Physics Minor
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 Physics Minor
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Minor Advisor
Dawn Hollenbeck, Associate Professor
585‑475‑6652, dmhsps@rit.edu
585‑475‑6652, dmhsps@rit.edu
Offered within the
School of Physics and Astronomy
School of Physics and Astronomy
Overview
In a broad sense, the aim of physics as a discipline is to develop interconnected unifying threads bridging the vast number of seemingly diverse phenomena observed in the physical world around us. The minor provided students with the opportunity for additional study in physics in order to build a secondary area of expertise in support of their major or other areas of interest.
Notes about this minor:
 The minor is closed to students majoring in physics.
 Posting of the minor on the student's academic transcript requires a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the minor.
The program code for Physics Minor is PHYSMN.
Curriculum for Physics Minor
Course  

Prerequisites  
MATH181 
ProjectBased Calculus I
This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisite: A or better in MATH111 or A or better in ((NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) and NMTH220) or a math placement exam score greater than or equal to 70 or department permission to enroll in this class.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

MATH182 
ProjectBased Calculus II
This is the second in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in (MATH181 or MATH173 or 1016282) or (MATH171 and MATH180) or equivalent course(s).) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

PHYS211 
University Physics I
This is a course in calculusbased physics for science and engineering majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton's Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or equivalent course. Corequisites: MATH182 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 6 (Fall, Spring).

PHYS212 
University Physics II
This course is a continuation of PHYS211, University Physics I. Topics include electrostatics, Gauss' law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, DC circuits, magnetic field, Ampere's law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS206 or PHYS216) or (MECE102, MECE103 and MECE205) and (MATH182 or MATH172 or MATH182A) or equivalent courses. Grades of C or better are required in all prerequisite courses.) Lec/Lab 6 (Fall, Spring).

Required Courses  
PHYS213 
Modern Physics I
This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

PHYS283 
Vibrations and Waves
This course is an introduction to the physics of vibrations and waves, beginning with the simple harmonic oscillator, the foundation to understanding oscillatory and vibratory systems. The course will include driven and damped single oscillators, coupled discrete oscillators, and continuous vibrating systems. Connections will be made with many areas of physics that involve oscillation, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS217 or PHYS209 and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisites: MATH231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).

Electives  
Choose three of the following (at least one must come from Group A and at least one from Group B):  
Group A  
PHYS315 
Experiments in Modern Physics
In this course, students perform experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. These include investigations of wave particle duality, and the earliest of quantum mechanical models as well as measurements of fundamental constants. Experiments typically include electron diffraction, the photoelectric effect, optical diffraction and interference, atomic spectroscopy, chargetomass ratio of an electron, and blackbody radiation. This class teaches basic instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall).

PHYS316 
Advanced Laboratory in Physics
In this course, students perform advanced experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. Experiments typically explore properties of materials, semiconductors, atomic physics, and nuclear decay. This class continues the instruction in instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis that began in Experiments in Modern Physics, PHYS315. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS315 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Spring).

PHYS365 
Physical Optics
In this course light waves having both amplitude and phase will be described to provide a foundation for understanding key optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and propagation. Starting from Maxwell's equations the course advances to the topic of Fourier optics. (Prerequisites: (PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217) and PHYS225, PHYS283, PHYS320 and (MATH219 or MATH221 or MATH221H) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring).

PHYS377 
Advanced Computational Physics
This course introduces students to advanced methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Topics will include numerical solutions to differential equations such as heat transfer, planetary motion, and shock waves, the Monte Carlo approach to problems with large domains, tradeoffs between efficiency and precision, minimization and maximization of functions, and the statistical modeling of data. (Prerequisites: PHYS225 and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring).

Group B  
PHYS214 
Modern Physics II
This course is a continuation of a survey of modern physics beyond the topics introduced in Modern Physics I. Central topics include the physics of multielectron atoms, molecular structure, fundamentals of statistical physics applied to systems of particles, elementary solidstate physics, applications to semiconductor materials and simple devices, and basic elements of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

PHYS320 
Mathematical Methods in Physics
This course serves as an introduction to the mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include matrix algebra, vector calculus, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations in rectangular coordinates, and an introduction to series solutions of ordinary differential equations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

PHYS330 
Classical Mechanics
This course is a systematic presentation of Newtonian kinematics and dynamics including equations of motion in one and threedimensions, conservation laws, noninertial reference frames, central forces, Lagrangian mechanics, and rigid body motion. This course will use advanced mathematical techniques including differential equations, vector calculus, and matrix and tensor formulations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217). Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course. Corequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall).

PHYS360 
Introduction to Chaotic Dynamics
This course introduces basic tools for visualizing the behavior of nonlinear systems. In particular, the students are required to use the computer as an exploratory tool for generating and observing transitions between periodic behavior and chaotic behavior. Most of the course focuses on the driven, damped pendulum as a model dynamical system, but the ideas are readily extended to other systems as well. (Prerequisites: PHYS283 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).

PHYS408 
Laser Physics
This course covers the semiclassical theory of the operation of a laser, characteristics and practical aspects of various laser systems, and some applications of lasers in scientific research. (Prerequisites: PHYS365 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

PHYS411 
Electricity and Magnetism
This course is a systematic treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical formalism using differential and integral vector calculus is developed. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Special techniques for solution to Laplace's equation as a boundary value problem are covered. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, and the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, are discussed. (Prerequisites: (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in PHYSBS or PHYS2M are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 4 (Spring).

PHYS414 
Quantum Mechanics
This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

PHYS440 
Thermal and Statistical Physics
This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).

* At least two courses must be taken at the 300level or higher.