The DRS was developed by RIT-RISE based on the National Pre-Doctoral Association's list of core professional and scientific competencies to be used to guide postdoctoral training and was modified for undergraduate trainees. The DRS is used as a formative evaluation measure used to track trainee progress towards development of these competencies:
The DRS contains 41 items. Trainees self-rate each item, and each mentor rates their trainee(s) on the same items. The results of the DRS generate a report that informs the development of each Trainee's Individual Development Plan and to stimulate discussion guiding trainees to and through applications to doctoral programs in their final year.
Doctoral Readiness Scales (DRS)
Targeted Core Competencies to be trained and Expected Outcomes by RIT U-RISE modified from the National Post-Doctoral Association Core Competencies (2021) to meet the unique needs of DHH undergraduates.
Career Awareness - Understand scope of biomedical, biobehavioral and clinical research and career options.
Responsible Conduct of Research - Demonstrate knowledge of lab safety; awareness of government and institutional research regulatory policies; ethical protection of human subjects and the welfare of animals; ethical responsibility to colleagues and the profession.
The Scientific Method - Demonstrate knowledge of how to critically evaluate scientific literature, form a research questions, construct hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, analyze data; draw scientific conclusions, revise hypotheses; ensure rigor and reproducibility of results; communicate results. Biomedical, Biobehavioral, and Clinical Research Methods - Understand and apply common discipline-specific research methods: e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental, and correlational designs; field studies; qualitative and quantitative research methods; biological and chemical laboratory techniques; statistical methods & traditions; specialized software; data visualization and archiving.
Research Culture and Public Good - Understand and display collegiality, responsible data sharing, open access to scientific information; team-science principles (collaborative research to address complex problems); effective mentor-trainee relationships, community engagement in research (e.g., community-based participatory research).
Professional and Scientific Communication - Demonstrate effective scientific communication; oral, poster, and panel presentation best practices; proficiency in scientific writing (professional style guidelines, manuscript preparation checklists, journal submission letters, grant writing, responding to reviewers), managing professional communication for diverse audiences; principles of team authorship; effective participation and networking in scientific conventions and conferences.
Professional Development - Apply strategies and skills for working with interpreters in intramural and extramural lab environments; working with individuals from diverse backgrounds; conflict resolution; working in new professional environments; assessing own progress towards meeting graduate school expectations; and preparing graduate school applications and personal statements.
Self-Efficacy - Develop effective psychological resilience strategies, e.g., self-advocacy, self-confidence, and self-efficacy; time and stress management; coping with working in hearing environments; coping with REU/SRE and graduate school applications. Build science identity as a scientist-in-training and future DHH scientist role model. Enhance self-promotion skills e.g., writing an effective resume/CV. Develop skills and strategies for giving effective application interviews.
Test-taking & Interviews - Develop effective study strategies; test anxiety repair strategies; strategies for preparing to take the GRE, strategies for giving effective application interviews.
Leadership - Develop professional and scientific leadership skills.
Sample DRS shows sample scores on a rating scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) from a Ms. Trainee and Dr. Mentor for a variety of items related to the ten core competencies. An average score is generated for each competency for both the Trainee and Mentor in a summary chart. A graph comparing Trainee and Mentor scores visually represents the same average summary information.
The CASS were developed by the RIT-RISE Professional communication and Training Team through evaluation of Trainees in various research environments. The team works collaboratively with trainees and mentors to provide consultation and recommend best-practice strategies, services, and technology to ensure optimized communication access. These scales are used routinely to help determine Trainee communication access needs and preferences in their specific research environments.
Sample CASS shows sample self-ratings of a variety of communication access preferences on a scale which includes different qualitative rating scales (1: never, rarely, sometimes, often, very often; 2: not important, slightly important, moderately important, very important, extremely important; and 3: strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree).
The Deaf Mentoring Survey was developed and psychometrically validated by Braun, et al. as a measure of the several constructs of capital shown across six domains:
The Deaf Mentoring Survey is used to stimulate discussion and inform individual planning for Trainees as well as identifying options for continued mentor cultural competency training.
Braun, D. C., Gormally, C., & Clark, M. D. (2017). The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A community cultural wealth framework for measuring mentoring effectiveness with underrepresented students. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 16(1). doi:10.1187/cbe.15-07-0155
Deaf mentoring survey items by Capital Assessed.
Capital Assessed: Academic/discipline
[Name] helped me better understand science communication (e.g., poster presentations, platform presentations, authorship, grant applications, and peer review).
I felt like I had full access to academic knowledge.
[Name] increased my knowledge of my discipline.
[Name] taught me how to work independently.
[Name] taught me how to use the tools, techniques, and methods of my field.
[Name] exposed me to the everyday life of a scientist.
[Name] helped me improve my science writing skills. Capital Assessed: Social
I had a good professional relationship with [Name].
I felt comfortable discussing personal things with [Name].
[Name] encouraged me to meet other people working in my field.
[Name] encouraged me to meet other people working in my field.
I had no problems communicating with others in [Name’s] lab.
I was included in conversations in this lab.
Name] and I have stayed in touch, or will stay in touch with one another for many years. Capital Assessed: Navigational
[Name] made sure my communication needs were met.
I received all the accommodations I needed.
[Name] gave me career advice.
[Name] taught me how to ask for the accommodations I need now and in the future (e.g., at professional meetings, in graduate programs, etc.).
[Name] discussed with me how to work with interpreters or real-time captioning (CART).
Capital Assessed: Aspirational
[Name] challenged me to try new things.
[Name] helped my confidence.
[Name] gave me a role model(s) to look up to.
[Name] taught me how to be successful in science.
I was exposed to deaf scientists while in [Name’s] lab.
[Name] helped me to see myself as a scientist. Capital Assessed: Community
[Name] encouraged me to have deaf friends.
[Name] encouraged me to participate in the deaf community.
[Name] encouraged me to balance work and life.
[Name] had a positive attitude about ASL.
[Name] was aware that deaf people are often stronger in one language than another. Capital Assessed: Resistance
[Name] encouraged me to stand up for myself.
[Name] had a positive attitude about deaf people.
[Name] thought it was important that my coworkers understand Deaf culture.
[Name] thought that hearing people should meet deaf people halfway.
[Name] thought that deaf people shouldn’t need to work any harder than hearing people.
The Working Together: Deaf & Hearing People online course is an approximately 2-hour course designed to help employers develop the sensitivity and skills to communicate effectively with deaf and hard-of-hearing employees, enable deaf and hearing colleagues to work together more productively, and assist in fostering a workplace culture of diversity and inclusion. The five self-paced modules in the course cover topics on Myths and Definitions, Hearing Loss, Deaf Culture, Communication, and Accommodation and Inclusion in the Workplace. This information can benefit employers, co-workers, HR business leaders, and other inclusion/diversity professionals.
The RISE Mentor Training Team is currently developing a series of training modules to orient mentors of deaf and hard-of-hearing scientists to various considerations of access and equity in traditional classroom, virtual classroom, and research lab environments. Check back soon for more!
Teach2Connect is intended to provide instructors with classroom teaching strategies that foster collaborative learning among deaf, hard-of-hearing, and hearing students. Additionally, this site provides valuable resources to assist faculty in finding answers to questions they might have when working with deaf and hard-of-hearing students in and outside of the classroom.