Undergraduate Students in STEM Field Settings with Remote Speech-to-Text Services

2007-2010
Supported by: 

National Science Foundation, Human Resource Division, Research in Disabilities Education

Project Description: 

This project addresses the challenges faced by deaf, hard-of-hearing, and low vision college students who participate in field trips for science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) classes. We are developing an application for C-Print using smartphones (i.e., BlackBerry or Sidekick). This application will allow the instructor or leader of the field trip to communicate via cell phone with a service provider who is in a remote location (i.e., not on the field trip). The service provider produces captioning from the spoken information received on the phone and the student reads the information on the smartphone.

Project Activities: 
  • Creating software applications
  • Developing procedures for remote captioning
  • Conducting focus groups with deaf and hard-of-hearing students, deaf/low vision students, and with service providers
  • Field trials with deaf and hard-of-hearing students and with deaf/low vision students
  • Measuring service provider accuracy
  • Assessing usability from perspective of service providers, students and instructors

Increasing Access to STEM Instruction through Specially Produced Notes Using Tablet PC Technology and Speech-to-text Services

2008-2011
Supported by: 

National Science Foundation, Division of Undergraduate Education, Course Curriculum and Laboratory Instruction Phase 1 Exploratory

Project Description: 

This project applies concepts of Universal Design for Instruction to the C-Print captioning support service with the tablet PC. In this project, we test the impact of the distribution of C-Print notes with graphics to all students enrolled in specific college Physics and Statistics classes. We compare outcomes for student performance and student attendance of students who either receive or do not receive these notes. Through an additional experiment, we will test the comprehension of Biology and Physics course material for students who are in one of four groups: (a) deaf or hard-of-hearing; (b) learning disability; (c) English Language Learners; (d) those students who do not possess any of the characteristics of the first 3 groups.

Project Activities: 
  • Creating pre- and post-test measures of course content
  • Distributing notes to entire class (one each, Physics & Statistics)
  • Developing Biology lecture and Physics lecture with graphics and accompanying notes for each
  • Creating evaluation materials to assess comprehension of lecture notes
  • Gathering questionnaire data from students regarding use of notes and study strategies
  • Interviewing faculty about impact of distributed notes

Using Tablet C-Print to Support Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

2007-2011
Supported by: 

NEC Foundation of America

Project Description: 

In this project we test tablet PC technology and C-Print software for captioning with graphics support with deaf and hard-of-hearing students in mainstreamed college classrooms. These tests are an important comparison to the Steppingstones Phase I & Steppingstones Phase II grants (described above). Both the pace and complexity of postsecondary course material varies greatly from material that is typically presented in lower grades. This project helps to define useful procedures for implementing this support for college students. In addition, this grant will test the “tag team” approach for captioning, which will permit two service providers to work together to input both the text and graphics materials in STEM courses.

Project Activities: 
  • Developing procedures and guides for providing captioning with graphics in college classrooms
  • Creating student guides for use with college students
  • Further testing and development of C-Print Pro tablet software
  • Field trials in college classrooms
  • Interviewing students and service providers about the new technology
  • Gathering questionnaire data from students about tablet experiences

Evaluation of the Use of Tablet PCs and C-Print to Support Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students

2007-2010
Supported by: 

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Steppingstones of Technology Innovation for Students with Disabilities, Phase II

Project Description: 

This grant is an extension of the Steppingstones Phase I project (see above). Using the now-developed C-Print Pro Tablet software, we are carrying out a large-scale implementation study, involving deaf and hard-of-hearing middle and high school students in general education science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) classes around the country.

Project Activities: 
  • Training site administrators
  • Training notetakers and captionists to use the tablet PC and the C-Print software
  • Developing training guides for students, parents, and teachers
  • Conducting in-class trials of real-time notetaking and captioning support with graphics
  • Conducting controlled experiments of effects of notes generated with real-time notetaking and with captioning support

Using a Tablet PC and C-Print to Support Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students

2005-2008
Supported by: 

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Steppingstones of Technology Innovation for Students with Disabilities, Phase I

Project Description: 

This project adapted use of tablet PC technology and piloted the technology to support deaf and hard-of-hearing students in middle and high school classes with a particular emphasis on STEM classes (science, technology, engineering, & math) in two different ways:

  1. Real-time notetaking in which the student views notetaker’s notes as they are being created (instead of viewing after class). The student can to add to the notes as they are being created as well. And,
  2. Integration of captioning with graphics such as charts, illustrations, or other non-text information.
Project Activities: 
  • Field trials of real-time notetaking with tablets and notetaking software
  • Field trials of captioning support service with graphics with C-Print Pro Tablet software
  • Developing C-Print Pro Tablet software
  • Creating training guide for service providers for real-time notetaking
  • Producing user guides for students
  • Interviewing students, teachers, and service providers about the new technology

The C-Print Model for Speech-to-Text Services with Educational Software and Automatic Speech Recognition

2003-2008
Supported by: 

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Model Demonstration Projects for Children with Disabilities

Project Description: 

The Model Demonstration project implements the C-Print model for speech-to-text (captioning) support service on college campuses with mainstreamed deaf and hard-of-hearing students. In addition to creating an implementation model, this project tests a number of functions of C-Print Pro software, used with standard laptops:

  1. service providers’ use of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) as a mode of input for captioning;
  2. students’ use of embedded educational tools; and,
  3. students’ and service providers’ use of a messaging feature.
Project Activities: 
  • Developing C-Print Pro software, including ASR application
  • Preparing web-based C-Print training materials for service providers
  • Evaluating training materials for service providers
  • Measuring service providers’ captioning proficiency
  • Creating web-based student guides for the C-Print software
  • Implementing captioning service through field trials in college classes;
  • Comparing the effect of ASR C-Print, typed C-Print, or interpreter use on understanding of course material and final grades for deaf and hard-of-hearing postsecondary students;
  • Interviewing students, professors, and service providers about their experiences with C-Print.