Mark Fairchild Headshot

Mark Fairchild

Head of the Integrated Sciences Academy
Integrated Sciences Academy
College of Science
Professor
Director, Program of Color Science / Munsell Color Science Laboratory

585-475-2784
Office Hours
E-Mail for Appointment
Office Location
Office Mailing Address
Munsell Color Science Laboratory Rochester Institute of Technology One Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14

Mark Fairchild

Head of the Integrated Sciences Academy
Integrated Sciences Academy
College of Science
Professor
Director, Program of Color Science / Munsell Color Science Laboratory

Education

BS, MS, Rochester Institute of Technology; MA, Ph.D., University of Rochester

Bio

Dr. Fairchild has been a faculty member in the Program of Color Science / Munsell Color Science Laboratory since 1986 and achieved the rank of Professor in 1999. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in Imaging Science from R.I.T. and Ph.D. in Vision Science from the University of Rochester. He also serves as the Director of the Ph.D. Program of Color Science and Munsell Color Science Laboratory, roles he held from 1996-2007 and 2013-present. He is author or co-author of over 300 technical publications in color and imaging sciences and the books, Color Appearance Models, 3rd Ed. (2013), which serves as a reference to the fundamentals of color appearance and the formulation of specific models and the Handbook of Color Psychology (2015) as well as 3 websites related to color and science education. He has received 8 best-paper awards from various conferences. He has supervised the graduate research of 59 M.S. or Ph.D. students.

Mark has been actively involved in externally-sponsored research at RIT for over 30 years, working with both corporate and government sponsors. He has taught a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate courses in imaging and color science. His current research interests include studies of individual differences in color perception, system and visual performance for high-dynamic-range, wide-color-gamut, displays along with the measurement and modeling of color appearance in wine. He served as Color Imaging Editor for IS&T’s Journal of Imaging Science and Technology for 3 years and was named a Fellow of IS&T (the Society for Imaging Science and Technology) in 2003 for his contributions to digital color imaging. Mark was presented with the 1995 Bartleson Award by the Colour Group (Great Britain) and the 2002 Macbeth Award by the Inter-Society Color Council for his research work in color appearance and other areas of color science.

In 2007, Mark was presented with the Davies Medal by the Royal Photographic Society for his contributions to photography in the digital field of imaging science. He received the 2008 IS&T Raymond C. Bowman award for excellence in imaging education. In 2010 he was named Senior Member and in 2012 Fellow of OSA (The Optical Society). Also in 2012 he also received the Science Divulgation Award from the University of Granada for his work to bring science concepts to children through concepts of color. He was chair of CIE Technical Committee 1-34 on color appearance models, is currently participating in several other CIE technical committees dealing with color appearance and image technology issues. Mark is an active member of IS&T, ISCC, CORM, CIE-USA, OSA, SID, and ACM-SIGGRAPH.

As Founding Head of the Integrated Sciences Academy in RIT's College of Science, his role is to facilitate the growth and strengthening of the college's multidisciplinary academic and research programs, Color Science amongst them.

Currently Teaching

CLRS-791
0 Credits
Continuation of Thesis
CLRS-790
1 - 6 Credits
Masters-level research by the candidate on an appropriate topic as arranged between the candidate and the research advisor.
CLRS-890
1 - 6 Credits
Masters-level research by the candidate on an appropriate topic as arranged between the candidate and the research advisor.
CLRS-891
0 Credits
Continuation of Thesis
CLRS-820
3 Credits
This course presents the transition from the measurement of color matches and differences to the description and measurement of color appearance in complex visual stimuli. This seminar course is based mainly on review and student-led discussion of primary references. Topics include: appearance terminology, appearance phenomena, viewing conditions, chromatic adaptation, color appearance modeling, image appearance, image quality, and material appearance.
CLRS-699
0 Credits
Cooperative work experience for graduate color science students.

