Optical Science Minor
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 Optical Science Minor
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School of Physics and Astronomy
Overview
Optical science techniques are used in a variety of consumer products (digital cameras, CD players), communication technologies (optical fibers), medical imaging (infrared imaging), and the sciences (surveillance, remote sensing, astronomical systems). This minor can be an important complement to studies in electrical and microelectronic engineering, the biological sciences, physics, chemistry, mathematics, technical photography, and various majors in the field of applied science and technology.
Notes about this minor:
 Posting of the minor on the student's academic transcript requires a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the minor.
 Notations may appear in the curriculum chart below outlining prerequisites, corequisites, and other curriculum requirements (see footnotes).
The program code for Optical Science Minor is OPTSCIMN.
Curriculum for Optical Science Minor
Course  

Prerequisites  
MATH181 
ProjectBased Calculus I (or equivalent)
This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisite: A or better in MATH111 or A or better in ((NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) and NMTH220) or a math placement exam score greater than or equal to 70 or department permission to enroll in this class.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

MATH182 
ProjectBased Calculus II (or equivalent)
This is the second in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in (MATH181 or MATH173 or 1016282) or (MATH171 and MATH180) or equivalent course(s).) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

PHYS211 
University Physics I (or equivalent)
This is a course in calculusbased physics for science and engineering majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton's Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or equivalent course. Corequisites: MATH182 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 6 (Fall, Spring).

PHYS212 
University Physics II (or equivalent)
This course is a continuation of PHYS211, University Physics I. Topics include electrostatics, Gauss' law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, DC circuits, magnetic field, Ampere's law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS206 or PHYS216) or (MECE102, MECE103 and MECE205) and (MATH182 or MATH172 or MATH182A) or equivalent courses. Grades of C or better are required in all prerequisite courses.) Lec/Lab 6 (Fall, Spring).

Electives  
Students must complete one course from Group A, one course from Group B, one course from Group C and any two courses from Group D  
Group A  
IMGS321 
Geometric Optics
This course introduces the analysis and design of optical imaging systems based on the ray model of light. Topics include reflection, refraction, imaging with lenses, stops and pupils, prisms, magnification and optical system design using computer software. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Fall).

IMGS322 
Physical Optics
Light waves having both amplitude and phase will be described to provide a foundation for understanding key optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and propagation. Starting from Maxwell's equations the course advances to the topic of Fourier optics. (Prerequisites: (PHYS212 and IMGS261) or (PHYS283 and PHYS320) or equivalent courses.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring).

MCEE515 
Nanolithography Systems
An advanced course covering the physical aspects of micro and nanolithography. Image formation in projection and proximity systems are studied. Makes use of optical concepts as applied to lithographic systems. Fresnel diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction, and Fourier optics are utilized to understand diffractionlimited imaging processes and optimization. Topics include illumination, lens parameters, image assessment, resolution, phaseshift masking, and resist interactions as well as nonoptical systems such as EUV, maskless, ebeam, and nanoimprint. Lithographic systems are designed and optimized through use of modeling and simulation packages. Lab 3, Lecture 3 (Spring).

PHPS211 
Photographic Optics
This required course will investigate advanced photographic technology, with an emphasis on the study of the components of photographic imaging systems. Geometrical optics, color management, printing technologies and video standards will also be studied. Working in a lab environment, students will evaluate how technology can be optimized and where its limitations might be found. (Prerequisites: PHPS107 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Fall).

PHYS365 
Physical Optics
In this course light waves having both amplitude and phase will be described to provide a foundation for understanding key optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and propagation. Starting from Maxwell's equations the course advances to the topic of Fourier optics. (Prerequisites: (PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217) and PHYS225, PHYS283, PHYS320 and (MATH219 or MATH221 or MATH221H) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring).

Group B  
IMGS251 
Radiometry
This course introduces the concepts of quantitative measurement of electromagnetic energy. The basic radiometric and photometric terms are introduced using calculusbased definitions. Governing equations for source propagation and sensor output are derived. Simple source concepts are reviewed and detector figures of merit are introduced and used in problem solving. The radiometric concepts are then applied to simple imaging systems so that a student could make quantitative measurements with imaging instruments. (Prerequisites: MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173 and PHYS212 or equivalent courses.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Fall).

PHYS408 
Laser Physics
This course covers the semiclassical theory of the operation of a laser, characteristics and practical aspects of various laser systems, and some applications of lasers in scientific research. (Prerequisites: PHYS365 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

Group C  
IMGS451 
Imaging Detectors
This course provides an overview of the underlying physical concepts, designs, and characteristics of detectors used to sense electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths ranging from as short as Xrays to as long as millimeter radiation. The basic physical concepts common to many standard detector arrays will be reviewed. Some specific examples of detectors to be discussed include photomultipliers, micro channel plates, hybridized infrared arrays, positiveintrinsicnegative (PIN) detectors, and superconductorinsulatorsuperconductor (SIS) mixers. The use of detectors in fields such as astronomy, high energy physics, medical imaging and digital imaging will be discussed. (Prerequisites: IMGS251 and IMGS341 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).

IMGS528 
Design and Fabrication of Solid State Cameras
The purpose of this course is to provide the student with handson experience in building a CCD camera. The course provides the basics of CCD operation including an overview, CCD clocking, analog output circuitry, cooling, and evaluation criteria. (Prerequisites: PHYS111 or PHYS211 or PHYS207 or PHPS106) Lab 6, Lecture 1 (Fall).

