Physics Bachelor of Science Degree
Physics
Bachelor of Science Degree
 RIT /
 Rochester Institute of Technology /
 Academics /
 Physics BS
In RIT’s physics degree, you’ll gain an indepth understanding of the basic principles governing the structure and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interactions of matter and energy within the world around us.
Overview for Physics BS
Why Pursue a Physics Degree at RIT
 Participate in paid cooperative education and handson research experiences at organizations such as NASA, the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Idaho National Laboratory, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
 Undergraduate research in physics includes astrophysics, quantum optics, gravitational wave physics, biophysics, and the physics of materials.
 Access 14 research labs and centers, including the Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation and the RIT Observatory.
 RIT's physics major is recognized by the American Physical Society for Improving Undergraduate Physics Education, which includes an activelearning workshop format for early year classes.
The world of physics is dynamic. Some physicists use principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the origin of the universe; others apply their physics knowledge to practical areas such as the development of advanced materials, electronic and optical devices, and medical equipment. They often design and perform sciencebased experiments, using sophisticated equipment, and then attempt to draw useful conclusions from their observations/analysis.
RIT’s Bachelor’s Degree in Physics
RIT’s physics degree gives you a solid foundation in experimental, computational, and theoretical physics, as it fosters your analytical and problemsolving skills. The curriculum emphasizes laboratory training as you explore the basic principles governing the structure and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interactions between energy and matter. The handson experience you gain prepares you for graduate school or for direct entry into a professional career.
Physics Courses
Studying physics at RIT begins with mathematics, science, and liberal arts courses covering the breadth of the discipline from condensed matter to cosmology. In the third or fourth years, advanced topics are introduced such as statistical physics and quantum mechanics.
You’ll have a range of physics electives to choose from, that can help tailor your physics degrees toward your professional goals. You’ll also participate in advanced laboratory work and in your final year you’ll complete a required capstone project. You’ll also have opportunities to participate in facultyled research projects and cooperative education–fulltime, paid work experience in the field–is highly encouraged.
Enhance Your Physics Degree with a Minor or Immersion
RIT’s 185+ minors and immersions offer you an opportunity to pair your physics major with a range of topics that can enhance your studies, provide a deeper understanding of a subtopic of physics (such as astronomy, imaging science, mechanical engineering, optical science, or quantum information science and technology, to name a few), or allow you to explore a personal area of interest.
Furthering Your Career in Physics
Today’s careers require advanced degrees grounded in realworld experience. RIT’s Combined Accelerated Bachelor’s/Master’s Degrees enable you to earn both a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in as little as five years of study, all while gaining the valuable handson experience that comes from coops, internships, research, study abroad, and more.
Combined Accelerated Bachelor’s/Master’s degrees are available where you can pair physics with a range of RIT master’s degrees, including:
 Physics BS/Astrophysical Sciences and Technology MS
 Physics BS/Materials Science and Engineering MS
 Physics BS/Physics MS
 Physics BS/Science, Technology, and Public Policy MS
 Physics BS/Sustainable Systems MS
 +1 MBA: Students who enroll in a qualifying undergraduate degree have the opportunity to add an MBA to their bachelor’s degree after their first year of study, depending on their program. Learn how the +1 MBA can accelerate your learning and position you for success.
Careers and Experiential Learning
Typical Job Titles
Optical Engineer  Scientific Software Developer 
Instrumentation Scientist  Radiation Scientist 
Quantum Technology R&D  Planetarium Presenter 
Aerospace Engineer  Satellite Systems Scientist 
Power Plant Nuclear Operator  Data Analyst 
High School Physics Teacher 
Cooperative Education
What’s different about an RIT education? It’s the career experience you gain by completing cooperative education and internships with top companies in every single industry. You’ll earn more than a degree. You’ll gain realworld career experience that sets you apart. It’s exposure–early and often–to a variety of professional work environments, career paths, and industries.
Coop is optional but strongly encouraged for students in the physics degree.
Careers in Physics
Graduates with a BS degree in physics are sought after and highly employable in both the private and public sectors. They typically find positions in industry, government agencies and labs, and teaching. Many graduates choose to continue their education in doctoral or master's programs in physics or physicsrelated areas such as astrophysics, applied physics, biophysics, geophysics, atmospheric science, imaging science, and engineering. Students also are wellprepared for entry into medical, law, or business school.
National Labs Career Events and Recruiting
The Office of Career Services and Cooperative Education offers National Labs and federallyfunded Research Centers from all research areas and sponsoring agencies a variety of options to connect with and recruit students. Students connect with employer partners to gather information on their laboratories and explore coop, internship, research, and fulltime opportunities. These national labs focus on scientific discovery, clean energy development, national security, technology advancements, and more. Recruiting events include our universitywide Fall Career Fair, oncampus and virtual interviews, information sessions, 1:1 networking with lab representatives, and a National Labs Resume Book available to all labs.
Featured Work
Direct determination of onedimensional interphase structures using normalized crystal truncation rod analysis
Christian Cammarota ’17 (physics)
Christian Cammarota ’17 (physics) published work under the guidance of Professor Michael Pierce on the direct determination of onedimensional interphase structures using normalized crystal truncation...
Effects of Photon Scattering Torque
Wyatt Wetzel ’18 (physics)
Wyatt Wetzel ’18 (physics) published work under the guidance of Professor Mishkat Bhattacharya on the effects of photon scattering torque in offaxis levitated torsional cavity optomechanics. https:/...
Featured Profiles
Explore Undergraduate Research, Discover a Passion, Land a Career
Tyler Godat ’16 (physics and applied math)
Tyler Godat ’16 chose RIT because of its reputation for undergraduate research, coops, and internships. Now, he is an optical measurements engineer at Corning.
Graduate Student at the Intersection of Biology, Medicine, and Physics
Lucas Berens ‘21 (physics)
Support from faculty combined with research opportunities helped Lucas Berens gain the experience and knowledge he needed to excel at graduate school and pursue his dream of becoming a physicist.
Curriculum for 20232024 for Physics BS
Current Students: See Curriculum Requirements
Physics, BS degree, typical course sequence
Course  Sem. Cr. Hrs.  

First Year  
Choose one of the following:  4  
CHMG141  General & Analytical Chemistry I (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This is a general chemistry course for students in the life and physical sciences. College chemistry is presented as a science based on empirical evidence that is placed into the context of conceptual, visual, and mathematical models. Students will learn the concepts, symbolism, and fundamental tools of chemistry necessary to carry on a discourse in the language of chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship between atomic structure, chemical bonds, and the transformation of these bonds through chemical reactions. The fundamentals of organic chemistry are introduced throughout the course to emphasize the connection between chemistry and the other sciences. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG145  General & Analytical Chemistry I Lab (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG141 lecture material. The course emphasizes laboratory techniques and data analysis skills. Topics include: gravimetric, volumetric, thermal, titration and spectrophotometric analyses, and the use of these techniques to analyze chemical reactions. (Corequisite: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL101  General Biology I (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to cellular, molecular, and evolutionary biology. Topics will include: a study of the basic principles of modern cellular biology, including cell structure and function; the chemical basis and functions of life, including enzyme systems and gene expression; and the origin of life and evolutionary patterns of organism development on Earth. Lecture 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL103  General Biology I Lab (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the lecture material of General Biology I. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of basic cellular and molecular biology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for microscopy, and improve ability to make, record and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL101 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Summer). 

Choose one of the following:  4 

CHMG142  General & Analytical Chemistry II (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) The course covers the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The relationship between energy and entropy change as the driving force of chemical processes is emphasized through the study of aqueous solutions. Specifically, the course takes a quantitative look at: 1) solubility equilibrium, 2) acidbase equilibrium, 3) oxidationreduction reactions and 4) chemical kinetics. (Prerequisites: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG146  General & Analytical Chemistry II Lab (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG142 lecture material. The course emphasizes the use of experiments as a tool for chemical analysis and the reporting of results in formal lab reports. Topics include the quantitative analysis of a multicomponent mixture using complexation and double endpoint titration, pH measurement, buffers and pH indicators, the kinetic study of a redox reaction, and the electrochemical analysis of oxidation reduction reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMG131 or CHMG141 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: CHMG142 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL102  General Biology II (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to animal and plant anatomy and physiology, in addition to the fundamentals of ecology. Topics will include: animal development; animal body systems; plant development; unique plant systems; Earth's terrestrial and aquatic environments; population and community ecology; animal behavior; and conservation biology. Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer). 

BIOL104  General Biology II Lab (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the material of General Biology II. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of animal and plant anatomy and physiology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for experimenting with live organisms, and improve ability to make, record, and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL102 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring, Summer). 

MATH181  Calculus I (General Education – Mathematical Perspective A) This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisites: MATH111 or (NMTH220 and NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of B, or a score of at least 60% on the RIT Mathematics Placement Exam.
Corequisites: MATH181R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
MATH182  Calculus II (General Education – Mathematical Perspective B) This is the second in a twocourse sequence. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS150  Introduction to Special Relativity In this course students will learn aspects of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity including time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, velocity transformations, relativistic Doppler effect, issues with simultaneity, and relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS216  University Physics I: Physics Majors (General Education) This is a course in calculusbased physics for physics majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton’s Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or MATH172 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH172 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
YOPS10  RIT 365: RIT Connections RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their firstyear experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational selfawareness and recognize broadbased professional competencies. (This class is restricted to incoming 1st year or global campus students.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring). 
0 
General Education – FirstYear Writing (WI) 
3  
General Education – Elective 
3  
General Education – Artistic Perspective 
3  
Second Year  
MATH219  Multivariable Calculus (General Education) This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes the study of vectors, vectorvalued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and includes applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH221. (Prerequisite: C or better MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
MATH231  Differential Equations (General Education) This course is an introduction to the study of ordinary differential equations and their applications. Topics include solutions to first order equations and linear second order equations, method of undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, linear independence and the Wronskian, vibrating systems, and Laplace transforms. (Prerequisite: MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3, Recitation 1 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS213  Modern Physics I (General Education) This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS217  University Physics II: Physics Majors (General Education) This course is a continuation of PHYS216, University Physics I: Physics Majors. Topics include fluids, thermodynamics, electrostatics, Gauss’ law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, circuits, magnetic field, Ampere’s law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: Grades of C or better in (MATH182 or MATH182A) and (PHYS216 or PHYS206) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS222  Electronic Measurements This course covers the fundamentals of AC and DC circuit theory, electrical analysis of simple linear networks, operations of and circuits containing diodes and transistors, linear and nonlinear operation of opamps and their applications, and analysis of basic digital circuits. Laboratory classes reinforce lecture material and teach practical skills in use of basic test and measurement equipment. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS225  Introduction to Computational Physics and Programming This course introduces methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Students will learn how computers represent numbers, limits of computation, how to write computer programs, and to use good programming practices. Students will also apply numerical methods of differentiation and integration, and numerical solutions to differential equations in physical situations. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS207 or PHYS216) and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisite: PHYS212) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS275  Sophomore Physics Seminar This seminar will assist students in their preparation for the Physics Comprehensive Oral Exam (CORE) required at the end of the course by presenting a unified as opposed to topical approach to physics. Physics majors must pass this course before going on to 300level Physics courses. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS208 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course.) Lecture 2 (Fall, Spring). 
1 
PHYS283  Vibrations and Waves This course is an introduction to the physics of vibrations and waves, beginning with the simple harmonic oscillator, the foundation to understanding oscillatory and vibratory systems. The course will include driven and damped single oscillators, coupled discrete oscillators, and continuous vibrating systems. Connections will be made with many areas of physics that involve oscillation, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS217 or PHYS209 and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisites: MATH231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
General Education – Ethical Perspective 
3  
General Education – Global Perspective 
3  
General Education – Social Perspective 
3  
Third Year  
PHYS214  Modern Physics II This course is a continuation of a survey of modern physics beyond the topics introduced in Modern Physics I. Central topics include the physics of multielectron atoms, molecular structure, fundamentals of statistical physics applied to systems of particles, elementary solidstate physics, applications to semiconductor materials and simple devices, and basic elements of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS315  Experiments in Modern Physics In this course, students perform experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. These include investigations of wave particle duality, and the earliest of quantum mechanical models as well as measurements of fundamental constants. Experiments typically include electron diffraction, the photoelectric effect, optical diffraction and interference, atomic spectroscopy, chargetomass ratio of an electron, and blackbody radiation. This class teaches basic instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS316  Advanced Laboratory in Physics In this course, students perform advanced experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. Experiments typically explore properties of materials, semiconductors, atomic physics, and nuclear decay. This class continues the instruction in instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis that began in Experiments in Modern Physics, PHYS315. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS315 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS320  Mathematical Methods in Physics This course serves as an introduction to the mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include matrix algebra, vector calculus, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations in rectangular coordinates, and an introduction to series solutions of ordinary differential equations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS330  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of Newtonian kinematics and dynamics including equations of motion in one and threedimensions, conservation laws, noninertial reference frames, central forces, Lagrangian mechanics, and rigid body motion. This course will use advanced mathematical techniques including differential equations, vector calculus, and matrix and tensor formulations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217). Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course. Corequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall). 
4 
PHYS411  Electricity and Magnetism This course is a systematic treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical formalism using differential and integral vector calculus is developed. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Special techniques for solution to Laplace's equation as a boundary value problem are covered. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, and the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, are discussed. (Prerequisites: (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in PHYSBS or PHYS2M are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 4 (Spring). 
4 
PHYS450  Capstone Preparation This course is a preparation for the twosemester physics capstone project to be carried out in the following year. It includes selection of a project and faculty mentor, preparation of a feasibility study, preparation of a paper, and a public oral presentation. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Lecture 1 (Spring). 
1 
Program Elective† 
3  
General Education – Immersion 1, 2 
6  
Fourth Year  
Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS414  Quantum Mechanics This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS440  Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS451  Capstone Project I In collaboration with faculty mentor(s), students will carry out the first phase of an experimental, theoretical, or computational physics research project, will prepare an interim paper, and will present a short talk on their progress to physics faculty and students. The projects are those planned during the capstone preparatory course taken during the prior Spring semester. (Prerequisites: PHYS450 or equivalent course.) Project 12 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS452  Capstone Project II (WIPR) In collaboration with faculty mentor(s), students will carry out the final phase of an experimental, theoretical, or computational physics research project, will prepare a written paper and present an oral report on their progress to physics faculty and students. The projects are those planned during the capstone preparatory course taken during the prior Spring semester and commenced during the prior Fall semester. (Prerequisites: PHYS451 or equivalent course.) Project 12 (Spring). 
3 
Program Electives† 
6  
Open Electives 
12  
General Education – Immersion 3 
3  
Total Semester Credit Hours  124 
Please see General Education Curriculum (GE) for more information.
(WI) Refers to a writing intensive course within the major.
Please see Wellness Education Requirement for more information. Students completing bachelor's degrees are required to complete two different Wellness courses.
† Students must complete one course from List A, one course from List B, and one course from List C.
Physics Electives
Course  

