Web Accessibility Guidelines for Developers

According to the Web Accessibility Initiative, web accessibility means that websites, tools, and technologies are designed and developed so that people with disabilities can use them. Types of disabilities can include visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, language, learning, and neurological.

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) define requirements for designers and developers to improve accessibility for people with disabilities. RIT aims to achieve compliance with WCAG 2.2 level AA.

These webpages will help developers follow these accessibility guidelines. WCAG 2.2 is broken down into 4 principles.

Principle 1 - Perceivable

Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.

This principle is broken into 4 guidelines:

  • Guideline 1.1 – Text Alternatives
    Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.
  • Guideline 1.2 – Time-based Media
    Provide alternatives for time-based media.
  • Guideline 1.3 – Adaptable
    Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example, simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
  • Guideline 1.4 – Distinguishable
    Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

Learn more about Principle 1 - Perceivable

Principle 2 - Operable

User interface components and navigation must be operable.

This principle is broken into 5 guidelines:

  • Guideline 2.1 – Keyboard Accessible
    Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
  • Guideline 2.2 – Enough Time
    Provide users enough time to read and use content.
  • Guideline 2.3 – Seizures and Physical Reactions
    Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.
  • Guideline 2.4 – Navigable
    Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.
  • Guideline 2.5 – Input Modalities
    Make it easier for users to operate functionality through various inputs beyond keyboard.

Learn more about Principle 2 - Operable

Principle 3 - Understandable

Information and the operation of the user interface must be understandable.

This principle is broken into 3 guidelines:

  • Guideline 3.1 – Readable
    Make text content readable and understandable.
  • Guideline 3.2 – Predictable
    Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.
  • Guideline 3.3 – Input Assistance
    Help users avoid and correct mistakes.

Learn more about Principle 3 - Understandable

Principle 4 - Robust

Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.

This principle has 1 guideline:

  • Guideline 4.1 – Compatible
    Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.

Learn more about Principle 4 - Robust