Latest News

Select Scholarship

Journal Paper
Fairchild, M.D. "The Colors of Wine." International Journal of Wine Research 10. (2018): 13-31. Web.
Morillas, S. and M.D. Fairchild. "Using Supra Threshold Color-difference Ellipsoids to Estimate any Perceptual Color-difference." Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 55. (2018): 142-148. Print.
Cai, S. and M.D. Fairchild. "Bidirectional Individual Corresponding Colors Data." Color Research and Application 43. (2018): 643-654. Web.
Amiri, M.M. and M.D. Fairchild. "A Strategy Towards Spectral and Colorimetric Color Reproduction Using Ordinary Digital Cameras." Color Research and Application 43. (2018): 675-684. Web.
Fairchild, M.D. "Unique Hues & Principal Hues." Color Research and Application 43. (2018): 804-809. Web.
Robinson, A. and M.D. Fairchild. "Recreating the Munsell Crayon Color Spectrum." Color Research and Application 43. (2018): 811-814. Web.
Murdoch, M.J. and M.D. Fairchild. "Modeling the Effects of Inter-Observer Variation on Color Rendition." Lighting Research and Technology 49. (2017): 1-18. Print.
Amiri, M.M. and M.D. Fairchild. "Use of Spectral Sensitivity Variability in Reflectance Recovery from Colorimetric Information." Journal of the Optical Society of America A 34. (2017): 1224-1235. Print.
Fairchild, Mark and Rodney Heckaman. "Measuring Observer Metamerism: The Nimeroff Approach." Color Research and Application 41. (2016): 115-124. Print.
Asano, Yuta, Mark Fairchild, and Laurent Blondé. "Individual Colorimetric Observer Model." PLOS ONE 11. (2016): e0145671. Web.
Long, David and Mark Fairchild. "Observer Metamerism Models and Multiprimary Display Systems." SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal 125. (2016): 18-29. Print.
Asano, Yuta, Mark Fairchild, and Laurent Blondé. "Color Matching Experiment for Highlighting Inter-observer Variability." Color Research and Application 41. (2016): 530-539. Print.
Melgosa, M., et al. "What can we learn from a dress with ambiguous colors?" Color Research and Application 40. (2015): 525-529. Print.
Fairchild, M.D. "Seeing, adapting to, and reproducing the appearance of nature." Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics 10. 3 (2015): 1-10. Web.
Fairchild, M.D. "Seeing, adapting to, and reproducing the appearance of nature." Applied Optics 54. (2015): B107-B116. Print.
Long, D.L. and M.D. Fairchild. "Modeling Observer Variability and Metamerism Failure in Electronic Color Displays." Journal of Imaging Science & Technology 58. (2014): 1-14. Print.
Cao, R., et al. "Scaling Perceived Saturation." Journal of the Optical Society of America A 31. (2014): 1773-1781. Print.
Farnand, S. and M.D. Fairchild. "Designing Pictorial Stimuli for Perceptual Experiments." Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics 9. (2014): 1-6. Web.
Farnand, S. and M.D. Fairchild. "Designing Pictorial Stimuli for Perceptual Experiments." Applied Optics 53. (2014): C72-C78. Print.
Masaoka, K., et al. "The Number of Discernible Object Colors is a Conundrum." Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics 8. 3 (2013) Web.
Masaoka, K., et al. "The Number of Discernible Object Colors is a Conundrum." Journal of the Optical Society of America A 30. (2013): 264-277. Print.
Heckaman, Rodney L. and Mark D. Fairchild. "Brighter, More Colorful Colors and Darker, Deeper Colors Based on a Theme of Brilliance." Color Research and Application 36. (2011): 255-265. Print.
Published Conference Proceedings
Masaoka, K., et al. "2D representation of Display color Gamut." Proceedings of the SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers. Ed. SID. San Diego, CA: n.p., Print.
Jiang, F., M.D. Fairchild, and K. Masaoka. "Estimation of HDR WCG Display Color Gamut Volume." Proceedings of the IS&T 26th Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. Vancouver, BC: n.p., 2018. Web.