List A  
PHYS360  Introduction to Chaotic Dynamics This course introduces basic tools for visualizing the behavior of nonlinear systems. In particular, the students are required to use the computer as an exploratory tool for generating and observing transitions between periodic behavior and chaotic behavior. Most of the course focuses on the driven, damped pendulum as a model dynamical system, but the ideas are readily extended to other systems as well. (Prerequisites: PHYS283 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
PHYS365  Physical Optics In this course light waves having both amplitude and phase will be described to provide a foundation for understanding key optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and propagation. Starting from Maxwell's equations the course advances to the topic of Fourier optics. (Prerequisites: (PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217) and PHYS225, PHYS283, PHYS320 and (MATH219 or MATH221 or MATH221H) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
PHYS373  Observational Astronomy This course provides a practical, handson introduction to optical astronomy. Students will use the RIT Observatory's telescopes and CCD cameras to take images of celestial objects, reduce the data, and analyze the results. The course will emphasize the details of image processing required to remove instrumental effects from CCD images. (Prerequisites: PHYS220 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 2, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
PHYS377  Advanced Computational Physics This course introduces students to advanced methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Topics will include numerical solutions to differential equations such as heat transfer, planetary motion, and shock waves, the Monte Carlo approach to problems with large domains, tradeoffs between efficiency and precision, minimization and maximization of functions, and the statistical modeling of data. (Prerequisites: PHYS225 and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
PHYS616  Data Analysis for the Physical Sciences This course is an introductory graduatelevel overview of techniques in and applications of data analysis in physics and related fields. Topics examined include noise and probability, model fitting and hypothesis testing, signal processing, Fourier methods, and advanced computation and simulation techniques. Applications are drawn from across the contemporary physical sciences, including soft matter, solid state, biophysics, and materials science. The subjects covered also have applications for students of astronomy, signal processing, scientific computation, and others. (Prerequisites: PHYS316 or equivalent course or Graduate standing.) Lecture 3 (Biannual). 
PHYS667  Quantum Optics This course explores the fundamental nature of electromagnetic radiation. This course will introduce the student to the second quantized description of light with special attention to its role in a modern understanding of and far reaching utility in emerging technologies. Starting with an appropriate formulation for the quantum mechanical electromagnetic radiation field, we will study quantum mechanical models for interactions with matter, and we will test these models through a series of experiments. (Prerequisites: PHYS411 and PHYS414 or equivalent course or Graduate standing.) Lab 3, Lecture 3 (Spring). 
IMGS513  MultiWavelength Astronomical Imaging This course surveys multiwavelength astronomical observing techniques and instrumentation. Students will study the requirements, strengths, and limitations of telescopes, detectors, and instrumentation at major groundbased and spacebased observatories spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to Xrays; learn how these facilities function; and gain an understanding of how to process and analyze the data they generate. Examples of facilities to be scrutinized include the largest groundbased observatories (e.g., Keck, Gemini, and the VLT); radio interferometers (e.g., the Very Large Array and the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array); optical/IR space telescopes (e.g., the Spitzer, Hubble, and James Webb Space Telescopes); and Xray space telescopes (e.g., Chandra and XMMNewton). Students will plan and carry out a project involving archival multiwavelength imaging data on a topic of their choice. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
IMGS528  Design and Fabrication of Solid State Cameras The purpose of this course is to provide the student with handson experience in building a CCD camera. The course provides the basics of CCD operation including an overview, CCD clocking, analog output circuitry, cooling, and evaluation criteria. (Prerequisites: PHYS111 or PHYS211 or PHYS207 or PHPS106) Lab 6, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
List B  
MCSE713  Lasers This course introduces students to the design, operation and (applications of lasers (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of (Radiation). Topics: Ray tracing, Gaussian beams, Optical cavities, (Atomic radiation, Laser oscillation and amplification, Mode locking and Q switching, and Applications of lasers. (Prerequisites: EEEE374 or equivalent course or graduate student standing in the MCSEPHD program.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS321  Advanced Mathematical Methods in Physics This course is a continuation of PHYS320, serving to introduce additional mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include special functions, series solutions to ordinary differential equations, solutions to partial differential equations in curvilinear coordinate systems, matrix techniques, and the calculus of variations. (Prerequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
PHYS352  Introduction to Biological Physics How does physics bear on the workings of living cells and organisms? Physicists are critically needed to participate in addressing grand challenges in biology and medicine today. These challenges call for scientists, including physicists, to thoroughly penetrate the molecular workings of cells, tissues, and organisms and to create new and better instruments to probe them. This course is designed to acquaint you with current scientific challenges posed by this universe within, to equip you with physics tools that are important for addressing them, and to acquaint you with basic physical principles central to quantitative study of living cells and organisms. The course includes an introductory tour of cell biology from a physics standpoint, a quantitative introduction to molecular forces in living cells, and an introduction to manifestations of statistical physics in living organisms. Applications include enzyme catalysis, oxygen transport, diffusion within cells, thermodynamic forces, motor proteins, spontaneous structure formation, cell signaling, the electrical double layer, and conduction of nerve impulses. Additional topics will be chosen according to interests of students and instructors. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Biannual). 
PHYS370  Stellar Astrophysics This course presents concepts of stars and stellar systems at an intermediate level. Topics include the observed characteristics of stars, stellar atmospheres, stellar structure and evolution, interaction of stars with the interstellar medium, and the populations of stars within the Milky Way Galaxy. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and PHYS220 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 . 
PHYS371  Galactic Astrophysics This course describes the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way galaxy. It provides an overview of the major constituents of the Milky Way, their interactions, and the methods by which astronomers study them. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and PHYS220 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS372  Extragalactic Astrophysics and Cosmology This course provides a survey of the structure of the universe on the largest scales, including galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The course also provides an overview of the history of the universe from the Big Bang to the current day, and describes the observational evidence for our current values of the cosmological parameters. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and PHYS220 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS408  Laser Physics This course covers the semiclassical theory of the operation of a laser, characteristics and practical aspects of various laser systems, and some applications of lasers in scientific research. (Prerequisites: PHYS365 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS412  Advanced Electricity and Magnetism This course is an advanced treatment of electrodynamics including propagating waves, electromagnetic radiation, and relativistic electrodynamics. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, guided electromagnetic waves, and simple radiating systems will be covered. Relativistic electrodynamics will be introduced including field tensors and four vector notation. (Prerequisites: PHYS411 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS414  Quantum Mechanics This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS415  Advanced Quantum Mechanics This course is a continued study of the concepts and mathematical structure of quantum mechanics presented in Quantum Mechanics (PHYS414), with an emphasis on applications to real physical systems. Topics covered include the quantum theory of spin, effect of magnetic fields on spin1/2 particles, manyparticle systems, variational principle, timeindependent and timedependent perturbation theory, absorption and emission of radiation by atoms, quantum theory of scattering, and interpretations and paradoxes of quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS414 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
PHYS424  Nuclear Physics This course is a study of the properties and structure of the atomic nucleus as determined by experiments and theory. Topics for the course include a description and quantummechanical treatment of radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, basic aspects of nuclear radiation detection, and selected applications of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS320 and PHYS330 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS440  Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS441  Advanced Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is a continued study of the concepts and mathematical structure of statistical physics presented in Thermal and Statistical Physics (PHYS440). Topics covered include ensembles in statistical physics, weakly interacting gases, the Ising model of a ferromagnet, monatomic liquids, kinetic theory of transport processes, path integral and Boltzmann equation formulations of transport theory. (Prerequisites: PHYS320 and PHYS440 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
PHYS532  Solid State Physics This course is an introduction to the physics of the solid state including crystal structure, xray diffraction by crystals, crystal binding, elastic waves and lattice vibrations, thermal properties, the free electron model of solids, and band theory and its applications. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
PHYS670  Teaching and Learning Physics This course covers the fundamentals of how students learn and understand key ideas in physics and how theory can inform effective pedagogical practice. Through examination of physics content, pedagogy and problems, through teaching, and through research in physics education, students will explore the meaning and means of teaching physics. Topics include: misconceptions, resources and phenomenological primitives, theoretical foundations for activelearning, constructivism, epistemological, affective, and socialcultural issues that affect learning, guided and unguided reflection strategies, designoriented curricula, and effective uses of educational labs and technology. Useful for all students, especially for those in interested in physics, teaching and education research. (This class is restricted to degreeseeking graduate students or those with permission from instructor.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
List C  
Any course from List A or List B 
Combined Accelerated Bachelor's/Master's Degrees
The curriculum below outlines the typical course sequence(s) for combined accelerated degrees available with this bachelor's degree.
Physics, BS/MS degree (research option), typical course sequence
Course  Sem. Cr. Hrs.  

First Year  
Choose one of the following:  4 

CHMG141  General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective: General & Analytical Chemistry I This is a general chemistry course for students in the life and physical sciences. College chemistry is presented as a science based on empirical evidence that is placed into the context of conceptual, visual, and mathematical models. Students will learn the concepts, symbolism, and fundamental tools of chemistry necessary to carry on a discourse in the language of chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship between atomic structure, chemical bonds, and the transformation of these bonds through chemical reactions. The fundamentals of organic chemistry are introduced throughout the course to emphasize the connection between chemistry and the other sciences. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG145  General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective: General & Analytical Chemistry I Lab The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG141 lecture material. The course emphasizes laboratory techniques and data analysis skills. Topics include: gravimetric, volumetric, thermal, titration and spectrophotometric analyses, and the use of these techniques to analyze chemical reactions. (Corequisite: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL101  General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective: General Biology I This course serves as an introduction to cellular, molecular, and evolutionary biology. Topics will include: a study of the basic principles of modern cellular biology, including cell structure and function; the chemical basis and functions of life, including enzyme systems and gene expression; and the origin of life and evolutionary patterns of organism development on Earth. Lecture 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL103  General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective: General Biology I Lab This course provides laboratory work to complement the lecture material of General Biology I. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of basic cellular and molecular biology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for microscopy, and improve ability to make, record and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL101 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Summer). 

