# Mathematics Minor

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## Overview

The mathematics minor is designed for students who want to learn new skills and develop new ways of framing and solving problems. It offers students the opportunity to explore connections among mathematical ideas and to further develop mathematical ways of thinking.

• This minor is closed to students majoring in applied mathematics or computational mathematics.
• Posting of the minor on the student's academic transcript requires a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the minor.
• Notations may appear in the curriculum chart below outlining pre-requisites, co-requisites, and other curriculum requirements (see footnotes).

The plan code for Mathematics Minor is MATH-MN.

## Curriculum for Mathematics Minor

Course
Prerequisites
Students must complete:
MATH-181
Project-Based Calculus I
This is the first in a two-course sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers functions, limits, continuity, the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of the derivative, Riemann sums, definite integrals, and indefinite integrals. (Prerequisite: A- or better in MATH-111 or A- or better in ((NMTH-260 or NMTH-272 or NMTH-275) and NMTH-220) or a math placement exam score greater than or equal to 70 or department permission to enroll in this class.) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).
or

MATH-181A
Calculus I
or both the following
MATH-171
Calculus A
This is the first course in a three-course sequence (COS-MATH-171, -172, -173). This course includes a study of functions, continuity, and differentiability. The study of functions includes the exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions. Limits of functions are used to study continuity and differentiability. The study of the derivative includes the definition, basic rules, and implicit differentiation. Applications of the derivative include optimization and related-rates problems. (Prerequisite: C- or better in MATH-111 or C- or better in ((NMTH-260 or NMTH-272 or NMTH-275) and NMTH-220) or a math placement exam score greater than or equal to 50.) Lecture 5 (Fall, Spring).
MATH-172
Calculus B
This is the second course in three-course sequence (COS-MATH-171, -172, -173). The course includes Riemann sums, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, techniques of integration, and applications of the definite integral. The techniques of integration include substitution and integration by parts. The applications of the definite integral include areas between curves, and the calculation of volume. (Prerequisites: C- or better in MATH-171 or 1016-171T or 1016-281 or 1016-231 or equivalent course.) Lecture 5 (Fall, Spring).
plus one of the following
MATH-182
Project-Based Calculus II (or equivalent)
This is the second in a two-course sequence intended for students majoring in mathematics, science, or engineering. It emphasizes the understanding of concepts, and using them to solve physical problems. The course covers techniques of integration including integration by parts, partial fractions, improper integrals, applications of integration, representing functions by infinite series, convergence and divergence of series, parametric curves, and polar coordinates. (Prerequisites: C- or better in (MATH-181 or MATH-173 or 1016-282) or (MATH-171 and MATH-180) or equivalent course(s).) Lecture 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).
MATH-190
Discrete Mathematics for Computing
This course introduces students to ideas and techniques from discrete mathematics that are widely used in Computer Science. Students will learn about the fundamentals of propositional and predicate calculus, set theory, relations, recursive structures and counting. This course will help increase students’ mathematical sophistication and their ability to handle abstract problems. (Co-requisites: MATH-182 or MATH-182A or MATH-172 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).
MATH-200
Discrete Mathematics and Introduction to Proofs
This course prepares students for professions that use mathematics in daily practice, and for mathematics courses beyond the introductory level where it is essential to communicate effectively in the language of mathematics. It covers various methods of mathematical proof, starting with basic techniques in propositional and predicate calculus and set theory, and then moving to applications in advanced mathematics. (Prerequisite: MATH-173 or MATH-182 or MATH-182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3, Recitation 4 (Fall).
Electives
Choose five of the following, with at least one course from Group II, at least two courses must be at the 300-level or higher, and at least three courses must not be required by the student's major:
Group I
MATH-219
Multivariable Calculus*
This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes the study of vectors, vector-valued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and includes applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH-221. (Prerequisite: C- or better MATH-173 or MATH-182 or MATH-182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).
MATH-221
Multivariable and Vector Calculus*
This course is principally a study of the calculus of functions of two or more variables, but also includes a study of vectors, vector-valued functions and their derivatives. The course covers limits, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, Stokes' Theorem, Green's Theorem, the Divergence Theorem, and applications in physics. Credit cannot be granted for both this course and MATH-219. (Prerequisite: C- or better MATH-173 or MATH-182 or MATH-182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall, Spring, Summer).