Zhou, Zhen, et al. "Observer Calibrator for Color Vision Research." Proceedings of the IS&T Electronic Imaging 2017 Conference. Ed. IS&T. San Francisco, CA: IS&T, 2017. Print.
Fairchild, Mark. "From Photon to Brain: The Perception of a Color." Proceedings of the IS&T 24th Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. San Diego, CA: n.p., 2016. Print.
Cai, Shengyan and Mark Fairchild. "Individual Corresponding Colors Data and Chromatic Adaptation Transform." Proceedings of the IS&T 24th Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. San Diego, CA: n.p., 2016. Print.
Murdoch, Michael and Mark Fairchild. "Effects of Inter-observer Variation on Color Rendering Metrics." Proceedings of the IS&T 24th Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. San Diego, CA: n.p., 2016. Print.
Fairchild, Mark. "Individual Differences in Color Matching and Adaptation: Theory and Practice." Proceedings of the IS&T 24th Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. San Diego, CA: n.p., 2016. Print.
Long, D.L. and M.D. Fairchild. "Observer metamerism models and multiprimary display systems." Proceedings of the SMPTE Annual Technical Conference. Ed. SMPTE. Hollywood, CA: SMPTE, Print.
Fairchild, M.D. and Y. Asano. "Custom color matching functions: Extending the CIE 2006 model." Proceedings of the The 10th Biennual Joint CNC/CIE and CIE/USA Technical Conference. Ed. CIE. Toronto, ON: CIE, Print.
Asano, Y., M.D. Fairchild, and L. Blondé. "Spectral pseudoisochormatic images: Vision test for color-normal observers." Proceedings of the AIC2015 / MCS 2015. Ed. AIC. Tokyo, JP: AIC, Print.
Long, D.L. and M.D. Fairchild. "Reducing observer metamerism in wide-gamut multiprimary displays." Proceedings of the SPIE/IS&T Electronic Imaging Conference. Ed. SPIE. San Francisco, CA: SPIE, Print.
Herranz, A. Forés, M.D. Fairchild, and I. Tastl. "An abridged goniometer for material appearance measurements." Proceedings of the SPIE/IS&T Electronic Imaging Conference. Ed. SPIE. San Francisco, CA: SPIE, Print.
Sisson, C.P., et al. "Analysis of Color Consistency in Retinal Fundus Photography: Application of Color Management and Development of an Eye Model Standard." Proceedings of the Analytical Cellular Pathology. Ed. Unknown. Boston, MA: n.p., 2014. Print.
Long, D.L. and M.D. Fairchild. "Modeling Observer Variability and Metamerism Failure in Electronic Color Displays." Proceedings of the IS&T 22nd Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. Boston, MA: IS&T, 2014. Print.
Asano, Y., et al. "Observer Variability in Image Color Matching on an LCD Monitor and a Laser Projector." Proceedings of the IS&T 22nd Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. Boston, MA: IS&T, 2014. Print.
Fores-Herranz, A., M.D. Fairchild, and I. Tastl. "Improving the Perceptual Uniformity of a Gloss Space." Proceedings of the IS&T 22nd Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. Boston, MA: IS&T, 2014. Print.
Asano, Y., M.D. Fairchild, and L. Blondé. "Development of a Vision Model for Individual Colorimetric Observers." Proceedings of the OSA Fall Vision Meeting. Ed. OSA. Philadelphia, PA: OSA, 2014. Web.
Fores-Herranz, A., M.D. Fairchild, and I. Tastl. "Perceptual Gloss Space BRDF Projection, Uniformity Validation, and Lightness Distance Metric." Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception. Ed. ACM. Vancouver, BC: ACM, 2014. Print.
Asano, Y., et al. "Multiple Color Matches to Estimate Human Color Vision Sensitivities." Proceedings of the International Conference on Image and Signal Processing. Ed. Unknown. Cherbourg, FR: n.p., 2014. Print.
Preiss, J., et al. "Gamut Mapping in a High-dynamic-range Color Space." Proceedings of the SPIE/IS&T Electronic Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. San Francisco, CA: IST, 2014. Print.