Choose one of the following:  4 

CHMG142  General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective: General & Analytical Chemistry II The course covers the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The relationship between energy and entropy change as the driving force of chemical processes is emphasized through the study of aqueous solutions. Specifically, the course takes a quantitative look at: 1) solubility equilibrium, 2) acidbase equilibrium, 3) oxidationreduction reactions and 4) chemical kinetics. (Prerequisites: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG146  General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective: General & Analytical Chemistry II Lab The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG142 lecture material. The course emphasizes the use of experiments as a tool for chemical analysis and the reporting of results in formal lab reports. Topics include the quantitative analysis of a multicomponent mixture using complexation and double endpoint titration, pH measurement, buffers and pH indicators, the kinetic study of a redox reaction, and the electrochemical analysis of oxidation reduction reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMG131 or CHMG141 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: CHMG142 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL102  General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective: General Biology II This course serves as an introduction to animal and plant anatomy and physiology, in addition to the fundamentals of ecology. Topics will include: animal development; animal body systems; plant development; unique plant systems; Earth's terrestrial and aquatic environments; population and community ecology; animal behavior; and conservation biology. Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer). 

BIOL104  General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective: General Biology II Lab This course provides laboratory work to complement the material of General Biology II. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of animal and plant anatomy and physiology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for experimenting with live organisms, and improve ability to make, record, and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL102 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring, Summer). 

MATH181  General Education – Mathematical Perspective A: Calculus I This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisites: MATH111 or (NMTH220 and NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of B, or a score of at least 60% on the RIT Mathematics Placement Exam.
Corequisites: MATH181R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
MATH182  General Education – Mathematical Perspective B: Calculus II This is the second in a twocourse sequence. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS150  Introduction to Special Relativity In this course students will learn aspects of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity including time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, velocity transformations, relativistic Doppler effect, issues with simultaneity, and relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS216  General Education – Elective: University Physics I: Physics Majors This is a course in calculusbased physics for physics majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton’s Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or MATH172 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH172 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
YOPS10  RIT 365: RIT Connections RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their firstyear experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational selfawareness and recognize broadbased professional competencies. (This class is restricted to incoming 1st year or global campus students.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring). 
0 
General Education – FirstYear Writing (WI) 
3  
General Education – Elective 
3  
General Education – Artistic Perspective 
3  
Second Year  
MATH219  General Education – Elective: Multivariable Calculus This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes the study of vectors, vectorvalued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and includes applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH221. (Prerequisite: C or better MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS213  General Education – Elective: Modern Physics I This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS217  General Education – Elective: University Physics II: Physics Majors This course is a continuation of PHYS216, University Physics I: Physics Majors. Topics include fluids, thermodynamics, electrostatics, Gauss’ law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, circuits, magnetic field, Ampere’s law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: Grades of C or better in (MATH182 or MATH182A) and (PHYS216 or PHYS206) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS222  Electronic Measurements This course covers the fundamentals of AC and DC circuit theory, electrical analysis of simple linear networks, operations of and circuits containing diodes and transistors, linear and nonlinear operation of opamps and their applications, and analysis of basic digital circuits. Laboratory classes reinforce lecture material and teach practical skills in use of basic test and measurement equipment. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS225  Introduction to Computational Physics and Programming This course introduces methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Students will learn how computers represent numbers, limits of computation, how to write computer programs, and to use good programming practices. Students will also apply numerical methods of differentiation and integration, and numerical solutions to differential equations in physical situations. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS207 or PHYS216) and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisite: PHYS212) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
MATH231  General Education – Elective: Differential Equations This course is an introduction to the study of ordinary differential equations and their applications. Topics include solutions to first order equations and linear second order equations, method of undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, linear independence and the Wronskian, vibrating systems, and Laplace transforms. (Prerequisite: MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3, Recitation 1 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS275  Sophomore Physics Seminar This seminar will assist students in their preparation for the Physics Comprehensive Oral Exam (CORE) required at the end of the course by presenting a unified as opposed to topical approach to physics. Physics majors must pass this course before going on to 300level Physics courses. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS208 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course.) Lecture 2 (Fall, Spring). 
1 
PHYS283  Vibrations and Waves This course is an introduction to the physics of vibrations and waves, beginning with the simple harmonic oscillator, the foundation to understanding oscillatory and vibratory systems. The course will include driven and damped single oscillators, coupled discrete oscillators, and continuous vibrating systems. Connections will be made with many areas of physics that involve oscillation, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS217 or PHYS209 and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisites: MATH231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
General Education – Ethical Perspective 
3  
General Education – Global Perspective 
3  
General Education – Social Perspective 
3  
Third Year  
PHYS214  Modern Physics II This course is a continuation of a survey of modern physics beyond the topics introduced in Modern Physics I. Central topics include the physics of multielectron atoms, molecular structure, fundamentals of statistical physics applied to systems of particles, elementary solidstate physics, applications to semiconductor materials and simple devices, and basic elements of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS315  Experiments in Modern Physics In this course, students perform experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. These include investigations of wave particle duality, and the earliest of quantum mechanical models as well as measurements of fundamental constants. Experiments typically include electron diffraction, the photoelectric effect, optical diffraction and interference, atomic spectroscopy, chargetomass ratio of an electron, and blackbody radiation. This class teaches basic instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS316  Advanced Laboratory in Physics In this course, students perform advanced experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. Experiments typically explore properties of materials, semiconductors, atomic physics, and nuclear decay. This class continues the instruction in instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis that began in Experiments in Modern Physics, PHYS315. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS315 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS320  Mathematical Methods in Physics This course serves as an introduction to the mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include matrix algebra, vector calculus, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations in rectangular coordinates, and an introduction to series solutions of ordinary differential equations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS330  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of Newtonian kinematics and dynamics including equations of motion in one and threedimensions, conservation laws, noninertial reference frames, central forces, Lagrangian mechanics, and rigid body motion. This course will use advanced mathematical techniques including differential equations, vector calculus, and matrix and tensor formulations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217). Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course. Corequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall). 
4 
PHYS411  Electricity and Magnetism This course is a systematic treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical formalism using differential and integral vector calculus is developed. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Special techniques for solution to Laplace's equation as a boundary value problem are covered. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, and the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, are discussed. (Prerequisites: (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in PHYSBS or PHYS2M are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 4 (Spring). 
4 
Program Elective 
3  
PHYS Lab/Computation Physics Elective 
3  
General Education – Immersion 1, 2 
6  
Fourth Year  
Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS414  Quantum Mechanics This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS440  Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

Choose one of the following‡:  3 

PHYS610  Mathematical Methods for Physics This graduatelevel course in mathematical physics covers partial differential equations, Bessel, Legendre and related functions, Fourier series and transforms. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS611  Classical Electrodynamics I This course is a systematic treatment of electro and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, guided electromagnetic waves, and simple radiating systems will be covered. (Prerequisites: PHYS412 or equivalent course or Graduate standing.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS614  Quantum Theory This course is a graduate level introduction to the modern formulation of quantum mechanics. Topics include Hilbert space, Dirac notation, quantum dynamics, Feynman’s formulation, representation theory, angular momentum, identical particles, approximation methods including timeindependent and timedependent perturbation theory. The course will emphasize the underlying algebraic structure of the theory with an emphasis on current applications. (Prerequisites: This course is restricted to students in the PHYSMS, ASTPMS and ASTPPHD programs.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS630  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of advanced topics in Newtonian kinematics and dynamics. Topics include Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of dynamics, central force problems, rigid body kinematics and dynamics, theory of small oscillations, canonical transformations, and HamiltonJacobi theory. Lecture 3 (Spring). 

PHYS640  Statistical Physics This course is a graduatelevel study of the concepts and mathematical structure of statistical physics. Topics include the microcanonical, canonical, and grandcanonical ensembles and their relationships to thermodynamics, including classical, Fermi, and BoseEinstein statistics. The course includes illustrations and applications from the theories of phase transitions, solids, liquids, gases, radiation, soft condensed matter, and chemical and electrochemical equilibria. The course also treats nonequilibrium topics including the kinetic theory of transport processes, the theory of Brownian motion, and the fluctuationdissipation theorem. (This course is restricted to students with graduate standing in PHYS or ASTP programs.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 

Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS790  Graduate Research & Thesis Graduatelevel research by the candidate on an appropriate topic as arranged between the candidate and the research advisor. (This course requires permission of the Instructor to enroll.) Thesis (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

Approved Graduate Physics Elective 

PHYS601  Graduate Physics Seminar I This course is the first in a twosemester sequence intended to familiarize students with research activities, practices, and ethics in university, government, industry, and other professional research environments and to introduce students to research tools and skill sets important in various professional environments. As part of the course, students are expected to attend research seminars sponsored by the School of Physics and Astronomy and participate in regular journal club offerings. The course also provides training in scientific writing and presentation skills. Credits earned in this course apply to research requirements. Seminar 2 (Fall). 
1 
PHYS602  Graduate Physics Seminar II This course is the second in a twosemester sequence intended to familiarize students with research activities, practices, ethics in university, government, industry, and other professional research environments and to introduce students to research tools and skill sets important in various professional environments. The course is intended to help students develop a broad awareness of current professional and funding opportunities. As part of the course, students are expected to attend research seminars sponsored by the School of Physics and Astronomy, to participate in regular journal club offerings, to engage in outreach activities, and to participate in visits to regional laboratories and companies. The course provides training in proposal writing and presentation skills. Credits earned in this course apply to research requirements. Seminar 2 (Spring). 
1 
Open Electives 
9  
General Education – Immersion 3 
3  
Fifth Year  
Choose two of the following‡:  6 

PHYS610  Mathematical Methods for Physics This graduatelevel course in mathematical physics covers partial differential equations, Bessel, Legendre and related functions, Fourier series and transforms. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS611  Classical Electrodynamics I This course is a systematic treatment of electro and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, guided electromagnetic waves, and simple radiating systems will be covered. (Prerequisites: PHYS412 or equivalent course or Graduate standing.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS614  Quantum Theory This course is a graduate level introduction to the modern formulation of quantum mechanics. Topics include Hilbert space, Dirac notation, quantum dynamics, Feynman’s formulation, representation theory, angular momentum, identical particles, approximation methods including timeindependent and timedependent perturbation theory. The course will emphasize the underlying algebraic structure of the theory with an emphasis on current applications. (Prerequisites: This course is restricted to students in the PHYSMS, ASTPMS and ASTPPHD programs.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS790  Graduate Research & Thesis Graduatelevel research by the candidate on an appropriate topic as arranged between the candidate and the research advisor. (This course requires permission of the Instructor to enroll.) Thesis (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
7 
Approved Graduate Physics Electives 
6  
Total Semester Credit Hours  144 
Please see General Education Curriculum (GE) for more information.
(WI) Refers to a writing intensive course within the major.
Please see Wellness Education Requirement for more information. Students completing bachelor's degrees are required to complete two different Wellness courses.
‡ These are core courses for the MS degree. All three must be completed.
Physics, BS/MS degree (professional option), typical course sequence
Course  Sem. Cr. Hrs.  

First Year  
Choose one of the following:  4 

CHMG141  General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective: General & Analytical Chemistry I This is a general chemistry course for students in the life and physical sciences. College chemistry is presented as a science based on empirical evidence that is placed into the context of conceptual, visual, and mathematical models. Students will learn the concepts, symbolism, and fundamental tools of chemistry necessary to carry on a discourse in the language of chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship between atomic structure, chemical bonds, and the transformation of these bonds through chemical reactions. The fundamentals of organic chemistry are introduced throughout the course to emphasize the connection between chemistry and the other sciences. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG145  General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective: General & Analytical Chemistry I Lab The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG141 lecture material. The course emphasizes laboratory techniques and data analysis skills. Topics include: gravimetric, volumetric, thermal, titration and spectrophotometric analyses, and the use of these techniques to analyze chemical reactions. (Corequisite: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL101  General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective: General Biology I This course serves as an introduction to cellular, molecular, and evolutionary biology. Topics will include: a study of the basic principles of modern cellular biology, including cell structure and function; the chemical basis and functions of life, including enzyme systems and gene expression; and the origin of life and evolutionary patterns of organism development on Earth. Lecture 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL103  General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective: General Biology I Lab This course provides laboratory work to complement the lecture material of General Biology I. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of basic cellular and molecular biology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for microscopy, and improve ability to make, record and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL101 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Summer). 

Choose one of the following:  4 

CHMG142  General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective: General & Analytical Chemistry II The course covers the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The relationship between energy and entropy change as the driving force of chemical processes is emphasized through the study of aqueous solutions. Specifically, the course takes a quantitative look at: 1) solubility equilibrium, 2) acidbase equilibrium, 3) oxidationreduction reactions and 4) chemical kinetics. (Prerequisites: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG146  General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective: General & Analytical Chemistry II Lab The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG142 lecture material. The course emphasizes the use of experiments as a tool for chemical analysis and the reporting of results in formal lab reports. Topics include the quantitative analysis of a multicomponent mixture using complexation and double endpoint titration, pH measurement, buffers and pH indicators, the kinetic study of a redox reaction, and the electrochemical analysis of oxidation reduction reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMG131 or CHMG141 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: CHMG142 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL102  General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective: General Biology II This course serves as an introduction to animal and plant anatomy and physiology, in addition to the fundamentals of ecology. Topics will include: animal development; animal body systems; plant development; unique plant systems; Earth's terrestrial and aquatic environments; population and community ecology; animal behavior; and conservation biology. Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer). 