MATH-221H
Honors Multivariable and Vector Calculus*
MATH-231
Differential Equations†
This course is an introduction to the study of ordinary differential equations and their applications. Topics include solutions to first order equations and linear second order equations, method of undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, linear independence and the Wronskian, vibrating systems, and Laplace transforms. (Prerequisite: MATH-173 or MATH-182 or MATH-182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).
MATH-233
Linear Systems and Differential Equations†
This is an introductory course in linear algebra and ordinary differential equations in which a scientific computing package is used to clarify mathematical concepts, visualize problems, and work with large systems. The course covers matrix algebra, the basic notions and techniques of ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients, and the physical situation in which they arise. (Prerequisites: MATH-172 or MATH-182 or MATH-182A and students in CHEM-BS or CHEM-BS/MS or ISEE-BS programs.) Lecture 4 (Spring).
MATH-241
Linear Algebra‡
This course is an introduction to the basic concepts of linear algebra, and techniques of matrix manipulation. Topics include linear transformations, Gaussian elimination, matrix arithmetic, determinants, vector spaces, linear independence, basis, null space, row space, and column space of a matrix, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, change of basis, similarity and diagonalization. Various applications are studied throughout the course. (Prerequisites: MATH-190 or MATH-200 or MATH-219 or MATH-220 or MATH-221 or MATH-221H or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).
MATH-241H
Honors Linear Algebra‡
MATH-251
Probability and Statistics I
This course introduces sample spaces and events, axioms of probability, counting techniques, conditional probability and independence, distributions of discrete and continuous random variables, joint distributions (discrete and continuous), the central limit theorem, descriptive statistics, interval estimation, and applications of probability and statistics to real-world problems. A statistical package such as Minitab or R is used for data analysis and statistical applications. (Prerequisites: MATH-173 or MATH-182 or MATH 182A or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).
MATH-311
Linear Optimization
This course presents the general linear programming problem. Topics include a review of pertinent matrix theory, convex sets and systems of linear inequalities, the simplex method of solution, artificial bases, duality, parametric programming, and applications. (Prerequisites: MATH-241 or MATH-241H or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-312
Nonlinear Optimization
This course provides a study of the theory of optimization of non-linear functions of several variables with or without constraints. Applications of this theory in business, management, engineering and the sciences are considered. Algorithms for practical applications will be analyzed and implemented. The course may require the use of specialized software to analyze problems. Students taking this course will be expected to complete applied projects and/or case studies. (Prerequisites: (MATH-219 or MATH-221 or MATH-221H) and MATH-311 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-321
Game Theory
This course introduces solution techniques and applications of Game Theory. Topics include game trees, matrix games, linear inequalities, convex sets, the minimax theorem, and n-person games. (Prerequisites: MATH-241 or MATH-241H or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-326
Boundary Value Problems
This course provides an introduction to boundary value problems. Topics include Fourier series, separation of variables, Laplace's equation, the heat equation, and the wave equation in Cartesian and polar coordinate systems. (Prerequisites: (MATH-231 or MATH-233) and (MATH-219 or MATH-221) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).
MATH-331
Dynamical Systems
The course revisits the equations of spring-mass system, RLC circuits, and pendulum systems in order to view and interpret the phase space representations of these dynamical systems. The course begins with linear systems followed by a study of the stability analysis of nonlinear systems. Matrix techniques are introduced to study higher order systems. The Lorentz equation will be studied to introduce the concept of chaotic solutions. (Prerequisites: (MATH-231 and (MATH-241 or MATH-241H)) or MATH-233 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-361
Combinatorics
This course introduces the mathematical theory of enumeration of discrete structures. Topics include enumeration, combinatorial proofs, recursion, inclusion-exclusion, and generating functions. (Prerequisites: MATH-190 or MATH-200 or 1055-265 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-367
Codes and Ciphers
This course will introduce, explain and employ the basic techniques of cryptography, both classical and modern. Topics will include the Vignere cipher, affine ciphers, Hill ciphers, one-time pad encryption, Enigma, cryptosystems such as DES (Data Encryption Standard) and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), public key encryption scheme (RSA), and hash functions. The course will include an introduction to number theoretic tools used in cryptography. (Prerequisites: MATH-190 or MATH-200 or 1055-265 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-381