Fairchild, Mark D. "Gamut Mapping in a High-dynamic Range Color Space." Proceedings of the SPIE Electronic Imaging ’14. SPIE, 2014. Print.
Farnand, S. and M.D. Fairchild. "Evaluating Complexity in Photographic Images Using Perceptual, Eye-tracking, and Segmentation Methods." Proceedings of the AIC Colour 2013. Ed. AIC. Newcastle, England: AIC, Print.
Asano, Y., M.D. Fairchild, and L. Blondé. "Observer Variability Experiment Using a Four-primary Display." Proceedings of the AIC Colour 2013. Ed. AIC. Newcastle, England: AIC, Print.
Melgosa, M. and M.D. Fairchild. "Inspiring Future Experimental Scientists Through Questions Related to Colour." Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Education and Training in Optics & Photonics. Ed. ETPO. Porto, Portugal: ETPO, 2013. Print.
Fairchild, M.D. "Seeing, Adapting to, and Reproducing the Appearance of Nature." Proceedings of the OSA International Conference on Light and Color in Nature. Ed. OSA. Fairbanks, Alaska: OSA, 2013. Print.
Asano, Y. and M.D. Fairchild. "Observer Variability Experiment Using a Four-primary Display." Proceedings of the IS&T 21st Color & Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. Albuquerque, NM: IS&T, 2013. Print.
Fairchild, M.D. and R.L. Heckaman. "Metameric Obervers: A Monte Carlo approach." Proceedings of the IS&T 21st Color & Imaging Conference, Albuquerque. Ed. IS&T. Albuquerque, NM: IS&T, 2013. Print.
Fairchild, Mark D. and Rodney L. Heckaman. "Deriving appearance scales." Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 20th Color and Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. Los Angeles, CA: n.p., 2012. Print.
Masaoka, K., et al. "The Number of Discernible Object Colors is Unknown." Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 20th Color and Imaging Conference. Ed. IS&T. Los Angeles, CA: n.p., 2012. Print.
Kinsman, Thomas, Mark D. Fairchild, and J.B. Pelz. "Color is Not a Metric Space: Implications for Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning, and Computer Vision." Proceedings of the IEEE-IS&T Western NY Image Processing Workshop. Ed. IEEE. Rochester, NY: n.p., 2012. Print.
Farnand, Susan and Mark D. Fairchild. "The Effect of Experimental Instructions on the Number of Areas Identified as Important in Photographic Images." Proceedings of the IS&T 6th CGIV Proceedings. Ed. IS&T. Amsterdam, Netherlands: n.p., 2012. Print.
Masaoka, Kenichiro, et al. "The Number of Discernible Object Colors is Unknown." Proceedings of the 20th Color Imaging Conference. Los Angeles, California: n.p., 2012. Print.
Fairchild, Mark D. and Ping-Hsu Chen. "Brightness, Lightness, and Specifying Color in High-dynamic-range Scenes and Images." Proceedings of the Digital Imaging Sensors and Applications. San Francisco, CA: n.p., 2011. Print.
Long, David L. and Mark D. Fairchild. "Optimizing Spectral Color Reproduction in Multiprimary Digital Projection." Proceedings of the IS&T/SID 19th Color Imaging Conference. San Jose, CA: n.p., 2011. Print.
Li, Hao, Mark D. Fairchild, and Anne Webster. "Appearance-based Primary Design for Displays." Proceedings of the 19th Color and Imaging Conference. San Jose, CA: n.p., 2011. Print.
Peer Reviewed/Juried Poster Presentation
Robinson, A. and M.D. Fairchild. "Recreating the Munsell Color Crayon Color Spectrum." Proceedings of the ISCC-AIC Munsell Centennial Color Symposium. Ed. ISCC. Boston, MA: n.p..
Morillas, S. and M.D. Fairchild. "A Supra Threshold Color-difference Ellipsoids Hybrid Model for Color Differences." Proceedings of the ISCC-AIC Munsell Centennial Color Symposium. Ed. ISCC. Boston, MA: n.p..
Invited Keynote/Presentation
Fairchild, M.D. "Munsell’s Legacy: Foundation and Laboratory." ISCC-AIC Munsell Centennial Color Symposium. ISCC. Boston, MA. 15 Jun. 2018. Keynote Speech.