BIOL104  General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective: General Biology II Lab This course provides laboratory work to complement the material of General Biology II. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of animal and plant anatomy and physiology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for experimenting with live organisms, and improve ability to make, record, and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL102 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring, Summer). 

MATH181  General Education – Mathematical Perspective A: Calculus I This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisites: MATH111 or (NMTH220 and NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of B, or a score of at least 60% on the RIT Mathematics Placement Exam.
Corequisites: MATH181R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
MATH182  General Education – Mathematical Perspective B: Calculus II This is the second in a twocourse sequence. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS150  Introduction to Special Relativity In this course students will learn aspects of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity including time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, velocity transformations, relativistic Doppler effect, issues with simultaneity, and relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS216  General Education – Elective: University Physics I: Physics Majors This is a course in calculusbased physics for physics majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton’s Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or MATH172 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH172 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
YOPS10  RIT 365: RIT Connections RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their firstyear experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational selfawareness and recognize broadbased professional competencies. (This class is restricted to incoming 1st year or global campus students.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring). 
0 
General Education – FirstYear Writing (WI) 
3  
General Education – Elective 
3  
General Education – Artistic Perspective 
3  
Second Year  
MATH219  General Education – Elective: Multivariable Calculus This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes the study of vectors, vectorvalued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and includes applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH221. (Prerequisite: C or better MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS213  General Education – Elective: Modern Physics I This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS217  General Education – Elective: University Physics II: Physics Majors This course is a continuation of PHYS216, University Physics I: Physics Majors. Topics include fluids, thermodynamics, electrostatics, Gauss’ law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, circuits, magnetic field, Ampere’s law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: Grades of C or better in (MATH182 or MATH182A) and (PHYS216 or PHYS206) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS222  Electronic Measurements This course covers the fundamentals of AC and DC circuit theory, electrical analysis of simple linear networks, operations of and circuits containing diodes and transistors, linear and nonlinear operation of opamps and their applications, and analysis of basic digital circuits. Laboratory classes reinforce lecture material and teach practical skills in use of basic test and measurement equipment. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS225  Introduction to Computational Physics and Programming This course introduces methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Students will learn how computers represent numbers, limits of computation, how to write computer programs, and to use good programming practices. Students will also apply numerical methods of differentiation and integration, and numerical solutions to differential equations in physical situations. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS207 or PHYS216) and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisite: PHYS212) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
MATH231  General Education – Elective: Differential Equations This course is an introduction to the study of ordinary differential equations and their applications. Topics include solutions to first order equations and linear second order equations, method of undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, linear independence and the Wronskian, vibrating systems, and Laplace transforms. (Prerequisite: MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3, Recitation 1 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS275  Sophomore Physics Seminar This seminar will assist students in their preparation for the Physics Comprehensive Oral Exam (CORE) required at the end of the course by presenting a unified as opposed to topical approach to physics. Physics majors must pass this course before going on to 300level Physics courses. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS208 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course.) Lecture 2 (Fall, Spring). 
1 
PHYS283  Vibrations and Waves This course is an introduction to the physics of vibrations and waves, beginning with the simple harmonic oscillator, the foundation to understanding oscillatory and vibratory systems. The course will include driven and damped single oscillators, coupled discrete oscillators, and continuous vibrating systems. Connections will be made with many areas of physics that involve oscillation, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS217 or PHYS209 and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisites: MATH231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
General Education – Ethical Perspective 
3  
General Education – Global Perspective 
3  
General Education – Social Perspective 
3  
Third Year  
PHYS214  Modern Physics II This course is a continuation of a survey of modern physics beyond the topics introduced in Modern Physics I. Central topics include the physics of multielectron atoms, molecular structure, fundamentals of statistical physics applied to systems of particles, elementary solidstate physics, applications to semiconductor materials and simple devices, and basic elements of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS315  Experiments in Modern Physics In this course, students perform experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. These include investigations of wave particle duality, and the earliest of quantum mechanical models as well as measurements of fundamental constants. Experiments typically include electron diffraction, the photoelectric effect, optical diffraction and interference, atomic spectroscopy, chargetomass ratio of an electron, and blackbody radiation. This class teaches basic instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS316  Advanced Laboratory in Physics In this course, students perform advanced experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. Experiments typically explore properties of materials, semiconductors, atomic physics, and nuclear decay. This class continues the instruction in instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis that began in Experiments in Modern Physics, PHYS315. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS315 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS320  Mathematical Methods in Physics This course serves as an introduction to the mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include matrix algebra, vector calculus, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations in rectangular coordinates, and an introduction to series solutions of ordinary differential equations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS330  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of Newtonian kinematics and dynamics including equations of motion in one and threedimensions, conservation laws, noninertial reference frames, central forces, Lagrangian mechanics, and rigid body motion. This course will use advanced mathematical techniques including differential equations, vector calculus, and matrix and tensor formulations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217). Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course. Corequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall). 
4 
PHYS411  Electricity and Magnetism This course is a systematic treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical formalism using differential and integral vector calculus is developed. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Special techniques for solution to Laplace's equation as a boundary value problem are covered. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, and the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, are discussed. (Prerequisites: (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in PHYSBS or PHYS2M are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 4 (Spring). 
4 
PHYS450  Capstone Preparation This course is a preparation for the twosemester physics capstone project to be carried out in the following year. It includes selection of a project and faculty mentor, preparation of a feasibility study, preparation of a paper, and a public oral presentation. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Lecture 1 (Spring). 
1 
General Education – Immersion 1, 2, 3 
9  
Open Elective 
3  
Fourth Year  
Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS414  Quantum Mechanics This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS440  Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS610  Mathematical Methods for Physics This graduatelevel course in mathematical physics covers partial differential equations, Bessel, Legendre and related functions, Fourier series and transforms. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS611  Classical Electrodynamics I This course is a systematic treatment of electro and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, guided electromagnetic waves, and simple radiating systems will be covered. (Prerequisites: PHYS412 or equivalent course or Graduate standing.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS614  Quantum Theory This course is a graduate level introduction to the modern formulation of quantum mechanics. Topics include Hilbert space, Dirac notation, quantum dynamics, Feynman’s formulation, representation theory, angular momentum, identical particles, approximation methods including timeindependent and timedependent perturbation theory. The course will emphasize the underlying algebraic structure of the theory with an emphasis on current applications. (Prerequisites: This course is restricted to students in the PHYSMS, ASTPMS and ASTPPHD programs.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS630  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of advanced topics in Newtonian kinematics and dynamics. Topics include Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of dynamics, central force problems, rigid body kinematics and dynamics, theory of small oscillations, canonical transformations, and HamiltonJacobi theory. Lecture 3 (Spring). 

PHYS640  Statistical Physics This course is a graduatelevel study of the concepts and mathematical structure of statistical physics. Topics include the microcanonical, canonical, and grandcanonical ensembles and their relationships to thermodynamics, including classical, Fermi, and BoseEinstein statistics. The course includes illustrations and applications from the theories of phase transitions, solids, liquids, gases, radiation, soft condensed matter, and chemical and electrochemical equilibria. The course also treats nonequilibrium topics including the kinetic theory of transport processes, the theory of Brownian motion, and the fluctuationdissipation theorem. (This course is restricted to students with graduate standing in PHYS or ASTP programs.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 

PHYS451  Capstone Project I In collaboration with faculty mentor(s), students will carry out the first phase of an experimental, theoretical, or computational physics research project, will prepare an interim paper, and will present a short talk on their progress to physics faculty and students. The projects are those planned during the capstone preparatory course taken during the prior Spring semester. (Prerequisites: PHYS450 or equivalent course.) Project 12 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS452  Capstone Project II (WIPR) In collaboration with faculty mentor(s), students will carry out the final phase of an experimental, theoretical, or computational physics research project, will prepare a written paper and present an oral report on their progress to physics faculty and students. The projects are those planned during the capstone preparatory course taken during the prior Spring semester and commenced during the prior Fall semester. (Prerequisites: PHYS451 or equivalent course.) Project 12 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS601  Graduate Physics Seminar I This course is the first in a twosemester sequence intended to familiarize students with research activities, practices, and ethics in university, government, industry, and other professional research environments and to introduce students to research tools and skill sets important in various professional environments. As part of the course, students are expected to attend research seminars sponsored by the School of Physics and Astronomy and participate in regular journal club offerings. The course also provides training in scientific writing and presentation skills. Credits earned in this course apply to research requirements. Seminar 2 (Fall). 
1 
PHYS602  Graduate Physics Seminar II This course is the second in a twosemester sequence intended to familiarize students with research activities, practices, ethics in university, government, industry, and other professional research environments and to introduce students to research tools and skill sets important in various professional environments. The course is intended to help students develop a broad awareness of current professional and funding opportunities. As part of the course, students are expected to attend research seminars sponsored by the School of Physics and Astronomy, to participate in regular journal club offerings, to engage in outreach activities, and to participate in visits to regional laboratories and companies. The course provides training in proposal writing and presentation skills. Credits earned in this course apply to research requirements. Seminar 2 (Spring). 
1 
Approved Graduate Physics Elective 
3  
Open Electives 
9  
Fifth Year  
Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS610  Mathematical Methods for Physics This graduatelevel course in mathematical physics covers partial differential equations, Bessel, Legendre and related functions, Fourier series and transforms. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS611  Classical Electrodynamics I This course is a systematic treatment of electro and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, guided electromagnetic waves, and simple radiating systems will be covered. (Prerequisites: PHYS412 or equivalent course or Graduate standing.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS614  Quantum Theory This course is a graduate level introduction to the modern formulation of quantum mechanics. Topics include Hilbert space, Dirac notation, quantum dynamics, Feynman’s formulation, representation theory, angular momentum, identical particles, approximation methods including timeindependent and timedependent perturbation theory. The course will emphasize the underlying algebraic structure of the theory with an emphasis on current applications. (Prerequisites: This course is restricted to students in the PHYSMS, ASTPMS and ASTPPHD programs.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS780  Graduate Physics Project This course is a graduate capstone project for students enrolled in the Professional Master’s track of the MS Physics Program. (This course requires permission of the Instructor to enroll.) Lecture (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
4 
Approved Graduate Physics Electives 
3  
Approved Graduate Professional Elective 
9  
Total Semester Credit Hours  145 
Please see General Education Curriculum (GE) for more information.
(WI) Refers to a writing intensive course within the major.
* Please see Wellness Education Requirement for more information. Students completing bachelor's degrees are required to complete two different Wellness courses.
Physics, BS degree/Materials Science and Engineering, MS degree, typical course sequence
Course  Sem. Cr. Hrs.  

First Year  
Choose one of the following course sequences:  8 

CHMG141  General & Analytical Chemistry I§ (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This is a general chemistry course for students in the life and physical sciences. College chemistry is presented as a science based on empirical evidence that is placed into the context of conceptual, visual, and mathematical models. Students will learn the concepts, symbolism, and fundamental tools of chemistry necessary to carry on a discourse in the language of chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship between atomic structure, chemical bonds, and the transformation of these bonds through chemical reactions. The fundamentals of organic chemistry are introduced throughout the course to emphasize the connection between chemistry and the other sciences. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG142  General & Analytical Chemistry II§ (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) The course covers the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The relationship between energy and entropy change as the driving force of chemical processes is emphasized through the study of aqueous solutions. Specifically, the course takes a quantitative look at: 1) solubility equilibrium, 2) acidbase equilibrium, 3) oxidationreduction reactions and 4) chemical kinetics. (Prerequisites: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG145  General & Analytical Chemistry I Lab§ (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG141 lecture material. The course emphasizes laboratory techniques and data analysis skills. Topics include: gravimetric, volumetric, thermal, titration and spectrophotometric analyses, and the use of these techniques to analyze chemical reactions. (Corequisite: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG146  General & Analytical Chemistry II Lab§ (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG142 lecture material. The course emphasizes the use of experiments as a tool for chemical analysis and the reporting of results in formal lab reports. Topics include the quantitative analysis of a multicomponent mixture using complexation and double endpoint titration, pH measurement, buffers and pH indicators, the kinetic study of a redox reaction, and the electrochemical analysis of oxidation reduction reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMG131 or CHMG141 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: CHMG142 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL101  General Biology I (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to cellular, molecular, and evolutionary biology. Topics will include: a study of the basic principles of modern cellular biology, including cell structure and function; the chemical basis and functions of life, including enzyme systems and gene expression; and the origin of life and evolutionary patterns of organism development on Earth. Lecture 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL102  General Biology II (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to animal and plant anatomy and physiology, in addition to the fundamentals of ecology. Topics will include: animal development; animal body systems; plant development; unique plant systems; Earth's terrestrial and aquatic environments; population and community ecology; animal behavior; and conservation biology. Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer). 