IMGS542 
Testing of Focal Plane Arrays
This course is an introduction to the techniques used for the testing of solid state imaging detectors such as CCDs (charge coupled device), CMOS, (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and infrared arrays. Focal plane array users in industry, government and academia need to ensure that key operating parameters for such devices either fall within an operating range or that the limitation to the performance is understood. This is a handson course where the students will measure the performance parameters of a particular camera in detail. (Prerequisites: PHYS111 or PHYS211 or PHYS207 or PHPS106) Lab 6, Lecture 1 (Spring).

Group D  
CHMP442 
Physical Chemistry II
This course provides fundamental concepts, and organizing principles of quantum chemistry, applied in all aspects of chemistry and related fields. A rigorous and detailed explanation of central, unifying concepts in quantum chemistry will be developed. Mathematical models will be described, which contain the underpinnings to concepts applied in analytical, inorganic, organic, and biochemistry courses, as well as more advanced topics in chemistry. The course will cover: Postulates and formulation of Schrödinger equations, Operators and matrix elements, Solutions for the particleinabox, simple harmonic oscillators, the rigid rotor and angular momentum, the hydrogen atom; spin, the Pauli principle. Approximation methods will be described for the helium atom, the hydrogen molecule ion, the hydrogen molecule, Diatomic molecules. Linear combinations of atomic orbitals and computational chemistry will be introduced and quantum chemistry applications will be provided. In addition this course will cover standard thermodynamic functions expressed in partition functions and spectroscopy and lightmatter interaction (Prerequisite: CHMP441 and (MATH233 or (MATH231 and MATH241)) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).

EEEE374 
EM Fields and Transmission Lines
The course provides the foundations of EM fields, static and time varying, and a study of propagation, reflection and transmissions of electromagnetic waves in unbounded regions and in transmission lines. Topics include the following: electric field intensity and potential, Guass' Law, polarization, electric flux density, dielectric constant and boundary conditions, Poisson's and Laplace's equations, methods of images, steady electric current and conduction current density, vector magnetic potential, BiotSavart law, magnetization, magnetic field intensity, permeability, boundary conditions, Faraday's law, Maxwell's equations and the continuity equation. Time harmonic EM fields, wave equations, uniform plane waves, polarization, Poynting theorem and power, reflection and transmission from multiple dielectric interfaces, transmission line equations, transients on transmission lines, pulse and step excitations, reflection diagrams, sinusoidal steady state solutions, standing waves, the Smith Chart and impedance matching techniques, TE and TM waves in rectangular waveguides. experiments using stateofart RF equipment illustrating fundamental wave propagation and reflection concepts, design projects with stateofart EM modeling tools. (Prerequisites: MATH231 and PHYS212 or PHYS208 and PHYS209 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 4 (Fall, Spring).

IMGS221 
Vision & Psychophysics
This course presents an overview of the organization and function of the human visual system and some of the psychophysical techniques used to study visual perception. (Prerequisites: SOFA103 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

IMGS322 
Physical Optics
Light waves having both amplitude and phase will be described to provide a foundation for understanding key optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and propagation. Starting from Maxwell's equations the course advances to the topic of Fourier optics. (Prerequisites: (PHYS212 and IMGS261) or (PHYS283 and PHYS320) or equivalent courses.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring).

IMGS341 
Interaction Between Light and Matter
This course introduces the principles of how light interacts with matter. The principles of atomic physics as applied to simple atoms are reviewed and extended to multielectron atoms to interpret their spectra. Molecular structure and spectra are covered in depth, including the principles of lasers. The concepts of statistical physics concepts are introduced and applied to the structure of crystalline solids, their band structure and optical properties. These concepts are then used to understand electronic imaging devices, such as detectors. (Prerequisite: PHYS213 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).

IMGS442 
Imaging Systems Analysis and Modeling
The purpose of this course is to develop an understanding and ability to model signal and noise within the context of imaging systems. A review of the modulation transfer function is followed by a brief review of probability theory. The concept of image noise is then introduced. Next, random processes are considered in both the spatial and frequency domains, with emphasis on the autocorrelation function and power density spectrum. Finally, the principles of random processes are applied to signal and noise transfer in multistage imaging systems. At the completion of the course the student will be able to model signal and noise transfer within a multistage imaging system. (Prerequisites: IMGS211 and IMGS261 and IMGS341 and IMGS322 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 4 (Fall).

MCEE515 
Nanolithography Systems
An advanced course covering the physical aspects of micro and nanolithography. Image formation in projection and proximity systems are studied. Makes use of optical concepts as applied to lithographic systems. Fresnel diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction, and Fourier optics are utilized to understand diffractionlimited imaging processes and optimization. Topics include illumination, lens parameters, image assessment, resolution, phaseshift masking, and resist interactions as well as nonoptical systems such as EUV, maskless, ebeam, and nanoimprint. Lithographic systems are designed and optimized through use of modeling and simulation packages. Lab 3, Lecture 3 (Spring).

PHYS213 
Modern Physics I
This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

PHYS365 
Physical Optics
In this course light waves having both amplitude and phase will be described to provide a foundation for understanding key optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and propagation. Starting from Maxwell's equations the course advances to the topic of Fourier optics. (Prerequisites: (PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217) and PHYS225, PHYS283, PHYS320 and (MATH219 or MATH221 or MATH221H) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring).

PHYS412 
Advanced Electricity and Magnetism
This course is an advanced treatment of electrodynamics including propagating waves, electromagnetic radiation, and relativistic electrodynamics. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, guided electromagnetic waves, and simple radiating systems will be covered. Relativistic electrodynamics will be introduced including field tensors and four vector notation. (Prerequisites: PHYS411 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

PHYS516  Scanning Electron Microscopy 
Alternate courses may be substituted for those listed above with the approval/permission of the minor coordinator.