Fairchild, M.D. "One Wine Many Colors." IS&T 26th Color & Imaging Conference. IS&T. Vancouver, BC. 16 Nov. 2018. Keynote Speech.
Fairchild, M.D. "Color scales." X National Congress of Color. Spanish Color Committee. Valencia, Spain. 27 Jun. 2013. Keynote Speech.
Fairchild, M.D. "Hard-core Panel: Non-convexity of the Spectrum Locus: A Crime Against Color Order? How Guilty is Human Vision?" IS&T 21st Color & Imaging Conference. IS&T. Albuquerque, NM. 8 Dec. 2103. Conference Presentation.
Fairchild, Mark D. "Progress and Poverty: an Inquiry into Color Appearance Modeling and Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth." IS&T/SID 20th Color and Imaging Conference. IS&T. Los Angeles, CA. 16 Nov. 2012. Keynote Speech.
Shows/Exhibits/Installations
Fairchild, M.D. Opponency - Red Spruce Cone Bud. n.d. Munsell Symposium, Boston. Exhibit.
Invited Paper
Fairchild, M.D. "Individual Differences in Color Matching & Adaptation and Illumination." OSA Fall Vision Meeting. (2017). Web.
Fairchild, M.D. "Color Perception: Contexts and Individuals." American Glass Guild Proceedings. (2017). Print.
Invited Article/Publication
Fairchild, Mark. "Individual Differences in Color Matching and Adaptation: Importance in Lighting." Light + Color: IES Research Symposium III. (2016). Print.
Fairchild, M.D., A.M. Tourapis, and D. Singer. "New High Dynamic Range Content Based on Still Imagery." ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG2014/mXXXX. (2014). Web.
Fairchild, M.D. "The Value of Colorfulness, Brilliance, and Similarity." LD+A. (2014). Print.
Book Chapter
Fairchild, Mark. "Joseph William Lovibond." Encyclopedia of Color Science & Technology. London, UK: Springer, 2016. 1-1. Print.
Published Review
Fairchild, Mark. "Spotlight Summary of “Method to Determine Degrees of Consistency in Experimental Datasets of Perceptual Color Differences”." Rev. of Method to Determine Degrees of Consistency in Experimental Datasets of Perceptual Color Differences, ed. OSA. OSA Spotlight on Optics 2016: 1-1. Web.
Full Length Book
Elliott, A., M.D. Fairchild, and A. Franklin. Handbook of Color Psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Print.
Fairchild, Mark D. The Color Curiosity Shop. Honeoye Falls, NY: MDF Publications, 2011. Print.
Published Article
Kuang, J., R.L. Heckaman, and M.D. Fairchild. “Evaluation of HDR tone mapping algorithms using a high-dynamic-range display to emulate realscenes.” Journal of the Society of Information Display, 18 (2010): 461-468. Print. £
Katayama, andM.D. Fairchild. “Quantitative evaluation ofperceived whiteness based on a color vision model.” Color Research and Application, 35 (2010): 410-418. Print. £
Johnson, G.M., X. Song, E.D. Montag and M.D. Fairchild, M.D. “Derivation of a color space for image color difference measurement.” Color Research and Application, 35 (2010): 387-400. Print. £
Fairchild, M.D. “Color appearance models and complex visual stimuli.” Journal of Dentistry, 38.s2 (2010): e25-e33. Print. £
Fairchild, M.D., and D.R. Wyble. “hdr-CIELAB and hdr-IPT: Simple Models for Describing the Color of High-Dynamic-Range and Wide-Color-Gamut Images.” IS&T/SID, IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference, 2010. n.p. Print.
Chen, P., M.D. Fairchild, and R.S. Berns. “Scalinglightness perception and differences above and below diffuse white.” IS&T/SID, 18th Color Imaging Conference, 2010. 42-48. Print. †
Fairchild, M.D.,”Stimulating future color imagingscientists and engineers.” IS&T/SID, 18thColor Imaging Conference, 2010. 38-41. Print.
Fairchild, M.D., “Still photography throwdown: Silver halide vs. silicon.” IS&T/SID, 18th Color Imaging Conference, 2010. n.p. Print.
Fairchild, M.D.,“Theperceptibility of video artifacts: A perspective from color science.” VPQM, 5th International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics, 2010. n.p. Print.