BIOL103  General Biology I Lab§ (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the lecture material of General Biology I. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of basic cellular and molecular biology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for microscopy, and improve ability to make, record and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL101 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL104  General Biology II Lab§ (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the material of General Biology II. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of animal and plant anatomy and physiology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for experimenting with live organisms, and improve ability to make, record, and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL102 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring, Summer). 

MATH181  Calculus I (General Education – Mathematical Perspective A) This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisites: MATH111 or (NMTH220 and NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of B, or a score of at least 60% on the RIT Mathematics Placement Exam.
Corequisites: MATH181R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
MATH182  Calculus II (General Education – Mathematical Perspective B) This is the second in a twocourse sequence. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS150  Introduction to Special Relativity In this course students will learn aspects of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity including time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, velocity transformations, relativistic Doppler effect, issues with simultaneity, and relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS216  University Physics I: Physics Majors (General Education – Elective) This is a course in calculusbased physics for physics majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton’s Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or MATH172 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH172 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
YOPS10  RIT 365: RIT Connections RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their firstyear experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational selfawareness and recognize broadbased professional competencies. (This class is restricted to incoming 1st year or global campus students.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring). 
0 
General Education – FirstYear Writing (WI) 
3  
General Education – Elective 
3  
General Education – Artistic Perspective 
3  
Second Year  
MATH219  Multivariable Calculus (General Education – Elective) This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes the study of vectors, vectorvalued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and includes applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH221. (Prerequisite: C or better MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
MATH231  Differential Equations (General Education – Elective) This course is an introduction to the study of ordinary differential equations and their applications. Topics include solutions to first order equations and linear second order equations, method of undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, linear independence and the Wronskian, vibrating systems, and Laplace transforms. (Prerequisite: MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3, Recitation 1 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS213  Modern Physics I (General Education – Elective) This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS217  University Physics II: Physics Majors (General Education – Elective) This course is a continuation of PHYS216, University Physics I: Physics Majors. Topics include fluids, thermodynamics, electrostatics, Gauss’ law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, circuits, magnetic field, Ampere’s law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: Grades of C or better in (MATH182 or MATH182A) and (PHYS216 or PHYS206) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS222  Electronic Measurements This course covers the fundamentals of AC and DC circuit theory, electrical analysis of simple linear networks, operations of and circuits containing diodes and transistors, linear and nonlinear operation of opamps and their applications, and analysis of basic digital circuits. Laboratory classes reinforce lecture material and teach practical skills in use of basic test and measurement equipment. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS225  Introduction to Computational Physics and Programming This course introduces methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Students will learn how computers represent numbers, limits of computation, how to write computer programs, and to use good programming practices. Students will also apply numerical methods of differentiation and integration, and numerical solutions to differential equations in physical situations. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS207 or PHYS216) and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisite: PHYS212) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS275  Sophomore Physics Seminar This seminar will assist students in their preparation for the Physics Comprehensive Oral Exam (CORE) required at the end of the course by presenting a unified as opposed to topical approach to physics. Physics majors must pass this course before going on to 300level Physics courses. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS208 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course.) Lecture 2 (Fall, Spring). 
1 
PHYS283  Vibrations and Waves This course is an introduction to the physics of vibrations and waves, beginning with the simple harmonic oscillator, the foundation to understanding oscillatory and vibratory systems. The course will include driven and damped single oscillators, coupled discrete oscillators, and continuous vibrating systems. Connections will be made with many areas of physics that involve oscillation, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS217 or PHYS209 and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisites: MATH231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
General Education – Ethical Perspective 
3  
General Education – Global Perspective 
3  
General Education – Social Perspective 
3  
Third Year  
PHYS214  Modern Physics II This course is a continuation of a survey of modern physics beyond the topics introduced in Modern Physics I. Central topics include the physics of multielectron atoms, molecular structure, fundamentals of statistical physics applied to systems of particles, elementary solidstate physics, applications to semiconductor materials and simple devices, and basic elements of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS315  Experiments in Modern Physics In this course, students perform experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. These include investigations of wave particle duality, and the earliest of quantum mechanical models as well as measurements of fundamental constants. Experiments typically include electron diffraction, the photoelectric effect, optical diffraction and interference, atomic spectroscopy, chargetomass ratio of an electron, and blackbody radiation. This class teaches basic instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS316  Advanced Laboratory in Physics In this course, students perform advanced experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. Experiments typically explore properties of materials, semiconductors, atomic physics, and nuclear decay. This class continues the instruction in instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis that began in Experiments in Modern Physics, PHYS315. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS315 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS320  Mathematical Methods in Physics This course serves as an introduction to the mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include matrix algebra, vector calculus, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations in rectangular coordinates, and an introduction to series solutions of ordinary differential equations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS330  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of Newtonian kinematics and dynamics including equations of motion in one and threedimensions, conservation laws, noninertial reference frames, central forces, Lagrangian mechanics, and rigid body motion. This course will use advanced mathematical techniques including differential equations, vector calculus, and matrix and tensor formulations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217). Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course. Corequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall). 
4 
PHYS411  Electricity and Magnetism This course is a systematic treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical formalism using differential and integral vector calculus is developed. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Special techniques for solution to Laplace's equation as a boundary value problem are covered. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, and the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, are discussed. (Prerequisites: (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in PHYSBS or PHYS2M are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 4 (Spring). 
4 
Physics Program Elective‡ 
3  
Open Elective 
3  
General Education – Immersion 1, 2 
6  
Fourth Year  
MTSE601  Materials Science This course provides an understanding of the relationship between structure and properties necessary for the development of new materials. Topics include atomic and crystal structure, crystalline defects, diffusion, theories, strengthening mechanisms, ferrous alloys, cast irons, structure of ceramics and polymeric materials and corrosion principles. Term paper on materials topic. (This class is restricted to degreeseeking graduate students or those with permission from instructor.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
MTSE705  Experimental Methods The course will introduce the students to laboratory equipment for hardness testing, impact testing, tensile testing, Xray diffraction, SEM, and thermal treatment of metallic materials. Experiments illustrating the characterization of high molecular weight organic polymers will be performed. (This class is restricted to degreeseeking graduate students or those with permission from instructor.) Lab 3 (Spring). 
3 
Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS414  Quantum Mechanics This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS440  Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

Physics Program Elective‡ 
3  
Materials Science Graduate Program Electives 
6  
Open Electives 
6  
General Education – Immersion 3 
3  
Fifth Year  
MTSE704  Theoretical Methods in Materials Science and Engineering This course includes the treatment of vector analysis, special functions, waves, and fields; Maxwell Boltzmann, BoseEinstein and FermiDirac distributions, and their applications. Selected topics of interest in electrodynamics, fluid mechanics, and statistical mechanics will also be discussed. (This class is restricted to degreeseeking graduate students or those with permission from instructor.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
MTSE790  Research & Thesis Dissertation research by the candidate for an appropriate topic as arranged between the candidate and the research advisor. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Thesis (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
9 
Materials Science Graduate Program Electives 
6  
Open Electives 
4  
Total Semester Credit Hours  145 
Please see General Education Curriculum (GE) for more information.
(WI) Refers to a writing intensive course within the major.
Please see Wellness Education Requirement for more information. Students completing bachelor's degrees are required to complete two different Wellness courses.
‡ Please see academic adviser for a list of physics electives.
§ Students will satisfy this requirement by taking a 4credit hour lab science course. Students must take both the lecture and lab portions to satisfy the requirement. The lecture section alone will not fulfill the requirement.
Physics, BS degree/Science, Technology, and Public Policy, MS degree, typical course sequence
Course  Sem. Cr. Hrs.  

First Year  
Choose one of the following:  8 

CHMG141  General & Analytical Chemistry I§ (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This is a general chemistry course for students in the life and physical sciences. College chemistry is presented as a science based on empirical evidence that is placed into the context of conceptual, visual, and mathematical models. Students will learn the concepts, symbolism, and fundamental tools of chemistry necessary to carry on a discourse in the language of chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship between atomic structure, chemical bonds, and the transformation of these bonds through chemical reactions. The fundamentals of organic chemistry are introduced throughout the course to emphasize the connection between chemistry and the other sciences. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG145  General & Analytical Chemistry I Lab§ (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG141 lecture material. The course emphasizes laboratory techniques and data analysis skills. Topics include: gravimetric, volumetric, thermal, titration and spectrophotometric analyses, and the use of these techniques to analyze chemical reactions. (Corequisite: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG142  General & Analytical Chemistry II (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) The course covers the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The relationship between energy and entropy change as the driving force of chemical processes is emphasized through the study of aqueous solutions. Specifically, the course takes a quantitative look at: 1) solubility equilibrium, 2) acidbase equilibrium, 3) oxidationreduction reactions and 4) chemical kinetics. (Prerequisites: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG146  General & Analytical Chemistry II Labs§ (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG142 lecture material. The course emphasizes the use of experiments as a tool for chemical analysis and the reporting of results in formal lab reports. Topics include the quantitative analysis of a multicomponent mixture using complexation and double endpoint titration, pH measurement, buffers and pH indicators, the kinetic study of a redox reaction, and the electrochemical analysis of oxidation reduction reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMG131 or CHMG141 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: CHMG142 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL101  General Biology I (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to cellular, molecular, and evolutionary biology. Topics will include: a study of the basic principles of modern cellular biology, including cell structure and function; the chemical basis and functions of life, including enzyme systems and gene expression; and the origin of life and evolutionary patterns of organism development on Earth. Lecture 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL102  General Biology II§ ((General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to animal and plant anatomy and physiology, in addition to the fundamentals of ecology. Topics will include: animal development; animal body systems; plant development; unique plant systems; Earth's terrestrial and aquatic environments; population and community ecology; animal behavior; and conservation biology. Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer). 

BIOL103  General Biology I Lab§ (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the lecture material of General Biology I. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of basic cellular and molecular biology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for microscopy, and improve ability to make, record and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL101 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL104  General Biology II Lab§ ((General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the material of General Biology II. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of animal and plant anatomy and physiology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for experimenting with live organisms, and improve ability to make, record, and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL102 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring, Summer). 