Complex Variables
This course covers the algebra of complex numbers, analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, complex integration, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formulas, Taylor and Laurent series, residues, and the calculation of real-valued integrals by complex-variable methods. (Prerequisites: MATH-219 or MATH-221 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).
Group II
MATH-341
This is a second course in linear algebra that provides an in-depth study of fundamental concepts of the subject. It focuses largely on the effect that a choice of basis has on our understanding of and ability to solve problems with linear operators. Topics include linear transformations, similarity, inner products and orthogonality, QR factorization, singular value decomposition, and the Spectral Theorem. The course includes both computational techniques and the further development of mathematical reasoning skills. (Prerequisites: MATH-241 or MATH-241H or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer).
MATH-351
Graph Theory
This course covers the theory of graphs and networks for both directed and undirected graphs. Topics include graph isomorphism, Eulerian and Hamiltonian graphs, matching, covers, connectivity, coloring, and planarity. There is an emphasis on applications to real world problems and on graph algorithms such as those for spanning trees, shortest paths, and network flows. (Prerequisites: MATH-190 or MATH-200 or 1055-265 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).
MATH-371
Number Theory
This course provides an introduction to the study of the set of integers and their algebraic properties. Topics include prime factorization and divisibility, linear Diophantine equations, congruences, arithmetic functions, primitive roots, and quadratic residues. (Prerequisites: MATH-190 or MATH-200 or 1055-265 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-411
Numerical Analysis
This course covers numerical techniques for the solution of nonlinear equations, interpolation, differentiation, integration, and the solution of initial value problems. (Prerequisites: (MATH-231 and (MATH-241 or MATH-241H)) or MATH-233 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).
MATH-412
Numerical Linear Algebra
This course covers numerical techniques for the solution of systems of linear equations, eigenvalue problems, singular values and other decompositions, applications to least squares, boundary value problems, and additional topics at the discretion of the instructor. (Prerequisites: (MATH-220 or MATH-221 or MATH-221H or 1055-359 (Honors Multivariable Calculus)) and (MATH-231 and MATH-341) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-431
Real Variables I
This course is an investigation and extension of the theoretical aspects of elementary calculus. Topics include mathematical induction, real numbers, sequences, functions, limits, and continuity. The workshop will focus on helping students develop skill in writing proofs. (Prerequisites: (MATH-190 or MATH-200 or 1055-265) and (MATH-220 or MATH-221 or MATH-221H or 1016-410 or 1016-328) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 4 (Fall, Spring).
MATH-432
Real Variables II
This course is a continuation of MATH-431. It concentrates on differentiation, integration (Riemann and Riemann-Stieltjes integrals), power series, and sequences and series of functions. (Prerequisites: MATH-431 or equivalent course) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-441
Abstract Algebra I
This course covers basic set theory, number theory, groups, subgroups, cyclic and permutation groups, Lagrange and Sylow theorems, quotient groups, and isomorphism theorems. Group Theory finds applications in other scientific disciplines like physics and chemistry. (Prerequisites: (MATH-190 or MATH-200 or 1055-265) and (MATH-241 or MATH-241H) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 4 (Fall, Spring).
MATH-442
Abstract Algebra II
This course covers the basic theory of rings, integral domains, ideals, modules, and abstract vector spaces. It also covers the key constructions including direct sums, direct products, and field extensions. These topics serve as the foundation of mathematics behind advanced topics such as algebraic geometry and various applications like cryptography and coding theory. (Prerequisites: MATH-441 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-461
Topology
This course defines metric spaces and topological spaces. For metric spaces it examines continuity spaces of continuous functions and completeness in Euclidean spaces. For topological spaces it examines compactness, continuous functions, and separation axioms. (Prerequisites: MATH-432 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).
MATH-505
Stochastic Processes
This course explores Poisson processes and Markov chains with an emphasis on applications. Extensive use is made of conditional probability and conditional expectation. Further topics, such as renewal processes, Brownian motion, queuing models and reliability are discussed as time allows. (Prerequisites: (MATH-241 or MATH-241H) and MATH-251 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).

* Students may choose only one of these courses, but no more.

† Students may choose only one of these courses, but not both.

‡ Students may choose only one of these courses, but not both.