Nasal Resonance distortion results from a disturbance in resonance which is not related to laryngeal function. In hypernasality or severe nasality there is faulty control in palato-pharyngeal valving which results in excessive nasalization of vowels and non-nasal consonants. In severe denasality, again there is faulty control in palato-pharyngeal valving which results in an absence of nasal resonance on nasal consonants. In moderate nasality or moderate denasality the disturbance in nasal resonance is the lesser degree. Similarly, in slight nasality or slight denasality the disturbance in nasal resonance varies slightly from normal. In rating nasal resonance, judgments of nasality and denasality are combined to indicate a lack of resonance control.
In voices with nasal resonance distortion, identify the distortions as nasal resonance and rate degree without differentiating denasality from nasality or hypernasality.
|Level 1||Resonance varies and cannot be judged.||no sample|
|Level 2||Severe denasality or hypernasality. This voice is characterized hypernasal with prominent glottal stops and an associated moderate harshness in voice quality. The speakers consistent use of a hard attack in initiating vowels contributes to harshness in quality. In this sample the degree of nasality shifts as a function of the vowel. With the high vowels showing a greater degree of nasal resonance than noted on other low vowels. The hypernasality observed is functional in nature. Confidence in velo-pharyngeal valving is demonstrated by the fact that the speaker can sustain 'S' without loss of air through the nose. Thus the potential for learning to control resonance by achieving normal valving within the appropriate time reference is demonstrated.||(Female)|
|Level 3||Moderate denasality or hypernasality. This speaker demonstrates a moderate degree of nasality rated three. Numerous misarticulations include distortions resulting from nasal emission, voicing errors and frequent glottal stops. A mild degree of pharyngeal resonance is also evident in this sample.||(Male)|
|Level 4||Mild denasality or hypernasality. This sample demonstrates a mild degree of nasality with a rate of syllable articulation slightly below optimum. Distortions in articulation are noted, but the total intelligibility of the message is preserved.||(Male)|
|Level 5||Normal resonance.||no sample|