MATH181  Calculus I (General Education – Mathematical Perspective A) This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisites: MATH111 or (NMTH220 and NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of B, or a score of at least 60% on the RIT Mathematics Placement Exam.
Corequisites: MATH181R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
MATH182  Calculus II (General Education – Mathematical Perspective B) This is the second in a twocourse sequence. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS150  Introduction to Special Relativity In this course students will learn aspects of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity including time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, velocity transformations, relativistic Doppler effect, issues with simultaneity, and relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS216  University Physics I: Physics Majors (General Education – Elective) This is a course in calculusbased physics for physics majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton’s Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or MATH172 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH172 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
YOPS10  RIT 365: RIT Connections RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their firstyear experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational selfawareness and recognize broadbased professional competencies. (This class is restricted to incoming 1st year or global campus students.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring). 
0 
General Education – Artistic Perspective 
3  
General Education – Elective 
3  
General Education – FirstYear Writing (WI) 
3  
Second Year  
MATH219  Multivariable Calculus (General Education – Elective) This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes the study of vectors, vectorvalued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and includes applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH221. (Prerequisite: C or better MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
MATH231  Differential Equations (General Education – Elective) This course is an introduction to the study of ordinary differential equations and their applications. Topics include solutions to first order equations and linear second order equations, method of undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, linear independence and the Wronskian, vibrating systems, and Laplace transforms. (Prerequisite: MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3, Recitation 1 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS213  Modern Physics I (General Education – Elective) This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS217  University Physics II: Physics Majors (General Education – Elective) This course is a continuation of PHYS216, University Physics I: Physics Majors. Topics include fluids, thermodynamics, electrostatics, Gauss’ law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, circuits, magnetic field, Ampere’s law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: Grades of C or better in (MATH182 or MATH182A) and (PHYS216 or PHYS206) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS222  Electronic Measurements This course covers the fundamentals of AC and DC circuit theory, electrical analysis of simple linear networks, operations of and circuits containing diodes and transistors, linear and nonlinear operation of opamps and their applications, and analysis of basic digital circuits. Laboratory classes reinforce lecture material and teach practical skills in use of basic test and measurement equipment. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS225  Introduction to Computational Physics and Programming This course introduces methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Students will learn how computers represent numbers, limits of computation, how to write computer programs, and to use good programming practices. Students will also apply numerical methods of differentiation and integration, and numerical solutions to differential equations in physical situations. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS207 or PHYS216) and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisite: PHYS212) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS275  Sophomore Physics Seminar This seminar will assist students in their preparation for the Physics Comprehensive Oral Exam (CORE) required at the end of the course by presenting a unified as opposed to topical approach to physics. Physics majors must pass this course before going on to 300level Physics courses. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS208 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course.) Lecture 2 (Fall, Spring). 
1 
PHYS283  Vibrations and Waves This course is an introduction to the physics of vibrations and waves, beginning with the simple harmonic oscillator, the foundation to understanding oscillatory and vibratory systems. The course will include driven and damped single oscillators, coupled discrete oscillators, and continuous vibrating systems. Connections will be made with many areas of physics that involve oscillation, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS217 or PHYS209 and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisites: MATH231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
General Education – Ethical Perspective 
3  
General Education – Global Perspective 
3  
General Education – Social Perspective 
3  
Third Year  
PHYS214  Modern Physics II This course is a continuation of a survey of modern physics beyond the topics introduced in Modern Physics I. Central topics include the physics of multielectron atoms, molecular structure, fundamentals of statistical physics applied to systems of particles, elementary solidstate physics, applications to semiconductor materials and simple devices, and basic elements of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS315  Experiments in Modern Physics In this course, students perform experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. These include investigations of wave particle duality, and the earliest of quantum mechanical models as well as measurements of fundamental constants. Experiments typically include electron diffraction, the photoelectric effect, optical diffraction and interference, atomic spectroscopy, chargetomass ratio of an electron, and blackbody radiation. This class teaches basic instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS316  Advanced Laboratory in Physics In this course, students perform advanced experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. Experiments typically explore properties of materials, semiconductors, atomic physics, and nuclear decay. This class continues the instruction in instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis that began in Experiments in Modern Physics, PHYS315. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS315 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS320  Mathematical Methods in Physics This course serves as an introduction to the mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include matrix algebra, vector calculus, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations in rectangular coordinates, and an introduction to series solutions of ordinary differential equations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS330  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of Newtonian kinematics and dynamics including equations of motion in one and threedimensions, conservation laws, noninertial reference frames, central forces, Lagrangian mechanics, and rigid body motion. This course will use advanced mathematical techniques including differential equations, vector calculus, and matrix and tensor formulations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217). Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course. Corequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall). 
4 
PHYS411  Electricity and Magnetism This course is a systematic treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical formalism using differential and integral vector calculus is developed. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Special techniques for solution to Laplace's equation as a boundary value problem are covered. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, and the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, are discussed. (Prerequisites: (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in PHYSBS or PHYS2M are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 4 (Spring). 
4 
PHYS450  Capstone Preparation This course is a preparation for the twosemester physics capstone project to be carried out in the following year. It includes selection of a project and faculty mentor, preparation of a feasibility study, preparation of a paper, and a public oral presentation. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Lecture 1 (Spring). 
1 
Physics Elective‡ 
3  
General Education – Immersion 1, 2 
6  
Fourth Year  
Choose one of the following:  
PHYS414  Quantum Mechanics This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS440  Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS451  Capstone Project I In collaboration with faculty mentor(s), students will carry out the first phase of an experimental, theoretical, or computational physics research project, will prepare an interim paper, and will present a short talk on their progress to physics faculty and students. The projects are those planned during the capstone preparatory course taken during the prior Spring semester. (Prerequisites: PHYS450 or equivalent course.) Project 12 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS452  Capstone Project II (WIPR) In collaboration with faculty mentor(s), students will carry out the final phase of an experimental, theoretical, or computational physics research project, will prepare a written paper and present an oral report on their progress to physics faculty and students. The projects are those planned during the capstone preparatory course taken during the prior Spring semester and commenced during the prior Fall semester. (Prerequisites: PHYS451 or equivalent course.) Project 12 (Spring). 
3 
PUBL701  Graduate Policy Analysis This course provides graduate students with necessary tools to help them become effective policy analysts. The course places particular emphasis on understanding the policy process, the different approaches to policy analysis, and the application of quantitative and qualitative methods for evaluating public policies. Students will apply these tools to contemporary public policy decision making at the local, state, federal, and international levels. Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PUBL702  Graduate Decision Analysis This course provides students with an introduction to decision science and analysis. The course focuses on several important tools for making good decisions, including decision trees, including forecasting, risk analysis, and multiattribute decision making. Students will apply these tools to contemporary public policy decision making at the local, state, federal, and international levels. Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
STSO710  Graduate Science and Technology Policy Seminar Examines how federal and international policies are developed to influence research and development, innovation, and the transfer of technology in the United States and other selected nations. Students in the course will apply basic policy skills, concepts, and methods to contemporary science and technology policy topics. (This class is restricted to degreeseeking graduate students or those with permission from instructor.) Seminar (Fall). 
3 
Public Policy Graduate Elective 
3  
Physics Elective‡ 
3  
Open Electives 
6  
Fifth Year  
PUBL700  Readings in Public Policy An indepth inquiry into key contemporary public policy issues. Students will be exposed to a wide range of important public policy texts, and will learn how to write a literature review in a policy area of their choosing. (This class is restricted to degreeseeking graduate students or those with permission from instructor.) Seminar (Fall). 
3 
PUBL703  Evaluation and Research Design The focus of this course is on evaluation of program outcomes and research design. Students will explore the questions and methodologies associated with meeting programmatic outcomes, secondary or unanticipated effects, and an analysis of alternative means for achieving program outcomes. Critique of evaluation research methodologies will also be considered. Seminar (Spring). 
3 
Choose one of the following:  6 

PUBL790  Public Policy Thesis The master's thesis in science, technology, and public policy requires the student to select a thesis topic, advisor and committee; prepare a written thesis proposal for approval by the faculty; present and defend the thesis before a thesis committee; and submit a bound copy of the thesis to the library and to the program chair. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Thesis 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
6 
PUBL785  Capstone Research The Public Policy Capstone Experience serves as a culminating experience for those MS in Science, Technology and Public Policy students who chose this option in the Public Policy Department. Over the course of the semester, students will have the opportunity to investigate and address contemporary topics in science and technology policy using analytic skills and theoretical knowledge learned over the course of their MS degree. Project 1 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

PUBL798  Comprehensive Exam plus 2 Graduate Electives 

Physics Elective‡ 
3  
General Education – Immersion 3 
3  
Graduate Electives 
6  
Open Elective 
3  
Total Semester Credit Hours  151 
Please see General Education Curriculum (GE) for more information.
(WIPR) Refers to a writing intensive course within the major.
* Please see Wellness Education Requirement for more information. Students completing bachelor's degrees are required to complete two different Wellness courses.
‡ Please see academic adviser for a list of physics electives.
§ Students will satisfy this requirement by taking a 4credit hour lab science course. Students must take both the lecture and lab portions to satisfy the requirement. The lecture section alone will not fulfill the requirement.
Physics, BS degree/Astrophysical Sciences and Technology, MS degree, typical course sequence
Course  Sem. Cr. Hrs.  

First Year  
Choose one of the following:  8 

CHMG141  General & Analytical Chemistry I (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This is a general chemistry course for students in the life and physical sciences. College chemistry is presented as a science based on empirical evidence that is placed into the context of conceptual, visual, and mathematical models. Students will learn the concepts, symbolism, and fundamental tools of chemistry necessary to carry on a discourse in the language of chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship between atomic structure, chemical bonds, and the transformation of these bonds through chemical reactions. The fundamentals of organic chemistry are introduced throughout the course to emphasize the connection between chemistry and the other sciences. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG142  General & Analytical Chemistry II (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) The course covers the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The relationship between energy and entropy change as the driving force of chemical processes is emphasized through the study of aqueous solutions. Specifically, the course takes a quantitative look at: 1) solubility equilibrium, 2) acidbase equilibrium, 3) oxidationreduction reactions and 4) chemical kinetics. (Prerequisites: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG145  General & Analytical Chemistry I Lab (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG141 lecture material. The course emphasizes laboratory techniques and data analysis skills. Topics include: gravimetric, volumetric, thermal, titration and spectrophotometric analyses, and the use of these techniques to analyze chemical reactions. (Corequisite: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG146  General & Analytical Chemistry II Lab (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG142 lecture material. The course emphasizes the use of experiments as a tool for chemical analysis and the reporting of results in formal lab reports. Topics include the quantitative analysis of a multicomponent mixture using complexation and double endpoint titration, pH measurement, buffers and pH indicators, the kinetic study of a redox reaction, and the electrochemical analysis of oxidation reduction reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMG131 or CHMG141 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: CHMG142 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL101  General Biology I (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to cellular, molecular, and evolutionary biology. Topics will include: a study of the basic principles of modern cellular biology, including cell structure and function; the chemical basis and functions of life, including enzyme systems and gene expression; and the origin of life and evolutionary patterns of organism development on Earth. Lecture 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL102  General Biology II (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to animal and plant anatomy and physiology, in addition to the fundamentals of ecology. Topics will include: animal development; animal body systems; plant development; unique plant systems; Earth's terrestrial and aquatic environments; population and community ecology; animal behavior; and conservation biology. Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer). 

BIOL103  General Biology I Lab (General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the lecture material of General Biology I. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of basic cellular and molecular biology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for microscopy, and improve ability to make, record and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL101 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL104  General Biology II Lab (General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the material of General Biology II. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of animal and plant anatomy and physiology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for experimenting with live organisms, and improve ability to make, record, and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL102 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring, Summer). 

MATH181  Calculus I (General Education – Mathematical Perspective A) This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisites: MATH111 or (NMTH220 and NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of B, or a score of at least 60% on the RIT Mathematics Placement Exam.
Corequisites: MATH181R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
MATH182  Calculus II (General Education – Mathematical Perspective B) This is the second in a twocourse sequence. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS150  Introduction to Special Relativity In this course students will learn aspects of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity including time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, velocity transformations, relativistic Doppler effect, issues with simultaneity, and relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS216  University Physics I: Physics Majors (General Education – Elective) This is a course in calculusbased physics for physics majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton’s Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or MATH172 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH172 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
YOPS10  RIT 365: RIT Connections RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their firstyear experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational selfawareness and recognize broadbased professional competencies. (This class is restricted to incoming 1st year or global campus students.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring). 
0 
General Education – FirstYear Writing (WI) 
3  
General Education – Elective 
3  
General Education – Artistic Perspective 
3  
Second Year  
MATH219  Multivariable Calculus (General Education – Elective) This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes the study of vectors, vectorvalued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and includes applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH221. (Prerequisite: C or better MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
MATH231  Differential Equations (General Education – Elective) This course is an introduction to the study of ordinary differential equations and their applications. Topics include solutions to first order equations and linear second order equations, method of undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, linear independence and the Wronskian, vibrating systems, and Laplace transforms. (Prerequisite: MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3, Recitation 1 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS213  Modern Physics I (General Education – Elective) This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS217  University Physics II: Physics Majors (General Education – Elective) This course is a continuation of PHYS216, University Physics I: Physics Majors. Topics include fluids, thermodynamics, electrostatics, Gauss’ law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, circuits, magnetic field, Ampere’s law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: Grades of C or better in (MATH182 or MATH182A) and (PHYS216 or PHYS206) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS220  University Astronomy This course is an introduction to the basic concepts of astronomy and astrophysics for scientists and engineers. Topics include the celestial sphere, celestial mechanics, methods of data acquisition, planetary systems, stars and stellar systems, cosmology, and life in the universe. (Prerequisites: PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS207 or PHYS216 or (MECE102 and MECE103 and MECE205) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring). 
3 
PHYS222  Electronic Measurements This course covers the fundamentals of AC and DC circuit theory, electrical analysis of simple linear networks, operations of and circuits containing diodes and transistors, linear and nonlinear operation of opamps and their applications, and analysis of basic digital circuits. Laboratory classes reinforce lecture material and teach practical skills in use of basic test and measurement equipment. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS225  Introduction to Computational Physics and Programming This course introduces methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Students will learn how computers represent numbers, limits of computation, how to write computer programs, and to use good programming practices. Students will also apply numerical methods of differentiation and integration, and numerical solutions to differential equations in physical situations. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS207 or PHYS216) and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisite: PHYS212) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS275  Sophomore Physics Seminar This seminar will assist students in their preparation for the Physics Comprehensive Oral Exam (CORE) required at the end of the course by presenting a unified as opposed to topical approach to physics. Physics majors must pass this course before going on to 300level Physics courses. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS208 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course.) Lecture 2 (Fall, Spring). 
1 
PHYS283  Vibrations and Waves This course is an introduction to the physics of vibrations and waves, beginning with the simple harmonic oscillator, the foundation to understanding oscillatory and vibratory systems. The course will include driven and damped single oscillators, coupled discrete oscillators, and continuous vibrating systems. Connections will be made with many areas of physics that involve oscillation, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS217 or PHYS209 and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisites: MATH231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
General Education – Ethical Perspective 
3  
General Education – Global Perspective 
3  
Third Year  
PHYS214  Modern Physics II This course is a continuation of a survey of modern physics beyond the topics introduced in Modern Physics I. Central topics include the physics of multielectron atoms, molecular structure, fundamentals of statistical physics applied to systems of particles, elementary solidstate physics, applications to semiconductor materials and simple devices, and basic elements of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS315  Experiments in Modern Physics In this course, students perform experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. These include investigations of wave particle duality, and the earliest of quantum mechanical models as well as measurements of fundamental constants. Experiments typically include electron diffraction, the photoelectric effect, optical diffraction and interference, atomic spectroscopy, chargetomass ratio of an electron, and blackbody radiation. This class teaches basic instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS316  Advanced Laboratory in Physics In this course, students perform advanced experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. Experiments typically explore properties of materials, semiconductors, atomic physics, and nuclear decay. This class continues the instruction in instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis that began in Experiments in Modern Physics, PHYS315. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS315 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS320  Mathematical Methods in Physics This course serves as an introduction to the mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include matrix algebra, vector calculus, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations in rectangular coordinates, and an introduction to series solutions of ordinary differential equations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS330  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of Newtonian kinematics and dynamics including equations of motion in one and threedimensions, conservation laws, noninertial reference frames, central forces, Lagrangian mechanics, and rigid body motion. This course will use advanced mathematical techniques including differential equations, vector calculus, and matrix and tensor formulations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217). Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course. Corequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall). 
4 
PHYS374  Introduction to Astrophysics This seminarstyle course presents concepts of stars, stellar systems and the universe at an intermediate level. Topics include the observed characteristics of stars, stellar atmospheres, stellar structure and evolution, classification and properties of galaxies, galaxy clusters, nuclei of galaxies, the early universe, cosmic expansion and cosmological parameters. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and PHYS220 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 1 (Fall). 
1 
PHYS411  Electricity and Magnetism This course is a systematic treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical formalism using differential and integral vector calculus is developed. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Special techniques for solution to Laplace's equation as a boundary value problem are covered. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, and the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, are discussed. (Prerequisites: (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in PHYSBS or PHYS2M are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 4 (Spring). 
4 
PHYS Lab/Computational Physics Elective‡ 
3  
General Education – Social Perspective 
3  
General Education – Immersion 1, 2 
6  
Fourth Year  
Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS414  Quantum Mechanics This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS440  Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

ASTP601  Graduate Seminar I This course is the first in a twosemester sequence intended to familiarize students with research activities, practices, and ethics in the university research environment and to introduce students to commonly used research tools. As part of the course, students are expected to attend research seminars sponsored by the Astrophysical Sciences and Technology Program and participate in a weekly journal club. The course also provides training in scientific writing and presentation skills. Credits earned in this course apply to research requirements. (Prerequisites: This course is restricted to students in the ASTPMS and ASTPPHD programs.) Seminar 3 (Fall). 
1 
ASTP602  Graduate Seminar II This course is the second in a twosemester sequence intended to familiarize students with research activities, practices, and ethics in the university research environment and to introduce students to commonly used research tools. As part of the course, students are expected to attend research seminars sponsored by the Astrophysical Sciences and Technology Program and participate in a weekly journal club. The course also provides training in scientific writing and presentation skills. Credits earned in this course apply to research requirements. (Prerequisites: ASTP601 or equivalent course. This course is restricted to students in the ASTPMS and ASTPPHD programs.) Seminar 3 (Spring). 
1 
ASTP608  Fundamental Astrophysics I This course will provide a basic introduction to modern astrophysics, including the topics of radiation fields and matter, star formation and evolution, and stellar structure. This course will provide the physical background needed to interpret both observations and theoretical models in stellar astrophysics and prepare students for more advanced topics and research in astrophysics. (Prerequisites: This course is restricted to students in the ASTPMS and ASTPPHD programs.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
ASTP609  Fundamental Astrophysics II This course will provide a basic introduction to modern astrophysics, following on from Fundamental Astrophysics I. Topics will include basic celestial mechanics and galactic dynamics, the Milky Way and other galaxies, the interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, galaxy formation and evolution, and an introduction to cosmology. This course will provide the physical background needed to interpret both observations and theoretical models in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology and prepare students for more advanced topics and research in astrophysics. (Prerequisites: ASTP608 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
General Education – Immersion 3 
3  
Graduate Program Electives 
6  
Open Electives 
12  
Fifth Year  
ASTP790  Research & Thesis Masterslevel research by the candidate on an appropriate topic as arranged between the candidate and the research advisor. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Thesis (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
10 
Graduate Program Elective 
6  
Total Semester Credit Hours  145 
Please see General Education Curriculum (GE) for more information.
(WI) Refers to a writing intensive course within the major.
Please see Wellness Education Requirement for more information. Students completing bachelor's degrees are required to complete two different Wellness courses.
‡ Please see academic advisor for a list of PHYS Lab/Computational Physics Electives.
Physics, BS degree/Sustainable Systems, MS degree, typical course sequence
Course  Sem. Cr. Hrs.  

First Year  
Choose one of the following sequences:  8 

CHMG141  General & Analytical Chemistry I (General Education  Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) This is a general chemistry course for students in the life and physical sciences. College chemistry is presented as a science based on empirical evidence that is placed into the context of conceptual, visual, and mathematical models. Students will learn the concepts, symbolism, and fundamental tools of chemistry necessary to carry on a discourse in the language of chemistry. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship between atomic structure, chemical bonds, and the transformation of these bonds through chemical reactions. The fundamentals of organic chemistry are introduced throughout the course to emphasize the connection between chemistry and the other sciences. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG145  General & Analytical Chemistry I Lab (General Education  Natural Science Inquiry Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG141 lecture material. The course emphasizes laboratory techniques and data analysis skills. Topics include: gravimetric, volumetric, thermal, titration and spectrophotometric analyses, and the use of these techniques to analyze chemical reactions. (Corequisite: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG142  General & Analytical Chemistry II (General Education  Scientific Principles Perspective) The course covers the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The relationship between energy and entropy change as the driving force of chemical processes is emphasized through the study of aqueous solutions. Specifically, the course takes a quantitative look at: 1) solubility equilibrium, 2) acidbase equilibrium, 3) oxidationreduction reactions and 4) chemical kinetics. (Prerequisites: CHMG141 or CHMG131 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

CHMG146  General & Analytical Chemistry II Lab (General Education  Scientific Principles Perspective) The course combines handson laboratory exercises with workshopstyle problem sessions to complement the CHMG142 lecture material. The course emphasizes the use of experiments as a tool for chemical analysis and the reporting of results in formal lab reports. Topics include the quantitative analysis of a multicomponent mixture using complexation and double endpoint titration, pH measurement, buffers and pH indicators, the kinetic study of a redox reaction, and the electrochemical analysis of oxidation reduction reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMG131 or CHMG141 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: CHMG142 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

or  
BIOL101  General Biology I (General Education  Scientific Principles Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to cellular, molecular, and evolutionary biology. Topics will include: a study of the basic principles of modern cellular biology, including cell structure and function; the chemical basis and functions of life, including enzyme systems and gene expression; and the origin of life and evolutionary patterns of organism development on Earth. Lecture 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL103  General Biology I Lab (General Education  Scientific Principles Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the lecture material of General Biology I. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of basic cellular and molecular biology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for microscopy, and improve ability to make, record and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL101 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Summer). 

BIOL102  General Biology II (General Education  Scientific Principles Perspective) This course serves as an introduction to animal and plant anatomy and physiology, in addition to the fundamentals of ecology. Topics will include: animal development; animal body systems; plant development; unique plant systems; Earth's terrestrial and aquatic environments; population and community ecology; animal behavior; and conservation biology. Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer). 

BIOL104  General Biology II Lab (General Education  Scientific Principles Perspective) This course provides laboratory work to complement the material of General Biology II. The experiments are designed to illustrate concepts of animal and plant anatomy and physiology, develop laboratory skills and techniques for experimenting with live organisms, and improve ability to make, record, and interpret observations. (Corequisites: BIOL102 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring, Summer). 

MATH181  Calculus I (General Education  Mathematical Perspective A) This is the first in a twocourse sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisites: MATH111 or (NMTH220 and NMTH260 or NMTH272 or NMTH275) or equivalent courses with a minimum grade of B, or a score of at least 60% on the RIT Mathematics Placement Exam.
Corequisites: MATH181R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
MATH182  Calculus II (General Education  Mathematical Perspective B) This is the second in a twocourse sequence. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182R or equivalent course.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS150  Introduction to Special Relativity In this course students will learn aspects of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity including time dilation, length contraction, Lorentz transformations, velocity transformations, relativistic Doppler effect, issues with simultaneity, and relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS216  University Physics I: Physics Majors This is a course in calculusbased physics for physics majors. Topics include kinematics, planar motion, Newton’s Laws, gravitation, work and energy, momentum and impulse, conservation laws, systems of particles, rotational motion, static equilibrium, mechanical oscillations and waves, and data presentation/analysis. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: C or better in MATH181 or MATH181A or MATH172 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH172 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
General Education  First Year Writing (WI) 
3  
General Education  Artistic Perspective 
3  
General Education  Elective 
3  
YOPS010  RIT 365: RIT Connections RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their firstyear experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational selfawareness and recognize broadbased professional competencies. (This class is restricted to incoming 1st year or global campus students.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring). 
0 
Second Year  
MATH219  Multivariable Calculus This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes the study of vectors, vectorvalued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and includes applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH221. (Prerequisite: C or better MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
MATH231  Differential Equations This course is an introduction to the study of ordinary differential equations and their applications. Topics include solutions to first order equations and linear second order equations, method of undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, linear independence and the Wronskian, vibrating systems, and Laplace transforms. (Prerequisite: MATH173 or MATH182 or MATH182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3, Recitation 1 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS213  Modern Physics I This course provides an introductory survey of elementary quantum physics, as well as basic relativistic dynamics. Topics include the photon, waveparticle duality, deBroglie waves, the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrodinger equation and wave mechanics, quantum description of the hydrogen atom, electron spin, and multielectron atoms. (Prerequisites: PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer). 
3 
PHYS217  University Physics II: Physics Majors This course is a continuation of PHYS216, University Physics I: Physics Majors. Topics include fluids, thermodynamics, electrostatics, Gauss’ law, electric field and potential, capacitance, resistance, circuits, magnetic field, Ampere’s law, inductance, and geometrical and physical optics. Calculus and basic numerical techniques will be applied throughout the course to analyze nonidealized complex systems. The course is taught in a lecture/workshop format that integrates the material traditionally found in separate lecture and laboratory courses. The course will also include enrichment activities connecting current developments in the field of physics. (Prerequisites: Grades of C or better in (MATH182 or MATH182A) and (PHYS216 or PHYS206) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 7.5 (Fall, Spring). 
4 
PHYS222  Electronic Measurements This course covers the fundamentals of AC and DC circuit theory, electrical analysis of simple linear networks, operations of and circuits containing diodes and transistors, linear and nonlinear operation of opamps and their applications, and analysis of basic digital circuits. Laboratory classes reinforce lecture material and teach practical skills in use of basic test and measurement equipment. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.) Lab 3, Lecture 2 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS225  Introduction to Computational Physics and Programming This course introduces methods for using computers to model the behavior of physical systems. Students will learn how computers represent numbers, limits of computation, how to write computer programs, and to use good programming practices. Students will also apply numerical methods of differentiation and integration, and numerical solutions to differential equations in physical situations. (Prerequisites: (PHYS211 or PHYS211A or PHYS207 or PHYS216) and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisite: PHYS212) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS275  Sophomore Physics Seminar This seminar will assist students in their preparation for the Physics Comprehensive Oral Exam (CORE) required at the end of the course by presenting a unified as opposed to topical approach to physics. Physics majors must pass this course before going on to 300level Physics courses. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS208 or PHYS209 or PHYS217 or equivalent course.
Corequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course.) Lecture 2 (Fall, Spring). 
1 
PHYS283  Vibrations and Waves This course is an introduction to the physics of vibrations and waves, beginning with the simple harmonic oscillator, the foundation to understanding oscillatory and vibratory systems. The course will include driven and damped single oscillators, coupled discrete oscillators, and continuous vibrating systems. Connections will be made with many areas of physics that involve oscillation, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS212 or PHYS217 or PHYS209 and (MATH182 or MATH182A or MATH173) or equivalent courses.
Corequisites: MATH231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring). 
3 
General Education  Ethical Perspective 
3  
General Education  Global Perspective 
3  
General Education  Social Perspective 
3  
Third Year  
PHYS214  Modern Physics II This course is a continuation of a survey of modern physics beyond the topics introduced in Modern Physics I. Central topics include the physics of multielectron atoms, molecular structure, fundamentals of statistical physics applied to systems of particles, elementary solidstate physics, applications to semiconductor materials and simple devices, and basic elements of nuclear physics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS315  Experiments in Modern Physics In this course, students perform experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. These include investigations of wave particle duality, and the earliest of quantum mechanical models as well as measurements of fundamental constants. Experiments typically include electron diffraction, the photoelectric effect, optical diffraction and interference, atomic spectroscopy, chargetomass ratio of an electron, and blackbody radiation. This class teaches basic instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 or equivalent course. Students in the PHYSBS program must also complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS316  Advanced Laboratory in Physics In this course, students perform advanced experiments representative of the foundation of modern quantum physics. Experiments typically explore properties of materials, semiconductors, atomic physics, and nuclear decay. This class continues the instruction in instrumentation techniques as well as data reduction and analysis that began in Experiments in Modern Physics, PHYS315. Students are expected to keep a laboratory notebook and present results in a journalstyle paper. (Prerequisites: PHYS214 and PHYS315 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lab 4, Lecture 1 (Spring). 
3 
PHYS320  Mathematical Methods in Physics This course serves as an introduction to the mathematical tools needed to solve intermediate and upperlevel physics problems. Topics include matrix algebra, vector calculus, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations in rectangular coordinates, and an introduction to series solutions of ordinary differential equations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS330  Classical Mechanics This course is a systematic presentation of Newtonian kinematics and dynamics including equations of motion in one and threedimensions, conservation laws, noninertial reference frames, central forces, Lagrangian mechanics, and rigid body motion. This course will use advanced mathematical techniques including differential equations, vector calculus, and matrix and tensor formulations. (Prerequisites: (MATH219 or MATH221) and MATH231 and (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217). Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course. Corequisites: PHYS320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall). 
4 
PHYS411  Electricity and Magnetism This course is a systematic treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics, charges, currents, fields and potentials, dielectrics and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical formalism using differential and integral vector calculus is developed. Field theory is treated in terms of scalar and vector potentials. Special techniques for solution to Laplace's equation as a boundary value problem are covered. Wave solutions of Maxwell's equations, and the behavior of electromagnetic waves at interfaces, are discussed. (Prerequisites: (PHYS209 or PHYS212 or PHYS217) and PHYS320 or equivalent courses. Students in PHYSBS or PHYS2M are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 4 (Spring). 
4 
PHYS450  Capstone Preparation This course is a preparation for the twosemester physics capstone project to be carried out in the following year. It includes selection of a project and faculty mentor, preparation of a feasibility study, preparation of a paper, and a public oral presentation. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) Lecture 1 (Spring). 
1 
General Education  Immersion 1, 2,3 
9  
Open Elective 
3  
Fourth Year  
Choose one of the following:  3 

PHYS414  Quantum Mechanics This course is a study of the concepts and mathematical structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Topics for the course include wave functions and the Schrodinger equation, solutions to the onedimensional and threedimensional timeindependent Schrodinger equation, stationary states and their superposition to produce timedependent states, quantummechanical operators, commutators, and uncertainty principles, solutions to general central potential problems and the hydrogen atom, and the quantum theory of angular momentum. (Prerequisites: PHYS213, PHYS320 and (PHYS330 or 1017402) or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 before taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

PHYS440  Thermal and Statistical Physics This course is an introduction to the principles of classical thermodynamics and its statistical basis, including: equations of state, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, microscopic basis of entropy, temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermodynamic potentials, applications of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and Boltzmann and quantum statistics. (Prerequisites: PHYS213 and MATH231 or equivalent courses. Students in the PHYSBS program are also required to complete PHYS275 prior to taking this course.) Lecture 3 (Fall). 

Choose one of the following:  3 

ISUS702  Fundamentals of Sustainability Science This course prepares students to conduct original research related to sustainable production and consumption systems and apply the scientific method in an integrative, teambased approach to graduate research. This course introduces the fundamental concepts of industrial ecology, ecological economics, ecosystem health and social ecology that are essential to understanding the interaction of industrial and ecological systems. Successful students will understand multiple perspectives on sustainability such as strong and weak formulations, the importance of sustainability as an ethical concept and a lifecycle approach to organizing research related to sustainability. It is a core course within the Sustainability Ph.D. program. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

ISUS706  Economics of Sustainable Systems The goal of this course is to introduce students to economic concepts and analysis pertaining to sustainable systems. This course offers a nontechnical introduction, but based on rigorous economic reasoning. Additionally, a thorough treatment of models relevant to each topic is provided. The overarching goal is for students to gain an appreciation for the logic of economic reasoning while teaching economics as it pertains to sustainable systems. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

ISUS806  Risk Analysis This course examines risk identification, quantification, and management from the standpoint of the three key components of sustainability science (economics, environment, and society). Economic subjects include costbenefit analysis, value of information, time value of money, basic decision analysis, value functions, monetizing challenges for ecosystem services, and sustainability risk management. Environmental subjects include toxicological perspectives such as fate and transport and doseresponse relationships including an overview of EPA's current practice. Policy and societal subjects include utility theory and lotteries, risk perception, ethical issues in risk quantification, and impact statements. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

Choose one of the following:  3 

ISUS704  Industrial Ecology Industrial ecology is the study of the interaction between industrial and ecological systems. Students in this course learn to assess the impact and interrelations of production systems on the natural environment by mastering fundamental concepts of ecology as a metaphor for industrial systems and the resultant tools from industrial ecology, including life cycle assessment, material flow analysis, and energy and greenhouse gas accounting. This is a core course within the Sustainability Ph.D. program. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

ISUS808  Multicriteria Sustainable Systems This class will explore how decisions are made when confronted with multiple, often conflicting, criteria or constraints. The focus will be on the following analytical methods: linear and stochastic programming, optimization, and Monte Carlo simulation. Case studies will focus on sustainability multicriteria problems such as energy planning, sustainable development, resource management, and recycling. Students will apply methods learned to a project involving their dissertation research. Lecture 3 (Spring). 

PUBL810  Technology, Policy and Sustainability (or approved substitute) This course introduces students to public policy and its role in building a sustainable society. The course places particular emphasis on the policy process; the relationship among technology, policy, and the environment; and policy mechanisms for addressing market and government failures that threaten sustainability. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring). 

PHYS451  Capstone Project I In collaboration with faculty mentor(s), students will carry out the first phase of an experimental, theoretical, or computational physics research project, will prepare an interim paper, and will present a short talk on their progress to physics faculty and students. The projects are those planned during the capstone preparatory course taken during the prior Spring semester. (Prerequisites: PHYS450 or equivalent course.) Project 12 (Fall). 
3 
PHYS452  Capstone Project II (WIPR) In collaboration with faculty mentor(s), students will carry out the final phase of an experimental, theoretical, or computational physics research project, will prepare a written paper and present an oral report on their progress to physics faculty and students. The projects are those planned during the capstone preparatory course taken during the prior Spring semester and commenced during the prior Fall semester. (Prerequisites: PHYS451 or equivalent course.) Project 12 (Spring). 
3 
Program Electives 
9  
Open Elective 
3  
Fifth Year  
Choose two of the following:  6 

ISUS702  Fundamentals of Sustainability Science This course prepares students to conduct original research related to sustainable production and consumption systems and apply the scientific method in an integrative, teambased approach to graduate research. This course introduces the fundamental concepts of industrial ecology, ecological economics, ecosystem health and social ecology that are essential to understanding the interaction of industrial and ecological systems. Successful students will understand multiple perspectives on sustainability such as strong and weak formulations, the importance of sustainability as an ethical concept and a lifecycle approach to organizing research related to sustainability. It is a core course within the Sustainability Ph.D. program. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

ISUS706  Economics of Sustainable Systems The goal of this course is to introduce students to economic concepts and analysis pertaining to sustainable systems. This course offers a nontechnical introduction, but based on rigorous economic reasoning. Additionally, a thorough treatment of models relevant to each topic is provided. The overarching goal is for students to gain an appreciation for the logic of economic reasoning while teaching economics as it pertains to sustainable systems. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

ISUS806  Risk Analysis This course examines risk identification, quantification, and management from the standpoint of the three key components of sustainability science (economics, environment, and society). Economic subjects include costbenefit analysis, value of information, time value of money, basic decision analysis, value functions, monetizing challenges for ecosystem services, and sustainability risk management. Environmental subjects include toxicological perspectives such as fate and transport and doseresponse relationships including an overview of EPA's current practice. Policy and societal subjects include utility theory and lotteries, risk perception, ethical issues in risk quantification, and impact statements. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

Choose two of the following:  6 

ISUS704  Industrial Ecology Industrial ecology is the study of the interaction between industrial and ecological systems. Students in this course learn to assess the impact and interrelations of production systems on the natural environment by mastering fundamental concepts of ecology as a metaphor for industrial systems and the resultant tools from industrial ecology, including life cycle assessment, material flow analysis, and energy and greenhouse gas accounting. This is a core course within the Sustainability Ph.D. program. Lecture 3 (Fall). 

ISUS808  Multicriteria Sustainable Systems This class will explore how decisions are made when confronted with multiple, often conflicting, criteria or constraints. The focus will be on the following analytical methods: linear and stochastic programming, optimization, and Monte Carlo simulation. Case studies will focus on sustainability multicriteria problems such as energy planning, sustainable development, resource management, and recycling. Students will apply methods learned to a project involving their dissertation research. Lecture 3 (Spring). 

PUBL810  Technology, Policy and Sustainability (or approved substitute) This course introduces students to public policy and its role in building a sustainable society. The course places particular emphasis on the policy process; the relationship among technology, policy, and the environment; and policy mechanisms for addressing market and government failures that threaten sustainability. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring). 

Choose one of the following:  6 

ISUS780  Graduate Sustainability Capstone An independent project in sustainability serving as a capstone experience for students completing the nonthesis option. This course requires a formal proposal and a faculty sponsor. Lecture (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

ISUS790  Thesis Independent research in sustainability leading to the completion of the MS thesis. This course requires a formal proposal and a faculty sponsor. Thesis (Fall, Spring, Summer). 

Approved Sustainability Electives 
6  
Total Semester Credit Hours  148 
Please see General Education Curriculum (GE) for more information.
(WI) Refers to a writing intensive course within the major.
Please see Wellness Education Requirement for more information. Students completing bachelor's degrees are required to complete two different Wellness courses.
‡ Please see academic advisor for a list of PHYS Lab/Computational Physics Electives.
Admissions and Financial Aid
This program is STEM designated when studying on campus and full time.
FirstYear Admission
A strong performance in a college preparatory program is expected. This includes:
 4 years of English
 3 years of social studies and/or history
 4 years of mathematics is required and must include algebra, geometry, algebra 2/trigonometry, and precalculus. Calculus is preferred.
 3 years of science is required and must include physics.
Transfer Admission
Transfer course recommendations without associate degree
Courses in calculus or higher mathematics, college chemistry, calculusbased physics, and liberal arts
Appropriate associate degree programs for transfer
No common program available
Financial Aid and Scholarships
100% of all incoming firstyear and transfer students receive aid.
RIT’s personalized and comprehensive financial aid program includes scholarships, grants, loans, and campus employment programs. When all these are put to work, your actual cost may be much lower than the published estimated cost of attendance.
Learn more about financial aid and scholarships
Research
Undergraduate Physics Research Opportunities
Many undergraduate physics majors join research labs and engage in research starting as early as their first year. Participation in undergraduate physics research leads to the development of realworld skills, enhanced problemsolving techniques, and broader career opportunities. Students have opportunities to travel to national conferences for presentations and also become contributing authors on peerreviewed manuscripts. Explore RIT's physics undergraduate research.
Latest News

February 7, 2024
NASA, RIT Center for Detectors partner to help future spacecraft survive longer, harsher missions
RIT's Center for Detectors has been chosen by NASA for two research programs: Early Stage Innovations (ESI) and Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT), with the hope of helping future spacecraft find new discoveries in the vast universe.

November 13, 2023
Astrophysicist uses NSF funding to grow the number of deaf, hardofhearing, and Hispanic researchers
Astrophysicist Jason Nordhaus is breaking cultural and disciplinary boundaries by helping to grow the number of deaf, hardofhearing, and Hispanic researchers. And, in doing so, he is enabling these future scientists to drive discoveries in one of his areas of expertise—neutron star astrophysics.

August 2, 2023
RIT Launch Initiative team soars to first competition win in Spaceport America Cup 2023
RIT’s Launch Initiative won first place in the Space Dynamics Laboratory Payload Challenge this summer in Las Cruces, N.M. They were among nearly 6,000 students from 159 international collegiate teams at the annual competition that challenges students to launch solid, liquid, or hybrid rockets to altitudes of 10,000 and 30,000 feet.